[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Implantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has recently been reported to repair tissue injuries through anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. We established dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells that show identical characteristics to MSCs.
We examined the effects of 10(6) of DFAT cells infused through renal artery or tail vein on monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1-22-3-induced glomerulonephritis (as an immunological type of renal injury) and adriamycin-induced nephropathy (as a non-immunological type of renal injury) in rats. The mAb 1-22-3-injected rats were also implanted with 10(6) of DFAT cells transfected with TSG-6 siRNA through tail vein.
Although DFAT cells transfused into blood circulation through the tail vein were trapped mainly in lungs without reaching the kidneys, implantation of DFAT cells reduced proteinuria and improved glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Implantation of DFAT cells through the tail vein significantly decreased expression of kidney injury molecule-1, collagen IV and fibronectin mRNAs, whereas nephrin mRNA expression was increased. Implantation of DFAT cells did not improve adriamycin-induced nephropathy, but significantly decreased the glomerular influx of macrophages, common leukocytes and pan T cells. However, the glomerular influx of helper T cells, was increased. Implantation of DFAT cells decreased expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12β mRNAs and increased expression of TNF-stimulated gene (TSG)-6 mRNA in renal cortex from mAb 1-22-3-injected rats. The basal level of TSG-6 protein was significantly higher in DFAT cells than in fibroblasts. Expression of TSG-6 mRNA in MCs cocultured with DFAT cells was significantly higher than in mesangial cells or DFAT cells alone. Systematic implantation of DFAT cells with TSG-6 siRNA through tail vein did not improve proteinuria, renal dysfunction and renal degeneration in the mAb 1-22-3-injected rats.
Systematic implantation of DFAT cells effectively ameliorated mAb 1-22-3-induced glomerulonephritis through immunosuppressive effects accompanied by the suppression of macrophage infiltration and expression of IL-6, IL-10 and IL12β, and increased production of serum and renal TSG-6 that improved the mAb 1-22-3-induced renal degeneration by the immunosuppressive effects of TSG-6. Thus DFAT cells will be suitable cell source for the treatment of immunological progressive renal diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated that mesenchymal cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats genetically express complement 3 (C3). Mature tubular epithelial cells can undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that is linked to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis and injury. In this study, we investigated the contribution of C3 in EMT and in the renal renin-angiotensin (RA) systems associated with hypertension. C3a induced EMT in mouse TCMK-1 epithelial cells, which displayed increased expression of renin and Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) and nuclear localization of liver X receptor α (LXRα). C3 and renin were strongly stained in the degenerated nephrotubulus and co-localized with LXRα and prorenin receptor in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) kidneys from wild type mice. In C3-deficient mice, hydronephrus and EMT were suppressed with no expression of renin and C3. After UUO, systolic blood pressure was increased in wild type but not in C3-deficient mice. In wild type mice, intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II) levels were markedly higher in UUO kidneys than normal kidneys, and decreased with aliskiren. There were no increases in intrarenal Ang II levels after UUO in C3-deficient mice. Thus C3 induces EMT and dedifferentiation of epithelial cells, which produce renin through induction of LXRα. We firstly indicate that C3 may be a primary factor to activate the renal RA systems to induce hypertension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) derived from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) show exaggerated growth with a synthetic phenotype and angiotensin II (Ang II) production associated with increased production of complement (C3). We hypothesized that C3 is involved in the growth of mesangial cells (MCs) from hypertensive rats. We examined the effects of a C3a receptor inhibitor on proliferation, phenotype and Ang II generation in MCs from stroke prone-spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)-SP, SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Expression of C3 and C3a receptor were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of the renal cortex. We examined the effects of the C3a inhibitor, SB290157, on proliferation, the expression of phenotype-marker mRNAs and Ang II production in cells from SHR-SP, SHR and WKY rats. Immunostaining of C3 was stronger in SHR and SHRSP glomeruli. MCs from SHR-SP and SHR abundantly express pre-pro C3 mRNA. SB290157 significantly inhibited basal DNA synthesis and proliferation of MCs from SHR-SP and SHR. Expression of osteopontin mRNA in MCs from SHR-SP and SHR was decreased with SB290157 treatment, whereas MC basal expression of α-SMA mRNA was decreased. SB290157 significantly decreased the production of Ang II in MCs from SHR-SP and SHR. Endogenous C3a promotes exaggerated growth with a synthetic phenotype and the production of Ang II in MCs from SHR-SP and SHR. The C3 and C3a receptor system may primarily be involved in the pathogenesis of renal remodeling in hypertensive rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) show exaggerated growth with a synthetic phenotype and angiotensin II (Ang II)-production. To evaluate the contribution of complement 3 (C3) or C3a toward these abnormalities in SHR, we examined effects of a C3a receptor inhibitor on proliferation, phenotype, and Ang II-production in VSMCs from SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats.
Expression of pre-pro-C3 messenger RNA (mRNA) and C3 protein was evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses, and C3a receptor mRNA was evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR analysis in quiescent VSMCs from SHR and WKY rats. We examined the effects of the C3a inhibitor, SB290157, on proliferation and the expression of phenotype-marker and Krueppel-like factor 5 (KLF-5) mRNAs in VSMCs from SHR and WKY rats. We examined effects of C3a receptor inhibitor, SB290157, on Ang II-production in conditioned medium of VSMCs from SHR and WKY rats by a radioimmunoassay.
Expression of pre-pro-C3 mRNA and C3 protein was significantly higher in SHR VSMCs than WKY VSMCs. SB290157 significantly inhibited proliferation of VSMCs from SHR, but not in cells from WKY rats. Relative to WKY VSMCs, SB290157 significantly increased the low expression of SM22α mRNA and decreased the high expression of osteopontin mRNA in SHR VSMCs. SB290157 significantly decreased the high expression of KLF-5 and Ang II-production in VSMCs from SHR, but not in cells from WKY rats.
C3a induces exaggerated growth, a synthetic phenotype and Ang II-production in SHR-derived VSMCs. C3a may be primarily involved in cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension.
American Journal of Hypertension 11/2011; 25(3):284-9. DOI:10.1038/ajh.2011.214 · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We established dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells from mature adipocytes that differentiate to multiple lineages and have characteristics similar to those of mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we evaluated the effect of implantation of DFAT cells on habu snake venom (HSV)-induced renal dysfunction in tenascin-C knockout (TC-KO) mice.
Cultured DFAT cells were incubated with PDGF-BB and immunostained with anti-desmin antibody to determine mesenchymal differentiation. HSV was injected, and DFAT cells from GFP mice were implanted in TC-KO mice via the tail vein. Expression of tenascin-C, transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta1), and fibronectin mRNAs in the renal cortex were evaluated by RT-PCR analysis.
Cultured DFAT cells showed desmin immunostaining in response to PDGF-BB.HSV injection induced glomerulosclerosis, which was significantly improved by implantation of DFAT cells. Serum BUN increased after HSV injection and was significantly decreased by implantation of DFAT cells. Tenascin-C mRNA was detected in the renal cortex in implanted mice. Expression of TGF-beta1 and fibronectin mRNAs increased in the renal cortex after HSV injection, and was significantly decreased by implantation of DFAT cells.
DFAT cells may provide a source for cell therapy for severe progressive renal disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown that spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) change to the synthetic phenotype and show increased expression of complement 3 (C3) and that C3 plays a role in the change to the synthetic phenotype. To determine the mechanisms underlying the effects of C3 on this phenotypic change, we examined the effects of C3a on transcription factors involved in VSMC phenotype and found that C3a increased the expression of Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor 5 (KLF5) mRNA. C3a increased KLF5 promoter activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Deletion analysis of the promoter region of the KLF5 gene revealed that the region between nucleotides-991 and -699 contains the transcriptional regulatory element stimulated by C3a. C3a induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and C3a-increased KLF5 promoter activity was completely inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126. These findings suggest that C3 increases KLF5 promoter activity and gene expression via ERK signaling.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2008; 367(2):468-73. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.12.160 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complement activation contributes to tissue injury in various forms of glomerulopathy and is characterized by deposition of complement components, which accelerates the progression of chronic renal damage. We recently reported that complement 3 (C3), a critical component of the complement system, is associated with the synthetic phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells. It is possible that C3 stimulates mesangial cells to assume the synthetic phenotype to, in turn, induce glomerular injury and sclerosis. We investigated the role of C3 in the growth and phenotype of mesangial cells. Cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs) expressed C3 mRNA and protein, and levels were increased in response to IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. HMCs also expressed C3a receptor mRNA and protein. Exogenous C3a stimulated DNA synthesis in HMCs in a dose-dependent manner. C3a decreased expression h-caldesmon mRNA, a marker of the contractile phenotype, and increased the expression of osteopontin, matrix Gla, and collagen type1 alpha1 (collagen IV) mRNAs, which are markers of the synthetic phenotype. C3a decreased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in HMCs. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting C3 reduced the DNA synthesis and proliferation of HMCs, increased expression of h-caldesmon mRNA, and decreased expression of osteopontin, matrix Gla, and collagen IV mRNAs in HMCs. These results indicate that C3 causes HMCs to convert to the synthetic phenotype and stimulates growth of mesangial cells, suggesting that C3 may play an important role in phenotypic regulation of mesangial cells in renal diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is a critical factor in the progression of renal injury, regardless of the primary etiology. Such injury is characterized by glomerular sclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. To develop a ribozyme-based therapy for progressive renal diseases, we examined the effects of chimeric DNA-RNA hammerhead ribozyme targeting TGF-beta1 mRNA on glomerulosclerosis in salt-loaded, stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP) and salt-sensitive Dahl (Dahl-S) rats.
The chimeric DNA-RNA ribozyme to TGF-beta1 was delivered by polyethylenimine to cultured mesangial cells from SHR-SP in vitro and to glomeruli in SHR-SP in vivo. The chimeric ribozyme reduced expression of TGF-beta1 mRNA and protein, which was accompanied by inhibition of expression of extracellular matrix molecules such as fibronectin and collagen type I in mesangial cells from SHR-SP in vitro.
One intraperitoneal injection of 200 microg of chimeric DNA-RNA ribozyme to TGF-beta1 in vivo markedly ameliorated thickening of capillary artery walls and glomerulosclerosis in salt-loaded SHR-SP and Dahl-S rats without a reduction in blood pressure. The chimeric ribozyme reduced expression of TGF-beta1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNAs in renal cortex in salt-loaded Dahl-S rats. Chimeric ribozyme to TGF-beta1 significantly reduced levels of protein in urine in the Dahl-S rats.
These results suggest that chimeric DNA-RNA ribozyme to TGF-beta1 may be useful as a gene therapy for progressive tissue injury in a wide variety of renal diseases, including hypertensive nephrosclerosis.
Journal of Hypertension 04/2007; 25(3):671-8. DOI:10.1097/HJH.0b013e3280122f22 · 4.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complement system plays an important role in renal pathogenesis, and C5b-9, a terminal complement complex, is regarded as the principal mediator of proteinuria in idiopathic membranous nephropathy(MN). Since factor H regulates complement activation at the C3 step and is a crucial factor in complement-mediated tissue injury, the urinary excretion of factor H in patients with idiopathic MN was investigated.
Seven patients with biopsy-proven idiopathic MN were studied for twenty-four weeks. Urinary factor H levels were measured by ELISA from regularly collected urine samples, and then evaluated and compared with assays of urinary protein and C5b-9 excretion.
During the study, five patients were treated with steroid therapy. All seven patients maintained stable renal function and showed a decline in urinary protein excretion. The mean level of urinary factor H was markedly elevated (156.1 +/- 47.1 U/mg U-Cr) before treatment (0 week), and gradually declined to 127.2 +/- 43.5 U/mg U-Cr at 12 weeks, and to 64.7 +/- 26.9 U/mg U-Cr) at 24 weeks. This followed decreases in urinary protein and urinary C5b-9 excretion. Percent change in urinary factor H level significantly decreased 24 weeks after treatment without affecting the plasma factor H level.
These results suggest that factor H contributes to the regulatory mechanism of in situ complement activation, and thus the study of urinary factor H levels, as well as urinary C5b-9, may be significant in idiopathic MN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is characteristic of an acute-phase-reacting protein like C-reactive protein (CRP). However, the prognostic value of the serum MBL level has not been examined. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the serum MBL level can predict all-cause mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients.
A total of 131 patients without active infection, who had been on maintenance HD for at least 2 years, were included in this study. The serum MBL, high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) level, nutrition markers, and biochemical parameters were measured in June 1999. The cohort was then followed prospectively for 36 months, and clinical data were recorded.
The MBL level of the 131 HD patients was 9.054 +/- 5.115 microg/ml (mean +/- SD). During the follow-up period, 18 patients (9 males and 9 females) died and 113 (64 males and 49 females) survived. The two leading causes of death were cardiovascular events (n = 6, 33.3%) and infection (n = 4, 22.2%). The serum MBL level was significantly lower among the nonsurvivors (6.596 +/- 4.990 microg/ml) than among the survivors (9.445 +/- 5.046 microg/ml; p < 0.05). There was a significant, although very weak, correlation between the MBL level and albumin level (p < 0.05), but there was no correlationbetween the MBL level and the hs-CRP level. The patients were divided into two groups according to the serum MBL level (< 5 and > 5 microg/ml). Multivariate analysis of factors predicting all-cause mortality in multivariate logistic regression analysis identified a serum MBL level < 5 microg/ml as a variable that independently predicted all-cause mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 7.632; 95% CI: 2.244-25.961; p = 0.0011). Other significant and independent predictors for mortality included the hs-CRP level (every 100 microg/dl increase), hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
Our findings suggest that the serum MBL level is a significant predictor of outcome in HD patients. HD patients with a low level of serum MBL should be carefully monitored.
Nephron Clinical Practice 02/2006; 102(3-4):c93-9. DOI:10.1159/000089666 · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complement system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of membranous nephropathy (MN). In order to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of complement activation, we demonstrated glomerular deposition and urinary excretion of complement factor H, which controls the alternative pathway and the amplification loop at the C3 step, in patients with idiopathic MN.
Renal biopsy specimens from 20 patients with idiopathic MN were studied immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies against complement components including factor H. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis of urine samples were performed, and the urinary excretion of factor H and C5b-9 were measured by quantitative sandwich ELISA.
Intense glomerular deposition of factor H was observed with C3b.C3c and C5b-9 at an early stage of the disease. Factor H was detected in Western blots of urine samples, but factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1) was not. The mean level of urinary factor H was elevated (86.30 +/- 21.93 U/mg urinary creatinine) in comparison to that of normal controls (4.76 +/- 1.03 U/mg urinary creatinine). Urinary factor H level exhibited no correlation with clinical parameters; however, a negative correlation was found between urinary C5b-9/factor H and creatinine clearance (r = 0.662, p < 0.01).
The source of glomerular and urinary factor H is supposedly a 150-kD protein. There was no evidence to suggest that FHL-1 is synthesized at the site of inflammation. The urinary C5b-9 to urinary factor H ratio is indicative of the degree of ongoing complement activation in the glomeruli and complement-mediated renal injury. These findings suggest that factor H contributes to the control mechanism of in situ complement activation and prevents renal damage in idiopathic MN.
Nephron Clinical Practice 11/2004; 97(4):c147-53. DOI:10.1159/000079174 · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 60-year-old woman who was diagnosed with hereditary angioedema (HAE) developed nephrotic syndrome, with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) occurring about 2.5 years later. During her slide toward ESRD, she experienced three severe episodes of angioedema that each resulted in significant fluid retention. Though the therapeutic administration of C1-inhibitor concentrate was effective in controlling her angioedema, seemed ineffective in preventing her from developing ESRD requiring hemodialysis treatment. We theorized that the patient's low colloid osmolality and glomerular perfusion were important facilitators of her attacks of angioedema.
Internal Medicine 09/2004; 43(8):708-12. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.43.708 · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) show the synthetic phenotype and exaggerated growth in comparison with VSMCs from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. We investigated genes associated with the synthetic phenotype and exaggerated growth of VSMCs from SHR by microarray. Expression of 1300 transcripts was evaluated by microarray with total mRNA extracted from mid-layer aortic smooth muscle of 3-week-old SHR/Izumo and WKY/Izumo rats. mRNAs encoding sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporter, epidermal growth factor precursor, EEF2, leptin receptor long-isoform b, clathrin assembly protein short form, and preprocomplement 3 (pre-pro-C3) were expressed only in aortic smooth muscle from SHR by microarray and by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Pre-pro-C3 mRNA was detected only in cultured VSMCs from SHR. Exogenous C3 changed VSMCs to the synthetic phenotype. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) to C3 reduced the higher level of DNA synthesis in VSMCs from SHR. Antisense ODN to C3 increased expression of SM22alpha mRNA and decreased expression of osteopontin and matrix Gla mRNAs. It also decreased expression of growth factor mRNAs in VSMCs from SHR. In conclusion, we have shown that C3, independent of other complement molecules, has direct effects on the phenotype of VSMCs and stimulates growth of these cells. C3 is produced only by VSMCs from SHR. Therefore, C3 may be the gene underlying the synthetic phenotype and exaggerated growth of VSMCs from SHR. C3 may be a new target for the treatment of hypertension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal involvement in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection has been suggested to be due to a variety of immunological processes. However, the precise mechanism by which the kidneys are damaged in these patients is still unclear.
A 66 year old man presented with the sudden onset of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Concomitant with a worsening of hemolysis, his initially mild proteinuria and hemoglobinuria progressed. On admission, laboratory tests revealed that he was positive for hepatitis C virus in his blood, though his liver function tests were all normal. The patient displayed cryoglobulinemia and hypocomplementemia with cold activation, and exhibited a biological false positive of syphilic test. Renal biopsy specimens showed signs of immune complex type nephropathy with hemosiderin deposition in the tubular epithelial cells.
The renal histological findings in this case are consistent with the deposition of immune complexes and hemolytic products, which might have occurred as a result of the patient's underlying autoimmune imbalance, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and chronic hepatitis C virus infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta activity is involved in several cardiovascular diseases owing to its effects on the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells and induction of extracellular matrix formation. We evaluated expression of TGF-beta in cardiovascular organs from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP) which show severe cardiovascular damages with the development of hypertension. Twelve-week-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)/Izm rats and SHR-SP/Izm were loaded with 1% salt for 4 weeks. Aorta, heart and kidney were removed and evaluated histologically by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Expression of TGF-beta1 mRNA was evaluated by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction analysis in mRNA extracted with oligo dT-cellulose. Expression of TGF-beta1 protein was evaluated by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical study in renal cortex. Whereas expression of TGF-beta1 mRNA was detected only in the heart of SHR-SP before salt loading, it was detected in the aorta, left ventricle of heart and renal cortex from both rat strains, and it was stronger in the renal cortex of SHR-SP than in the renal cortex of WKY rats. Expression of TGF-beta1 protein was markedly higher in the renal cortex of SHR-SP than in the renal cortex of WKY rats after salt loading. TGF-beta was localized at glomeruli and capillary arteries in the renal cortex, and immunostaining was stronger in SHR-SP than in WKY rats. Expression of TGF-beta1 was increased in glomeruli and capillaries of the renal cortex with the development of hypertension in SHR-SP. These results implicate TGF-beta in the renal damage observed in hypertension.
Hypertension Research 12/2002; 25(6):911-8. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complement factor H (hCFH) plays a key inhibitory role in the control of the alternative complement pathway. We examined whether urinary hCFH (U-hCFH) levels is useful as an indirect indicator of renal damage.
Urine samples were obtained from 104 patients with renal disease. Urine was collected with 10 mM EDTA and U-hCFH levels were measured using the BTA TRAK Assay Kit.
In the 62 patients with nephritis, the levels of U-hCFH were elevated (range 15-52,198 U/ml) over the normal range (0-14 U/ml). U-hCFH levels of patients with chronic renal failure, lupus nephritis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, focal glomerulosclerosis were higher than that of IgA nephropathy patients (p < 0.05). In the patients with minimal change disease, showed high levels of U-hCFH during the nephrotic syndrome. U-hCFH was correlated significantly with urinary protein and urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase.
We demonstrated that U-hCFH was detected in the urine of nephritis patients.