[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wheat flour cannot be tolerated by those who suffer allergies to gluten. Human pathologies associated with grain proteins have increased worldwide in recent years, and the only effective treatment available is a lifelong gluten-free diet, which is complicated to follow and detrimental to gut health. This manuscript describes the development of wheat bread potentially suitable for celiac patients and other gluten-intolerant individuals. We have made bread using wheat flour with very low content of the specific gluten proteins (near gliadin-free) that are the causal agents for pathologies such as celiac disease. Loaves were compared with normal wheat breads and rice bread. Organoleptic, nutritional, and immunotoxic properties were studied. The reduced-gliadin breads showed baking and sensory properties, and overall acceptance, similar to those of normal flour, but with up to 97% lower gliadin content. Moreover, the low-gliadin flour has improved nutritional properties since its lysine content is significantly higher than that of normal flour. Conservative estimates indicate that celiac patients could safely consume 67 grams of bread per day that is made with low-gliadin flour. However, additional studies, such as feeding trials with gluten-intolerant patients, are still needed in order to determine whether or not the product can be consumed by the general celiac population, as well as the actual tolerated amount that can be safely ingested. The results presented here offer a major opportunity to improve the quality of life for millions of sufferers of gluten intolerance throughout the world.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90898. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, gluten free foods have attracted much research interest motivated by the increasing market. Despite the motivation for developing gluten-free foods it is necessary to have a scientific basis for developing gluten-free foods and the tools for detecting the peptide sequence that could be immune-toxic to some persons. This review will be focused primarily on the cereal-based commodities available for developing gluten free blends, considering naturally gluten-free cereals in addition to oats, and recent transgenic approaches for developing cereals free of immunotoxic gluten. Secondly, the biochemical tools for mimicking gluten network viscoelastic properties will be presented. Finally, special emphasis will be put in compiling the available techniques for gluten detection and quantitation.
Journal of Cereal Science 01/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs) from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied whether celiac disease (CD) patients produce antibodies against a novel gliadin peptide specifically generated in the duodenum of CD patients by a previously described pattern of CD-specific duodenal proteases. Fingerprinting and ion-trap mass spectrometry of CD-specific duodenal gliadin-degrading protease pattern revealed a new 8-mer gliadin-derived peptide. An ELISA against synthetic deamidated 8-mer peptides (DGP 8-mer) was used to study the presence of IgA anti-DGP 8-mer antibodies in plasma samples from 81 children (31 active CD patients (aCD), 17 CD patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD), 10 healthy controls (C) and 23 patients with other gastrointestinal pathology (GP)) and 101 adults (16 aCD, 12 GFD, 27 C and 46 GP-patients). Deamidation of the 8-mer peptide significantly increased the reactivity of the IgA antibodies from CD patients against the peptide. Significant IgA anti-DGP 8-mer antibodies levels were detected in 93.5% of aCD-, 11.8% of GFD- and 4.3% of GP-patients in children. In adults, antibodies were detected in 81.3% of aCD-patients and 8.3% of GFD-patients while were absent in 100% of C- and GP-patients. Duodenal CD-specific gliadin degrading proteases release an 8-mer gliadin peptide that once deamidated is an antigen for specific IgA antibodies in CD patients which may provide a new accurate diagnostic tool in CD.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e80982. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The only treatment available for coeliac disease (CD) is a strict diet in which the intake of wheat, barley, rye, or oats is avoided. Barley is a major cereal crop, grown mainly for its use in brewing, and it has high nutritional value. The identification of varieties with a reduced toxicity profile may contribute to improve the diet, the quality of life and health of CD patients.
Searching for harmless barleys, we investigated accessions of malting and wild barley, used for developing new cultivated cereals. The CD toxicity profile of barleys was screened using G12 antibody and cell proliferation and IFN-γ release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestinal biopsies from CD patients. We found a direct correlation between the reactivity with G12 and the immunogenicity of the different barleys.
The malting barleys were less immunogenic, with reduced levels of toxic gluten, and were possibly less harmful to CD patients. Our findings could raise the prospect of breeding barley species with low levels of harmful gluten, and the attractive goal of developing nontoxic barley cultivars, always taking into account the Codex standard for foods for special dietary use for persons intolerant to gluten.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Certain immunotoxic peptides from gluten are resistant to gastrointestinal digestion and can interact with celiac-patient factors to trigger an immunologic response. A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only effective treatment for celiac disease (CD), and its compliance should be monitored to avoid cumulative damage. However, practical methods to monitor diet compliance and to detect the origin of an outbreak of celiac clinical symptoms are not available.
We assessed the capacity to determine the gluten ingestion and monitor GFD compliance in celiac patients by the detection of gluten and gliadin 33-mer equivalent peptidic epitopes (33EPs) in human feces.
Fecal samples were obtained from healthy subjects, celiac patients, and subjects with other intestinal pathologies with different diet conditions. Gluten and 33EPs were analyzed by using immunochromatography and competitive ELISA with a highly sensitive antigliadin 33-mer monoclonal antibody.
The resistance of a significant part of 33EPs to gastrointestinal digestion was shown in vitro and in vivo. We were able to detect gluten peptides in feces of healthy individuals after consumption of a normal gluten-containing diet, after consumption of a GFD combined with controlled ingestion of a fixed amount of gluten, and after ingestion of <100 mg gluten/d. These methods also allowed us to detect GFD infringement in CD patients.
Gluten-derived peptides could be sensitively detected in human feces in positive correlation with the amount of gluten intake. These techniques may serve to show GFD compliance or infringement and be used in clinical research in strategies to eliminate gluten immunotoxic peptides during digestion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01478867.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 03/2012; 95(3):670-7. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD). Traditionally, treatment with a GFD has excluded wheat, barley and rye, while the presence of oats is a subject of debate. The most-recent research indicates that some cultivars of oats can be a safe part of a GFD. In order to elucidate the toxicity of the prolamins from oat varieties with low, medium, and high CD toxicity, the avenin genes of these varieties were cloned and sequenced, and their expression quantified throughout the grain development. At the protein level, we have accomplished an exhaustive characterization and quantification of avenins by RP-HPLC and an analysis of immunogenicity of peptides present in prolamins of different oat cultivars. Avenin sequences were classified into three different groups, which have homology with S-rich prolamins of Triticeae. Avenin proteins presented a lower proline content than that of wheat gliadin; this may contribute to the low toxicity shown by oat avenins. The expression of avenin genes throughout the development stages has shown a pattern similar to that of prolamins of wheat and barley. RP-HPLC chromatograms showed protein peaks in the alcohol-soluble and reduced-soluble fractions. Therefore, oat grains had both monomeric and polymeric avenins, termed in this paper gliadin- and glutenin-like avenins. We found a direct correlation between the immunogenicity of the different oat varieties and the presence of the specific peptides with a higher/lower potential immunotoxicity. The specific peptides from the oat variety with the highest toxicity have shown a higher potential immunotoxicity. These results suggest that there is wide range of variation of potential immunotoxicity of oat cultivars that could be due to differences in the degree of immunogenicity in their sequences.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e48365. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the gluten metabolism in healthy individuals and its effect over the intestinal microbial activity.
The faeces of eleven healthy subjects were analysed under 4 diet regimens: their normal gluten diet, a strict gluten-free diet (GFD), a GFD with a supplemental intake of 9 g gluten/day and a GFD with a supplemental intake of 30 g gluten/day. Gluten content, faecal tryptic activity (FTA), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and faecal glutenasic activity (FGA) were analysed in faecal samples.
Faecal gluten contents, FTA, SCFAs and FGA varied significantly with different levels of gluten intake in the diet. When high gluten doses (30 g/day) were administered in the diet, SCFA concentrations (70.5 mmoles/kg faeces) were significantly different from those from the GFD period (33.8 mmoles/kg faeces) of the experiment. However, the FTA showed significant differences between the GFD (34 units) and the normal gluten-containing diet (60 units) and also between the GFD and the GFD + 30 g of gluten/day (67 units). When gluten was present in the diet, gluten was detected in the faeces, showing that at least a portion of the gluten ingested is eliminated in the large intestine, providing a substrate for intestinal microbial proteases. We have also shown the presence of faecal glutenasic activity that increased proportionally with the gluten intake in the diet, showing an enzymatic activity of 993 units in DSG, 2,063 units in DSG + 9 g and 6,090 units in DSG + 30 g.
The activity of the intestinal microbiota is modified by gluten intake in the diet. The incorporation of gluten in the diet increases the activity of a gluten proteolytic activity in the faeces.
European Journal of Nutrition 06/2011; 51(3):293-9. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coeliac disease (CD) is triggered by an abnormal reaction to gluten. Peptides resulting from partially digested gluten of wheat, barley or rye cause inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa. Previous contradictory studies suggest that oats may trigger the abnormal immunological response in patients with CD. Monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) against the main immunotoxic 33-mer peptide (A1 and G12) react strongly against wheat, barley and rye but have less reactivity against oats. The stated aim of this study is to test whether this observed reactivity could be related to the potential toxicity of oats for patients with CD.
In the present study, different oat varieties, controlled for their purity and by their distinct protein pattern, were used to examine differences in moAb G12 recognition by ELISA and western blot. Immunogenicity of oat varieties was determined by 33-mer concentration, T cell proliferation and interferon γ production.
Three groups of oat cultivars reacting differently against moAb G12 could be distinguished: a group with considerable affinity, a group showing slight reactivity and a third with no detectable reactivity. The immunogenicity of the three types of oats as well as that of a positive and negative control was determined with isolated peripheral blood mononuclear T cells from patients with CD by measurement of cell proliferation and interferon γ release. A direct correlation of the reactivity with G12 and the immunogenicity of the different prolamins was observed.
The results showed that the reactivity of the moAb G12 is proportional to the potential immunotoxicity of the cereal cultivar. These differences may explain the different clinical responses observed in patients suffering from CD and open up a means to identify immunologically safe oat cultivars, which could be used to enrich a gluten-free diet.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In plants, a diverse group of cell surface receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) plays a fundamental role in sensing external signals to regulate gene expression. Roots explore the soil environment to optimize their growth via complex signaling cascades, mainly analyzed in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, legume roots have significant physiological differences, notably their capacity to establish symbiotic interactions. These major agricultural crops are affected by environmental stresses such as salinity. Here, we report the identification of a leucine-rich repeat RLK gene, Srlk, from the legume Medicago truncatula. Srlk is rapidly induced by salt stress in roots, and RNA interference (RNAi) assays specifically targeting Srlk yielded transgenic roots whose growth was less inhibited by the presence of salt in the medium. Promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusions indicate that this gene is expressed in epidermal root tissues in response to salt stress. Two Srlk-TILLING mutants also failed to limit root growth in response to salt stress and accumulated fewer sodium ions than controls. Furthermore, early salt-regulated genes are downregulated in Srlk-RNAi roots and in the TILLING mutant lines when submitted to salt stress. We propose a role for Srlk in the regulation of the adaptation of M. truncatula roots to salt stress.
The Plant Cell 03/2009; 21(2):668-80. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The root nodule bacterium Rhizobium tropici strain CIAT899 is highly stress resistant. It grows under acid conditions, in large amounts of salt, and at high osmotic pressure. An earlier study reported a substantial qualitative and quantitative effect of acid stress on the biosynthesis of Nod factors. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of high salt (NaCl) concentrations, another common stress factor, on Nod factor production. For this purpose, thin-layer chromatography, HPLC and MS analyses were carried out. The expression of nodulation genes was also studied using a nodP:lacZ fusion. High concentrations of sodium enhanced nod gene expression and Nod factor biosynthesis. The effect is sodium specific because high potassium or chloride concentrations did not have this effect. Under salt stress conditions, 46 different Nod factors were identified in a CIAT899 culture, compared with 29 different Nod factors under control conditions. Only 15 Nod factor structures were common to both conditions. Under salt stress conditions, 14 different new Nod factor structures were identified that were not observed as being produced under neutral or acid conditions. The implications of our results are that stress has a great influence on Nod factor biosynthesis and that new, very interesting regulatory mechanisms, worth investigating, are involved in controlling Nod factor biosynthesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease is a permanent intolerance to gluten prolamins from wheat, barley, rye and, in some patients, oats. Partially digested gluten peptides produced in the digestive tract cause inflammation of the small intestine. High throughput, immune-based assays using monoclonal antibodies specific for these immunotoxic peptides would facilitate their detection in food and enable monitoring of their enzymatic detoxification. Two monoclonal antibodies, G12 and A1, were developed against a highly immunotoxic 33-mer peptide. The potential of each antibody for quantifying food toxicity for celiac patients was studied.
Epitope preferences of G12 and A1 antibodies were determined by ELISA with gluten-derived peptide variants of recombinant, synthetic or enzymatic origin.
The recognition sequences of G12 and A1 antibodies were hexameric and heptameric epitopes, respectively. Although G12 affinity for the 33-mer was superior to A1, the sensitivity for gluten detection was higher for A1. This observation correlated to the higher number of A1 epitopes found in prolamins than G12 epitopes. Activation of T cell from gluten digested by glutenases decreased equivalently to the detection of intact peptides by A1 antibody. Peptide recognition of A1 included gliadin peptides involved in the both the adaptive and innate immunological response in celiac disease.
The sensitivity and epitope preferences of the A1 antibody resulted to be useful to detect gluten relevant peptides to infer the potential toxicity of food for celiac patients as well as to monitor peptide modifications by transglutaminase 2 or glutenases.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(5):e2294. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, a protein fraction found in certain cereals. Immunotoxic gluten peptides that are recalcitrant to degradation of digestive enzymes appear to trigger celiac syndromes. A 33-mer peptide from alpha-2 gliadin has been identified as a principal contributor to gluten immunotoxicity. A gluten-free diet is the usual first therapy for celiac disease patients; therefore, the characterization and quantification of the toxic portion of the gluten in foodstuffs is crucial to avoid celiac damage.
We aimed to develop immunologic assays as a novel food analysis tool for measuring cereal fractions that are immunotoxic to celiac disease patients.
The design focused on the production of monoclonal antibodies against the gliadin 33-mer peptide and the development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and Western blot analysis with the use of novel antibodies.
A sandwich ELISA method showed a detection limit for wheat, barley, and rye of <1 ppm prolamine. However, the method required a sample that was > or =1 order of magnitude greater for the detection of low-toxic oats, and there was no signal with the safe cereals maize and rice. A competitive ELISA method was also developed for detection of the toxic peptide in hydrolyzed food, which had a detection limit of <0.5 ppm gliadin.
Both ELISAs designed for use with the toxic gliadin 33-mer peptide suggested a high correlation between the presence of the peptide and the amount of cereal that was toxic to celiac disease patients. The sensitivity was significantly higher than that of equivalent methods recognizing other gluten epitopes.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2008; 87(2):405-14. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soil salinity is one of the most significant abiotic stresses for crop plants, including legumes. These plants can establish root symbioses with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria and are able to grow in nitrogen-poor soils. Medicago truncatula varieties show diverse adaptive responses to environmental conditions, such as saline soils. We have compared the differential root growth of two genotypes of M. truncatula (108-R and Jemalong A17) in response to salt stress. Jemalong A17 is more tolerant to salt stress than 108-R, regarding both root and nodulation responses independently of the nitrogen status of the media. A dedicated macroarray containing 384 genes linked to stress responses was used to compare root gene expression during salt stress in these genotypes. Several genes potentially associated with the contrasting cellular responses of these plants to salt stress were identified as expressed in the more tolerant genotype even in the absence of stress. Among them, a homolog of the abiotic stress-related COLD-REGULATEDA1 gene and a TFIIIA-related transcription factor (TF), MtZpt2-1, known to regulate the former gene. Two MtZpt2 TFs (MtZpt2-1 and MtZpt2-2) were found in Jemalong A17 plants and showed increased expression in roots when compared to 108-R. Overexpression of these TFs in the sensitive genotype 108-R, but not in Jemalong A17, led to increased root growth under salt stress, suggesting a role for this pathway in the adaptive response to salt stress of these M. truncatula genotypes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Root growth and function are determined by the action of environmental stresses through specific genes that adapt root development to these restrictive conditions. We have defined in vitro conditions affecting the growth and recovery of Medicago truncatula roots after a salt stress. A dedicated macroarray containing 384 genes, based on a large-scale subtractive hybridization approach, was constructed and used to analyze gene expression during salt stress and recovery of root growth from this stress. Several potential regulatory genes were identified as being linked to this recovery process: a novel RNA-binding protein, a small G-protein homologous to ROP9, a receptor-like kinase, two TF IIIA-like and an AP2-like transcription factors (TF), MtZpt2-1, MtZpt2-2 and MtAp2, and a histidine kinase associated with cytokinin transduction pathways. The two ZPT2-type TFs were also rapidly induced by cold stress in roots. By analyzing transgenic M. truncatula plants showing reduced expression levels of both TFs and affected in their capacity to recover root growth after a salt stress, we identified potential target genes that were either activated or repressed in these plants. Overexpression of MtZpt2-1 in roots conferred salt tolerance and affected the expression of three putative targets in the predicted manner: a cold-regulated A (CORA) homolog, a flower-promoting factor (FPF1) homolog and an auxin-induced proline-rich protein (PRP) gene. Hence, regulatory networks depending on TFIIIA-like transcription factors are involved in the control of root adaptation to salt stress.
The Plant Journal 08/2007; 51(1):1-17. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plant rhizosphere is an important soil ecological environment for plant-microorganism interactions, which include colonization by a variety of microorganisms in and around the roots that may result in symbiotic, endophytic, associative, or parasitic relationships within the plant, depending on the type of microorganisms, soil nutrient status, and soil environment. Rhizosphere competence may be attributable to the differences in the extent of bacterial attachment to the root surface. We present results of the effect of various factors on the attachment to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) roots of some bacterial species of agronomic importance, such as Rhizobium tropici, Rhizobium etli, Ensifer fredii (homotypic synonym Sinorhizobium fredii), and Azospirillum brasilense; as well as the attachment capability of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Chryseobacterium balustinum. Additionally, we have studied various bacterial traits, such as autoaggregation and flagella movements, which have been postulated to be important properties for bacterial adhesion to surfaces. The lack of mutual incompatibility between rhizobial strains and C. balustinum has been demonstrated in coinoculation assays.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhizobium gallicum is a fast-growing bacterium found in European, Australian and African soils; it was first isolated in France. It is a microsymbiont which is able to nodulate plants of the genus Phaseolus. Rhizobium gallicum bv. gallicum R602 produces four extracellular signal molecules consisting of a linear backbone of N-acetyl glucosamine, bearing on the nonreducing terminal residue an N-methyl group and different N-acyl substituents. The four acyloligosaccharides terminate with a sulfated N-acetylglucosaminitol. This unit may be also acetylated. These structures were determined using carbohydrate and methylation analysis, mass spectrometric analysis and one-dimensional- and two-dimensional-nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. This work establishes the common structure that a lipochito-oligosaccharide must have so that the Rhizobium that produces and excretes it is able to nodulate plants of Phaseolus vulgaris. The substituents common to all the molecules are an N-methyl group and a C(18:1) fatty acid on the nonreducing terminal residue.