[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccination is the main prophylactic measure to reduce
the mortality caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection
in healthy subjects since the immune response to
hepatitis B recombinant vaccination occurs in over 90%
of general population. Individuals who develop an anti-
HBs titer less than 10 mIU/mL after primary vaccination
cycle are defined “no responders”. Many factors could
cause a non response to the HBV vaccination, such
as administration of the vaccine in buttocks, impaired
vaccine storage conditions, drug abuse, smoking, infections
and obesity. Moreover there are some diseases,
like chronic kidney disease, human immunodeficiency
virus infection, chronic liver disease, celiac disease,
thalassaemia, type Ⅰ diabetes mellitus, down’s syndrome
and other forms of mental retardation that are
characterized by a poorer response to HBV vaccination
than healthy subjects. To date it is still unclear how to treat this group of patients at high risk of hepatitis
B infection. Recent studies seem to indicate that the
administration of HBV recombinant vaccine by the intradermal
route is very effective and could represent
a more useful strategy than intramuscular route. This
review focuses on the use of anti hepatitis B vaccine
by intradermal route as alternative to conventional
intramuscular vaccine in all non responder patients. A
comprehensive review of the literature using PubMed
database, with appropriate terms, was undertaken for
articles in English published since 1983. The literature
search was undertaken in September 2013.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2014; 20(29). · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gullo's syndrome is a newly identified condition characterized by a chronic elevation of pancreatic amylase and/or lipase in the absence of pancreatic disease. Until now, only one case of benign isolated hyperlipasemia in children has been recorded. We describe two children with benign and not familial increase of serum lipase. Case 1: a six year old girl presented with occasional discovery of serum lipase elevation. Medical history was silent for pancreatic hyperenzymemia. The screening for possible causes for elevated lipase (genetic, autoimmune and infectious diseases) was normal. The serum lipase increased three fold over the upper limit (193 U/L; reference range 0-60 U/L), with daily fluctuation of values. Both ultrasound scan and magnetic resonance imaging were normal. The genetic mutation associated with chronic pancreatitis was negative. We followed up this patient for two years with blood tests every six months and she did not show any signs or symptoms of pancreatic disease, except for the high level of lipase serum. Case 2: an eight year old girl complained of nausea, vomiting and severe abdominal pain in the epigastric region after eating for the last two weeks. Full blood count, electrolytes, C-reactive protein, liver and renal function were normal. Serum lipase was 96 U/L (reference range 0-60 U/L). The screening for the possible causes of pancreatic disease was negative. Endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract, ultrasound, computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging were normal. One year after the presentation of the symptoms, the patient became asymptomatic although the level of serum lipase continued to be high.
World journal of clinical cases. 01/2014; 2(1):16-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disorder triggered by gluten in genetically susceptible persons. Despite its detrimental effects on human health, it has not disappeared over time. The current evolutionary theory is that celiac disease is more common in areas reached later by agricultural revolution than in countries that started consumption of wheat earlier, due to negative selection caused by celiac disease.
We reviewed data on worldwide prevalence of celiac disease, wheat consumption, and frequencies of HLA-celiac-disease-predisposing-genotypes to investigate their mutual relationship. Studies assessing prevalence of celiac disease were identified through a MEDLINE search. Wheat consumption and frequencies of HLA-DQ2-DQ8 were obtained from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and allelefrequencies.net database. Correlations between celiac disease, wheat consumption, and HLA were analyzed by linear regression. We observed a significant correlation between wheat consumption and HLA DQ2 (p = 0.01) and the sum of DQ2 and DQ8 (p = 0.01) frequencies. Wheat consumption and HLA-DQ2 tend to co-localize in different continents. The correlation between the prevalence of celiac disease and either DQ2 and/or DQ8, or the product of DQ2 + DQ8*wheat consumption was not statistically significant.
Co-localization of gluten consumption and HLA-celiac-disease-predisposing-genotypes can be explained by positive selection of HLA-DQ2 genes in wheat-consuming areas, and “demic diffusion” of Middle East farmers into Europe.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeTo investigate the success (glaucoma control) of latanoprost therapy of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) and factors affecting the long-term outcome.Methods
Patients with PCG treated with latanoprost were re-examined. At study visit and from clinical charts, we evaluated: intraocular pressure, length of glaucoma control with latanoprost, need of further medication or glaucoma surgery, systemic and topical side effects. Multivariate analysis was used to test factors related to the final outcome of the treatment.ResultsEighty-one eyes of 44 patients with PCG, and 42 eyes of 29 patients with previous glaucoma surgery, had received latanoprost therapy. In the first group, a success (glaucoma control by latanoprost therapy) was found in 24 eyes (29.6%), whereas 57 eyes (70.4%) had received surgery (45 eyes (55.6%) in the first year); among the eyes with previous surgery, a success was found in 12 eyes (28.6%), 13 eyes (31%) required an additional therapy, and 17 eyes (40.5%) had received further glaucoma surgery. No patient discontinued the treatment because of side effects. Factors related to the failure of the latanoprost treatment were: the high score of severity of glaucoma (P=0.014) and low age at PCG presentation (P=0.042).Conclusions
Long-term treatment with latanoprost is effective in about 30% of the eyes; factors related to failure were severe glaucomatous alterations, and young age at PCG presentation.Eye advance online publication, 25 October 2013; doi:10.1038/eye.2013.232.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest an important role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene in the development of pancreatitis. It occurs approximately in 20% of patients with cystic fibrosis and almost exclusively in pancreatic sufficient people. Newborn screening and improved panels of deoxyribonucleic acid mutation analysis techniques are revealing more rare and nonclassical pictures of the disease, generally associated with pancreatic sufficiency and with an increased risk of developing pancreatitis. Mutations R1438 and Y1032 are considered rare mutations, and, when singularly associated with [increment]F508, lead to a mild phenotype with pancreatic sufficiency and no detectable respiratory involvement.
We present the case of a Caucasian girl, aged six years, whose genotype was characterized by three different mutations [increment]F508, R1438W and Y1032C, never reported, together, in the same patient. She presented with a positive immunoreactive trypsinogen screening, a borderline sweat test, and, in the first years, a favorable pulmonary course, and pancreatic sufficiency. At the age of six years, she presented with a sudden episode of acute abdominal pain, anorexia and fever. A diagnosis of pancreatitis was made after clinical and laboratory examinations. Venous rehydration, bowel rest and therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid resulted in complete remission.The treatment was successful, with normalization of her symptoms and laboratory parameters within four weeks.
There has been a vast expansion in the understanding of the wide range of phenotypes associated with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator dysfunction since the discovery of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. The genotype-phenotype correlation in pancreatitis is rare compared to other organ manifestations, since this is seen almost exclusively among pancreatic sufficient patients with cystic fibrosis. Our study supports that compound heterozygosis [increment]F508-R1438W/Y1032C is a 'cystic fibrosis-causing genotype' characterized by an immunoreactive trypsinogen positive screening, abnormal sweat chloride testing, and pancreatic sufficiency, with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis at an early age.
Journal of Medical Case Reports 07/2013; 7(1):188.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ocular allergy represents one of the most common conditions encountered by allergists and ophthalmologists. Allergic conjunctivitis is often underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated. Basic and clinical research has provided a better understanding of the cells, mediators, and immunologic events, which occur in ocular allergy. New pharmacological agents have improved the efficacy and safety of ocular allergy treatment. An understanding of the immunologic mechanisms, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and treatment of ocular allergy may be useful to all specialists who deal with these patients. The purpose of this review is to systematically review literature underlining all the forms classified as ocular allergy: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, atopic keratocongiuntivitis, contact allergy, and giant papillary conjunctivitis.
Italian Journal of Pediatrics 03/2013; · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some studies showed that in celiac patients the immunological response to vaccination is similar to that one found in general population except for vaccine against hepatitis B virus (HBV). The non-responsiveness to HBV vaccine has also been described in healthy people, nevertheless the number of non-responders has been demonstrated to be higher in celiac disease (CD) patients than in healthy controls. Several hypothesis explaining this higher rate of unresponsiveness to HBV vaccine in CD patients have been described, such as the genetic hypothesis, according with CD patients carrying the disease-specific haplotype HLA-B8, DR3, and DQ2, show a lower response to HBV vaccine both in clinical expressed CD patients and in healthy people carrying the same haplotype. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that the gluten intake during the vaccination seems to influence the response to the same vaccine. Moreover, it has been demonstrated a possible genetic predisposition to hepatitis B vaccine non-responsiveness likely due to the presence of specific human leukocyte antigen haplotypes and specific single nucleotide polymorphism in genes of cytokine/cytokine receptors and toll like receptors, but the pathogenic mechanism responsible for this low responsiveness still remains unclear. The aim of this review is to focus on the possible pathogenic causes of unresponsiveness to HBV vaccine in CD patients and to propose an alternative vaccination schedule in order to improve the responsiveness to HBV vaccine in this at-risk patients.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2013; 19(6):838-45. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD). Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet "A", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "B"), or B-A treatment (6 months of diet "B", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "A"). A and B diets included gluten-free (GF) products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts) with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score) and intestinal permeability tests (IPT), were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare intradermal (ID) and intramuscular (IM) booster doses, which have been used in healthy and high risk subjects, such as healthcare workers, haemodialysis patients, human immunodeficiency virus patients, and renal transplant recipients unresponsive to initial hepatitis B vaccination, in celiac individuals.
We conducted our study on 58 celiac patients, vaccinated in the first year of life, whose blood analysis had showed the absence of protective hepatitis B virus (HBV) antibodies. All patients had received the last vaccine injection at least one year before study enrolment and they had been on a gluten free diet for at least 1 year. In all patients we randomly performed an HBV vaccine booster dose by ID or IM route. Thirty celiac patients were revaccinated with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix B) 2 μg by the ID route, while 28 celiac patients were revaccinated with Engerix B 10 μg by the IM route. Four weeks after every booster dose, the anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibody titer was measured by an enzyme-linked immune-adsorbent assay. We performed a maximum of three booster doses in patients with no anti-HBs antibodies after the first or the second vaccine dose. The cut off value for a negative anti-HBs antibody titer was 10 IU/L. Patients with values between 10 and 100 IU/L were considered "low responders" while patients with an antibody titer higher than 1000 IU/L were considered "high responders".
No significant difference in age, gender, duration of illness, and years of gluten intake was found between the two groups. We found a high percentage of "responders" after the first booster dose (ID = 76.7%, IM = 78.6%) and a greater increase after the third dose (ID = 90%, IM = 96.4%) of vaccine in both groups. Moreover we found a significantly higher number of high responders (with an anti-HBs antibody titer > 1000 IU/L) in the ID (40%) than in the IM (7.1%) group, and this difference was evident after the first booster dose of vaccination (P < 0.01). No side effects were recorded in performing delivery of the vaccine by either the ID or IM route.
Our study suggests that both ID and IM routes are effective and safe options to administer a booster dose of HBV vaccine in celiac patients. However the ID route seems to achieve a greater number of high responders and to have a better cost/benefit ratio.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2012; 18(40):5729-33. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wilson's disease (WD) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by a mutation in the ATP7B gene, located on chromosome 13, which encodes a protein involved in the metabolism of copper.
We described the case of an Indian male with a history of polydipsia and polyuria, related to hypercalciuria and consequent nephrocalcinosis. The symptoms began at the age of five years old, but he was not diagnosed with WD until he reached an adolescent age. We started therapy with D-Penicillamine, B-vitamin complex and recommended a low copper diet. Renal involvement in Wilson's disease, characterizing by hypercalciuria, was firstly reported by Litin in 1959.
Our case was different and peculiar from the previously described cases because the patient presented a very long history (10 years) of permanent hypercalciuria without any acute episode of nephrolithiasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the frequency and the natural history of potential (serology positive/Marsh 0-1 histology) celiac disease (CD) in children with a family risk of CD and factors associated with potential instead of overt (serology positive/Marsh 2-3 histology) CD expression.
Two-year follow-up study of 96 children (57 females; mean age: 29 ± 12 months) prospectively investigated from birth with: (1) a CD-affected first-degree relative; (2) positivity of serum IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) or IgG antigliadin and IgA deficiency; and (3) the results of small intestinal biopsy. Children with potential CD were advised to remain on a gluten containing diet, repeat the celiac antibodies every 6 months, and to have an intestinal biopsy performed in case of persistently high anti-tTG level. Factors discriminating between potential and overt CD were analyzed by decision tree analysis based on the C4.5 algorithm.
Twenty-four children had potential and 72 overt CD. The stronger predictors of potential CD were lack of symptoms, anti-tTG level lower than 11-fold the upper normal limit, age lower than 24 months, and breastfeeding longer than 8 months. Eighteen out of 21 (86%) patients with potential CD continuing a gluten-containing diet became antibody negative, 1/21 (5%) developed overt CD, and 2/21 (9%) had fluctuating antibodies levels after 2 years.
The prevalence of potential CD and the percentage of short-term loss of CD-related-antibodies are high in infants at-family-risk for CD. In symptomless children with a positive celiac serology, the decision of performing an intestinal biopsy should be preceded by a period of repeated serological testing.
The Journal of pediatrics 06/2012; 161(5):908-914.e2. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Probiotics may be of help for the management of acute diarrhoea, however, the effect is strain specific and efficacy needs to be proven.
To test the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 derived from L. reuteri ATCC 55730 in children with acute diarrhoea. Primary outcomes were the rate of unresolved diarrhoea after 3 days of treatment and duration of diarrhoea.
Children (6-36 months), hospitalised in three paediatric hospitals in Southern Italy for acute diarrhoea with clinical signs of dehydration were randomised to receive in a double-blind fashion either L. reuteri (dose of 4 × 10(8) colony-forming units/die) or placebo.
Out of 96 eligible children, 74 were enrolled, five patients were withdrawn; 35 in the L. reuteri group and 34 in the placebo group. Lactobacillus reuteri significantly reduced the duration of watery diarrhoea as compared with placebo (2.1 ± 1.7 days vs. 3.3 ± 2.1 days; P < 0.03); on day two and three of treatment watery diarrhoea persisted in 82% and 74% of the placebo and 55% and 45% of the L. reuteri recipients respectively (P < 0.01; P < 0.03). Finally, children receiving L. reuteri had a significantly lower relapse rate of diarrhoea (15% vs. 42%; P < 0.03). There was not a significant difference in hospital stay between the groups. No adverse events were recorded.
Our study shows that L . reuteri DSM 17938 as an adjunct to rehydration therapy is efficacious in the treatment of acute diarrhoea reducing the frequency, duration and recrudescence rate of the disease.