Ian F Tannock

University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (308)2844.97 Total impact

  • Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 08/2014;
  • Ian Tannock, Gregory Pond
    Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Abiraterone acetate (AA), oral CYP17 inhibitor, is an active agent in the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).METHODS We (R.L.A and N.A) retrospectively evaluated outcome in 12 men who were re-treated with AA following prior treatment with AA at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre.RESULTSAll men were heavily pre-treated for mCRPC with a median of four prior lines of therapy, one of which was AA (given either pre- or post-chemotherapy). Eleven out of 12 (92%) men stopped their first treatment course of AA due to progression and one stopped for financial reasons. Seven men had a PSA decrease ≥50% following their first AA treatment, of which three (46%) had a PSA decrease ≥50% to AA re-treatment. The responses to AA re-treatment were generally short-lived with a median biochemical progression-free survival of 2.3 months and median treatment duration of 3.2 months. No PSA responses to AA re-treatment were seen in five men who did not have an initial PSA response to AA.CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that AA re-challenge may have limited benefit in select men with mCRPC, and warrants further formal research. Prostate © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 08/2014; · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a marker of inflammation, has been reported to be a poor prognostic indicator in prostate cancer. Here we explore the use of the NLR to establish a simple prognostic score for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with docetaxel.
    Cancer 07/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few articles have documented regimens and timing of peri-operative chemotherapy for bladder cancer in routine practice. Here we describe practice patterns in the general population of Ontario, Canada.
    Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical data supporting the use of targeted agents for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are based predominantly on patients with clear cell histology. Little is known about the efficacy of these drugs in non-clear cell variants.
    European urology. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Inflammation influences cancer development and progression. An elevated platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR), a marker of inflammation, has been linked to poor prognosis in several malignancies. Here we quantify the prognostic impact of this biomarker. Methods: A systematic review of databases was conducted to identify publications exploring the association of blood PLR and overall survival (OS) in solid tumors. Data were pooled in a meta-analysis. Pooled HRs for OS by disease group and by PLR cut-off groups were computed and weighted using generic inverse-variance and random-effect modeling. Results: Twenty studies comprising 12,754 patients were assessed. Cut-offs for PLR defining risk groups ranged from 150 to 300 and were dichotomous (12 studies, [group 1]) or split into 3 groups (<150/150-300/>300, 8 studies, [group 2]). Higher PLR was associated with significantly worse OS in group 1 (HR=1.87; 95%CI: 1.49-2.34, P<0.001) and with a non-significant association in group 2 (HR per higher category=1.21, 95%CI: 0.97-1.50; P=0.10). The size of effect of PLR on OS was greater for metastatic disease (HR[group 1]=2.0, 95%CI: 1.6-2.7; HR[group 2]=1.6, 95%CI: 1.1-2.4) than for early stage disease (HR[group 1]=1.5, 95%CI: 1.0-2.2; HR[group 2]=1.0, 95%CI: 0.8-1.3). A significant association was observed for colorectal, hepatocellular, gastroesophageal, ovarian, and pancreatic carcinoma in group 1 and for colorectal cancers in group 2. Conclusion: A high PLR is associated with worse OS in various solid tumors. Further research of its regulation and relevance in daily practice is warranted. Impact: PLR is a readily available and inexpensive biomarker with independent prognostic value in solid tumors.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 05/2014; · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    Ian F Tannock
    European Urology 04/2014; 65(4):846-7. · 10.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Practice guidelines recommend neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for bladder cancer. However, the evidence in support of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) is less robust. Here we describe whether the evidence of efficacy for NACT/ACT was sufficient to change clinical practice and whether the efficacy demonstrated in clinical trials was translated into effectiveness in the general population.METHODS Electronic records of treatment were linked to the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry to identify all patients with bladder cancer treated with cystectomy in Ontario 1994-2008. Utilization of NACT/ACT was compared across 1994-1998, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008. Logistic regression was used to analyze factors associated with NACT/ACT. Cox model and propensity score analyses were used to explore the association between ACT and survival.RESULTSTwo thousand forty-four patients underwent cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Use of NACT remained stable (mean, 4%), whereas utilization of ACT increased over time (16%, 18%, 22%; P = .001). Advanced stage (T3/T4; OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.38-2.46) and node-positive disease (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 6.20-10.7) were associated with greater utilization of ACT. Five-year overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) for all patients was 29% (95% CI, 28%-31%) and 33% (95% CI, 31%-35%), respectively. Utilization of ACT was associated with improved OS (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.62-0.81) and CSS (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.64-0.84). Results were consistent in propensity score analyses.CONCLUSIONSNACT remains substantially underutilized in routine clinical practice. Our results suggest that perioperative chemotherapy is associated with a substantial survival benefit in the general population. Patients who are planning to undergo cystectomy for bladder cancer should be reviewed by a multidisciplinary team. Cancer 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 04/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies assessing cognitive functioning in women treated for breast cancer have used primarily standardized neuropsychological tests and examined accuracy and/or reaction time as outcome measures: they have been inconsistent in identifying the cognitive domains affected and the severity of deficits. In other contexts of neural development and disorders, measures of Intra-individual variability (IIV) have proven useful in identifying subtleties in performance deficits that are not captured by measures of central tendency. This article presents proof of concept that assessing IIV may also increase understanding of the cognitive effects of cancer treatment. We analyzed mean accuracy and reaction time, as well as IIV from 65 women with breast cancer and 28 age and education matched controls who performed the Conner's Continuous Performance Test, a "Go-NoGo" task. Although there were no significant differences between groups using measures of central tendency, there was a group × inter-stimulus interval (ISI) interaction for IIV Dispersion (p < .001). Patient Dispersion was more variable at shorter ISI than controls and less variable at long ISI, suggesting greater sensitivity to presentation speed. Interpretation of IIV differences requires further investigation. Our results suggest that future studies would benefit from designs that allow analysis of IIV measures in studies assessing cognition in cancer survivors. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-11).
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 03/2014; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with advanced cancer have reduced quality of life, which tends to worsen towards the end of life. We assessed the effect of early palliative care in patients with advanced cancer on several aspects of quality of life. The study took place at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (Toronto, ON, Canada), between Dec 1, 2006, and Feb 28, 2011. 24 medical oncology clinics were cluster randomised (in a 1:1 ratio, using a computer-generated sequence, stratified by clinic size and tumour site [four lung, eight gastrointestinal, four genitourinary, six breast, two gynaecological]), to consultation and follow-up (at least monthly) by a palliative care team or to standard cancer care. Complete masking of interventions was not possible; however, patients provided written informed consent to participate in their own study group, without being informed of the existence of another group. Eligible patients had advanced cancer, European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and a clinical prognosis of 6-24 months. Quality of life (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being [FACIT-Sp] scale and Quality of Life at the End of Life [QUAL-E] scale), symptom severity (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS]), satisfaction with care (FAMCARE-P16), and problems with medical interactions (Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System Medical Interaction Subscale [CARES-MIS]) were measured at baseline and monthly for 4 months. The primary outcome was change score for FACIT-Sp at 3 months. Secondary endpoints included change score for FACIT-Sp at 4 months and change scores for other scales at 3 and 4 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01248624. 461 patients completed baseline measures (228 intervention, 233 control); 393 completed at least one follow-up assessment. At 3-months, there was a non-significant difference in change score for FACIT-Sp between intervention and control groups (3·56 points [95% CI -0·27 to 7·40], p=0·07), a significant difference in QUAL-E (2·25 [0·01 to 4·49], p=0·05) and FAMCARE-P16 (3·79 [1·74 to 5·85], p=0·0003), and no difference in ESAS (-1·70 [-5·26 to 1·87], p=0·33) or CARES-MIS (-0·66 [-2·25 to 0·94], p=0·40). At 4 months, there were significant differences in change scores for all outcomes except CARES-MIS. All differences favoured the intervention group. Although the difference in quality of life was non-significant at the primary endpoint, this trial shows promising findings that support early palliative care for patients with advanced cancer. Canadian Cancer Society, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care.
    The Lancet 02/2014; · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    C M Booth, I F Tannock
    British Journal of Cancer 02/2014; 110(3):551-5. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abiraterone acetate (abiraterone) prolongs overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This study's objective was to retrospectively identify factors associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to abiraterone and validate them in an independent cohort. We hypothesized that the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), thought to be an indirect manifestation of tumor-promoting inflammation, may be associated with response to abiraterone. All patients receiving abiraterone at the Princess Margaret (PM) Cancer Centre up to March 2013 were reviewed. The primary end point was confirmed PSA response defined as PSA decline ≥50% below baseline maintained for ≥3 weeks. Potential factors associated with PSA response were analyzed using univariate and multivariable analyses to generate a score, which was then evaluated in an independent cohort from Royal Marsden (RM) NHS foundation. A confirmed PSA response was observed in 44 out of 108 assessable patients (41%, 95% confidence interval 31%-50%). In univariate analysis, lower pre-abiraterone baseline levels of lactate dehydrogenase, an NLR ≤ 5 and restricted metastatic spread to either bone or lymph nodes were each associated with PSA response. In multivariable analysis, only low NLR and restricted metastatic spread remained statistically significant. A score derived as the sum of these two categorical variables was associated with response to abiraterone (P = 0.007). Logistic regression analysis on an independent validation cohort of 245 patients verified that this score was associated with response to abiraterone (P = 0.003). It was also associated with OS in an exploratory analysis. A composite score of baseline NLR and extent of metastatic spread is associated with PSA response to abiraterone and OS. Our data may help understand the role of systemic inflammation in mCRPC and warrant further research.
    Annals of Oncology 01/2014; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Prostate cancer is a disease of older men. Weekly docetaxel (DPq1w) is often favored over the standard three-weekly regimen (DPq3w) due to concerns about safety and tolerability in this population. Materials and Methods Two subgroup analyses of TAX 327 were conducted. Among patients receiving DPq3w, tolerability and efficacy were compared between three age groups: < 65, 65–74 and ≥ 75 years. For men ≥ 75 years, these outcomes were compared between DPq3w, DPq1w, and mitoxantrone (MP) arms. Tolerability outcomes included dose delivery, grade 3/4 adverse events and quality of life. Efficacy outcomes included overall survival and tumor response. Results Of 1006 men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in the trial, 335 received DPq3w. Among these, 20% were age ≥ 75 years. For DPq3w, there were non-significant associations of worse tolerability and efficacy with advancing age. Twenty-eight percent of men age ≥ 75 years had an objective pain response, compared to 38% and 34% of patients 65–74 and < 65 years, respectively. There were no significant differences in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response (43–48%, p = 0.74) or measurable tumor response (7–17%, p = 0.30) according to age. Among men ≥ 75 years, DPq3w resulted in more dose reductions than DPq1w (22% versus 8%, p = 0.007), but tolerability was otherwise comparable. Both were associated with more favorable efficacy than mitoxantrone. Conclusions Tolerability and efficacy of DPq3w appear less favorable with advancing age. Compared to DPq1w, DPq3w is associated with better survival outcomes, but similar tolerability, and remains the standard first-line chemotherapy option in mCRPC. Toxicity is substantial, therefore careful patient selection, close monitoring and early management of toxicities is advised.
    Journal of Geriatric Oncology 01/2014; · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Inflammation may play an important role in cancer progression, and a high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been reported to be a poor prognostic indicator in several malignancies. Here we quantify the prognostic impact of this biomarker and assess its consistency in solid tumors. METHODS: A systematic review of electronic databases was conducted to identify publications exploring the association of blood NLR and clinical outcome in solid tumors. Overall survival (OS) was the primary outcome, and cancer-specific survival (CSS), progression-free survival (PFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were secondary outcomes. Data from studies reporting a hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) or a P value were pooled in a meta-analysis. Pooled hazard ratios were computed and weighted using generic inverse-variance and random-effect modeling. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: One hundred studies comprising 40559 patients were included in the analysis, 57 of them published in 2012 or later. Median cutoff for NLR was 4. Overall, NLR greater than the cutoff was associated with a hazard ratio for OS of 1.81 (95% CI = 1.67 to 1.97; P < .001), an effect observed in all disease subgroups, sites, and stages. Hazard ratios for NLR greater than the cutoff for CSS, PFS, and DFS were 1.61, 1.63, and 2.27, respectively (all P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: A high NLR is associated with an adverse OS in many solid tumors. The NLR is a readily available and inexpensive biomarker, and its addition to established prognostic scores for clinical decision making warrants further investigation.
    J Natl Cancer Inst. 01/2014; 106(6):dju124.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Abiraterone (AA) is a CYP17 inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Data suggest similar pharmacokinetics of 250–500 mg of AA with high-fat meals (‘low-dose’) and 1000 mg in the fasting state (‘full-dose’). Ketoconazole (KT) is a less potent CYP17 inhibitor previously widely used in mCRPC. Objective To study outcomes of men with mCRPC treated with low-dose AA and/or with prior exposure to KT. Patients and methods Retrospective chart review of all men treated with AA at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre between November 2009 and March 2013. Outcome measures were prostate-specific antigen response rate (PSA-RR), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), treatment duration and overall survival (OS). Associations between AA dose or prior KT and outcomes were assessed using chi-square test for PSA-RR and log-rank test for bPFS, treatment duration and OS. Results In total, 111 men who received AA were evaluable, of which 21 received low-dose AA and 23 received prior KT. There was a non-significant difference in PSA-RR (43% versus 32%, p = 0.37), but no significant differences in median bPFS, median treatment duration and median OS (18.7 versus 16.6 months, p = 0.25) in the full and low-dose cohorts respectively, and for those who received prior KT or not (PSA-RR 48% versus 38%, p = 0.4; median OS 24.2 versus 16.5 months, p = 0.066, respectively). Conclusions Low-dose AA or prior KT treatment were not associated with poorer outcome in men with mCRPC treated with AA. These observations may have implications for drug sequencing and dose in resource-limited settings.
    European Journal of Cancer. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy, used for the treatment of cancer, often produces cognitive impairment that has been related to suppression of neurogenesis. Physical exercise, which promotes neurogenesis, is known to improve cognitive function in neurologically challenged animals and humans. It is unknown whether exercise similarly protects against chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment and whether recovery of neurogenesis is a critical factor. The present study investigated the relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive performance in chemotherapy-treated rats that engaged in different amounts of physical activity. Groups of rats, housed individually in standard cages or in specially designed cages that allowed unlimited access to a running wheel, received three injections of the chemotherapeutic drugs methotrexate and 5-flourouracil, or equal volumes of saline. They were then administered the following cognitive tests in a water maze: (1) spatial memory (SM), (2) cued memory, (3) non-matching to sample (NMTS) rule learning; (4) delayed NMTS (DNMTS). Hippocampal neurogenesis was quantified by counting doublecortin-expressing cells in the dentate gyrus. Chemotherapy administered to rats in standard cages resulted in a significant reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired performance on the SM, NMTS, and DNMTS tasks. In rats receiving chemotherapy and housed in exercise cages, neurogenesis was not suppressed and cognitive performance was similar to controls. Physical exercise can reduce cognitive deficits that result from chemotherapy and this effect is mediated, at least in part, by preventing suppression of drug-induced hippocampal neurogenesis. The results suggest benefits of exercise in preventing or treating cognitive impairment associated with chemotherapy.
    Psychopharmacology 12/2013; · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kinins are generated within inflammatory tissue microenvironments, where they exert diverse functions, including cell proliferation, leukocyte activation, cell migration, endothelial cell activation and nociception. These pleiotropic functions depend on signaling through two cross talking receptors, the constitutively expressed kinin receptor 2 (B2R) and the inducible kinin receptor 1 (B1R). We have reviewed evidence, which supports the concept that kinin receptors, especially kinin receptor 1, are promising targets for cancer therapy, since (1) many tumor cells express aberrantly high levels of these receptors; (2) some cancers produce kinins and use them as autocrine factors to stimulate their growth; (3) activation of kinin receptors leads to activation of macrophages, dendritic cells and other cells from the tumor microenvironment; (4) kinins have pro-angiogenic properties; (5) kinin receptors have been implicated in cancer migration, invasion and metastasis; and (6) Selective antagonists for either B1R or B2R have shown anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-migratory properties. The multiple cross talks between kinin receptors and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) as well as its implications for targeting KKS or RAS for the treatment of malignancies are also discussed. It is expected that B1R antagonists would interfere less with housekeeping functions and therefore would be attractive compounds to treat selected types of cancer. Reliable clinical studies are needed to establish the translatability of these data to human settings and the usefulness of kinin receptor antagonists.
    Cancer letters 12/2013; · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor (AR) is expressed frequently in breast cancer, but its prognostic significance is unclear. Preclinical data suggest that expression of AR may modify clinical outcomes in early breast cancer with improved prognosis in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease and poorer prognosis in ER-negative disease. A systematic review of electronic databases was conducted to identify studies published between 1946 and July 2012 and to explore the association between AR expression and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in women diagnosed with early breast cancer. The odds ratios (OR) for OS and DFS at 3 and 5 years were calculated and then weighted and pooled in a meta-analysis with Mantel-Haenszel random-effect modeling. All statistical tests were two-sided. Nineteen studies with a total of 7693 women were included. AR expression was documented in 60.5% of patients. ER-positive tumors were more likely to express AR- than ER-negative tumors (74.8% vs 31.8%, χ(2) P < .001). Compared with tumors without AR expression, those expressing AR were associated with improved OS at both 3 and 5 years (OR = 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.39 to 0.58, P < .001; and OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.56, P < .001). The absolute differences in the probability of OS at 3 and 5 years were 6.7% (95% CI = 3.5% to 9.8%) and 13.5% (95% CI = 7.5% to 19.6%), respectively. Results for 3- and 5-year DFS were similar. Coexpression of the ER did not influence OS at 3 or at 5 years. Expression of AR in women with breast cancer is associated with better OS and DFS irrespective of coexpression of ER.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 11/2013; · 14.07 Impact Factor
  • Jasdeep K Saggar, Ian F Tannock
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    ABSTRACT: Many chemotherapy drugs have poor therapeutic activity in regions distant from tumor blood vessels because of poor tissue penetration and low cytotoxic activity against slowly-proliferating cells. The hypoxia-activated pro-drug TH-302 may have selective toxicity for hypoxic and neighboring cells in tumors. Here we characterize the spatial distribution and ability of TH-302 to selectively target hypoxic regions and complement the effect of doxorubicin and docetaxel by modifying biomarker distribution. Athymic nude mice bearing human breast MCF-7 or prostate PC-3 tumors were treated with doxorubicin or docetaxel respectively and TH-302 alone or in combination. Biomarkers of drug effect including γH2aX (a marker of DNA damage), cleaved caspase-3 or -6 (markers of apoptosis) and reduction in Ki-67 (a marker of cell proliferation) were quantified in tumor sections in relation to functional blood vessels (recognized by DiOC7) and hypoxia (recognized by EF5) using immunohistochemistry. γH2aX expression at 10 min and cleaved caspase-3 or -6 at 24 hr after doxorubicin or docetaxel decreased with increasing distance from tumor blood vessels, with minimal expression in hypoxic regions; maximum reduction in Ki67 levels was observed in regions closest to vasculature at 24 hr. TH-302 induced maximal cell damage in hypoxic and neighboring regions, but was also active in tumor regions closer to blood vessels. TH-302 given 4 hr before doxorubicin or docetaxel increased DNA damage and apoptosis throughout the tumor compared to chemotherapy alone. When given with doxorubicin or docetaxel, TH-302 complements and enhances anticancer effects in both perivascular and hypoxic regions but also increases toxicity.
    International Journal of Cancer 11/2013; · 6.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
2,844.97 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • University Health Network
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1984–2014
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Medical Biophysics
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1983–2014
    • The Princess Margaret Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2013
    • Erasmus MC
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • CancerCare Manitoba
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    • Hospices Civils de Lyon
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Cancer Research UK, Cambridge Institute
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      Maryland, United States
  • 2010–2013
    • Hospital Universitario de Albacete
      Albacete, Castille-La Mancha, Spain
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • Queen's University
      • Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology
      Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    • Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
    • Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2011–2012
    • Institute of Oncology Ljubljana
      Lubliano, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Autonomous University of Nuevo León
      San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, Mexico
  • 2007
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center
      Durham, NC, United States
    • Centre François Baclesse
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2006
    • Trent University
      • Department of Psychology
      Peterborough, Ontario, Canada
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2003
    • Centre Léon Bérard
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Center for Outcomes and Policy Research
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1988–1998
    • Ontario Institute for Cancer Research
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada