Kenneth C Schnabel

University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States

Are you Kenneth C Schnabel?

Claim your profile

Publications (9)34.06 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine if congenital human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection influences early neurodevelopment.
    Pediatrics. 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Multipathogen reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) platforms have proven useful in surveillance for acute respiratory illness (ARI) and study of respiratory outbreaks of unknown etiology. The TaqMan(®) Array Card (TAC, Life Technologies™), can simultaneously test 7 clinical specimens for up to 21 individual pathogens (depending on arrangement of controls and use of duplicate wells) by arrayed singleplex RT-qPCR on a single assay card, using minimal amounts of clinical specimens. A previous study described the development of TAC for the detection of respiratory viral and bacterial pathogens; the assay was evaluated against well-characterized analytical materials and a limited collection of human clinical specimens. OBJECTIVES: We wished to compare TAC assay performance against standard individual RT-qPCR assays for respiratory viral detection, focusing on 10 viruses (adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, human parainfluenza viruses 1-4, influenza viruses A and B, respiratory syncytial virus, and rhinovirus) from a larger collection of human specimens. STUDY DESIGN: We used specimens from 942 children with ARI enrolled systematically in a population-based, ARI surveillance study (New Vaccine Surveillance Network, NVSN). RESULTS: Compared with standard individual RT-qPCR assays, the sensitivity of TAC for the targeted viruses ranged from 54% to 95% (54%, 56%, and 75% for adenovirus, human parainfluenza viruses-1 and -2, respectively, and 82%-95% for the other viruses). Assay specificity was 99%, and coefficients of variation for virus controls ranged from 1.5% to 4.5%. CONCLUSION: The TAC assay should prove useful for multipathogen studies and rapid outbreak response.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 04/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Influenza vaccine immunogenicity in premature infants is incompletely characterized. To assess the immunogenicity of trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in extremely low-birth-weight (≤ 1000 g birth weight) premature (<30 weeks gestation) infants. We hypothesized that geometric mean titers of influenza antibody would be lower in premature than in full-term (FT) (≥ 37 week) infants. In this prospective multicenter study, former premature and FT infants who were 6 to 17 months of age received 2 doses of TIV during the 2006-2007 or 2007-2008 influenza seasons. Sera were drawn before dose 1, and 4 to 6 weeks after dose 2. Antibody was measured by hemagglutination inhibition. Over 2 years, 41 premature and 42 FT infants were enrolled; 36 and 33 of these infants, respectively, had postvaccination titers available. Premature infants weighed less (mean, 1.3-1.8 kg difference) at the time of immunization than FT infants. Prevaccination titers did not differ between groups. Premature infants had higher postvaccination antibody geometric mean titers than FT infants to H1 (2006-2007, 1:513 vs. 1:91, P = 0.03; 2007-2008, 1:363 vs. 1:189, P = 0.02) and B/Victoria (2006-2007, 1:51 vs. 1:10, P = 0.02). More premature than FT infants had antibody titers ≥ 1:32 to B/Victoria (85% vs. 60%, P = 0.04) in 2007-2008. Two (5%) premature and 8 (19%) FT infants had adverse events, primarily fever, within 72 hours after vaccination. No child had medically diagnosed influenza. Former premature infants had antibody responses to 2 TIV doses higher than or equal to those of FT children. Two TIV doses are immunogenic and well tolerated in extremely low-birth-weight, premature infants 6 to 17 months old.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 01/2011; 30(7):570-4. · 3.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) causes ubiquitous infection in early childhood with lifelong latency or persistence. Reactivation of HHV-6 has been associated with multiple diseases including encephalitis. Chromosomal integration of HHV-6 also occurs. Previous studies have suggested that the detection of HHV-6 DNA in plasma is an accurate marker of active viral replication. We sought to determine whether PCR assays on plasma could correctly differentiate between primary HHV-6 infection, chromosomal integration of HHV-6 and latent HHV-6 infection. We performed qualitative PCR, real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR), and reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays on samples of peripheral and cord blood mononuclear cells, as well as plasma, from groups of subjects with well defined HHV-6 infection, including subjects with chromosomally integrated HHV-6. The detection of HHV-6 DNA in plasma was 92% sensitive compared to viral isolation for the identification of primary infection with HHV-6. All plasma samples from infants with chromosomally integrated HHV-6 had HHV-6 DNA detectable in plasma while only 5.6% were positive by RT-PCR. The specificity of plasma PCR for active replication of HHV-6 was 84% compared to viral culture while the specificity of RT-PCR was 98%. Our results demonstrate that qualitative or quantitative PCR of plasma is insufficient to distinguish between active viral replication and chromosomal integration with HHV-6. We found a higher specificity of RT-PCR performed on PBMC samples compared to PCR or RQ-PCR performed on plasma when evaluating samples for active HHV-6 replication.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 03/2010; 48(1):55-7. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Congenital human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection results from germline passage of chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (CI-HHV-6) and from transplacental passage of maternal HHV-6 infection. We aimed to determine whether CI-HHV-6 could replicate and cause transplacentally acquired HHV-6 infection. HHV-6 DNA, variant type, and viral loads were determined with samples (cord blood, peripheral blood, saliva, urine, and hair) obtained from 6 infants with transplacentally acquired HHV-6 and with samples of their parents' hair. No fathers but all mothers of infants with transplacentally acquired HHV-6 had CI-HHV-6, and the mother's CI-HHV-6 variant was the same variant causing the transplacentally acquired congenital HHV-6 infection. This suggests the possibility that CI-HHV-6 replicates and may cause most, if not all, congenital HHV-6 infections.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2010; 201(4):505-7. · 5.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined the frequency and characteristics of chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 among congenitally infected children. Infants with and without congenital human herpesvirus 6 infection were prospectively monitored. Cord blood mononuclear cell, peripheral blood mononuclear cell, saliva, urine, and hair follicle samples were examined for human herpesvirus 6 DNA. Human herpesvirus 6 RNA, serum antibody, and chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 levels were also assessed. Among 85 infants, 43 had congenital infections and 42 had postnatal infections. Most congenital infections (86%) resulted from chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6; 6 infants (14%) had transplacental infections. Children with chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 had high viral loads in all sites (mean: 5-6 log(10) genomic copies per mug of cellular DNA); among children with transplacental infection or postnatal infection, human herpesvirus 6 DNA was absent in hair samples and inconsistent in other samples, and viral loads were significantly lower. One parent of each child with chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 who had parental hair samples tested had hair containing human herpesvirus 6 DNA. Variant A caused 32% of chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 infections, compared with 2% of postnatal infections. Replicating human herpesvirus 6 was detected only among chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 samples (8% of cord blood mononuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells). Cord blood human herpesvirus 6 antibody levels were similar among children with chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6, transplacental infection, and postnatal infection and between children with maternal and paternal chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 transmission. Human herpesvirus 6 congenital infection results primarily from chromosomally integrated virus which is passed through the germ-line. Infants with chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 had high viral loads in all specimens, produced human herpesvirus 6 antibody, and mRNA. The clinical relevance needs study as 1 of 116 newborns may have chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 blood specimens.
    PEDIATRICS 10/2008; 122(3):513-20. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although both human herpesvirus (HHV) 6 and HHV-7 infections are ubiquitous during childhood, few acute HHV-7 infections are identified. It is unknown whether HHV-7 viremia indicates primary infection, as with HHV-6, or reactivation, and if these differ clinically. We studied, in otherwise healthy children < or =10 years old, HHV-7 and HHV-6 infections and their interaction by serologic assessment, viral isolation, and polymerase chain reaction. In children < or =24 months of age, HHV-7 infections occurred less often than HHV-6 infections (P< or =.002). Of 2806 samples from 2365 children < or =10 years old, 30 (1%) showed evidence of HHV-7 viremia; 23 (77%) of these were primary and 7 (23%) were reactivated HHV-7 infections. Four (13%) showed concurrent HHV-6 viremia, 2 associated with primary HHV-7 infections. The clinical manifestations of primary and reactivated HHV-7 infections were similar, except that seizures occurred more frequently in reactivated infections. These findings, previously unrecognized in otherwise healthy children, suggest that HHV-7 viremia could represent primary or reactivated infection and may be affected by the interaction between HHV-6 and HHV-7.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2006; 193(8):1063-9. · 5.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine whether: (1) congenital human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV7) infections occur; whether (2) their manifestations differ from postnatal infections; and whether (3) HHV6 and HHV7 infections differ despite their close relatedness. HHV6 and HHV7 infections acquired congenitally and postnatally in normal children were compared using viral isolation, serology, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested DNA-PCR for HHV6 variant A (HHV6A), HHV6 variant B (HHV6B), and HHV7. HHV6 DNA was detected in 57 (1%) of 5638 cord bloods. HHV7 DNA, however, was not detected in 2129 cord bloods. Congenital HHV6 infections differed from postnatal infections, which were acute febrile illnesses. Congenital infections were asymptomatic, 10% demonstrated reactivation at birth, and HHV6 DNA persistence in follow-up blood samples was significantly more frequent. One-third of congenital infections were HHV6A, whereas all postnatal infections were HHV6B. Congenital HHV6 infections occurred in 1% of births, similar to the rate for cytomegalovirus infection. Congenital infections were clinically and virologically distinct from postnatal infections. Congenital HHV7 infections, however, were not detected, suggesting considerable differences in transmission and pathogenesis in these closely related beta-herpesviruses.
    Journal of Pediatrics 11/2004; 145(4):472-7. · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine in healthy children after primary infection the persistence of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) DNA, the presence and frequency of HHV6 re-activation or re-infection, and the relationship of both to illness and the presence of human herpesvirus 7 (HHV7) infection. Children 1 to 12 years of age with previous HHV6 infection were prospectively evaluated by HHV6 and HHV7 DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for HHV6. HHV6 plasma antibody titers were measured. Illnesses were recorded by diary, and physician records were reviewed. HHV6 DNA was detected in >or=1 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples in 89% of children. HHV6 reactivation and re-infection were detected by RT-PCR in 1.1% of samples. Detection of HHV6 DNA was intermittent in 76% of children and was not associated with cumulative rates of illness. Illness at a study visit was significantly associated with the absence of HHV6 and HHV7 DNA in PBMC samples and was not associated with HHV6 antibody titer or the presence of HHV6 DNA in saliva. HHV6 DNA persists in most children intermittently following primary infection and is unrelated to illness. Reactivation of HHV6 occurs in healthy children without apparent illness.
    Journal of Pediatrics 11/2004; 145(4):478-84. · 4.04 Impact Factor