ABSTRACT: Eribulin mesylate is a non-taxane, structurally simplified, completely synthetic, halichondrin B derivative with an end poisoning, microtubule inhibitory action. Preclinical studies have demonstrated activity in various cancer cell lines and synergistic action with gemcitabine, epirubicin, trastuzumab, cisplatin, docetaxel and vinorelbine. Eribulin has recently been approved by United States Food and Drug Administration as a third line therapy for metastatic breast cancer patients, who have previously been treated with an anthracycline and a taxane. It has also advanced to phase II trials in non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic, prostate, bladder, head and neck cancers, sarcomas and ovarian and other gynecological tumors. Combination trials with carboplatin, gemcitabine, pemetrexed, cisplatin, and erlotinib are currently ongoing. Eribulin potentially has a low incidence of peripheral neuropathy. The predominant side effects are neutropenia and fatigue, which are manageable. This article reviews the available information on eribulin with respect to its clinical pharmacology, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, metabolism, preclinical studies and clinical trials.
Critical reviews in oncology/hematology 04/2011; 81(2):163-84. · 5.27 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Reolysin is reovirus serotype 3-Dearing strain, a double-stranded replication-competent RNA non-enveloped icosahedral virus. It induces cytopathic and anti-cancer effects in cells with an activated ras pathway due to inhibition of the dsRNA-activated protein kinase.
This was a single center dose escalation trial of Reolysin administered intravenously every 4 weeks in doses ranging from 1 x 10(8) to 3 x 10(10) tissue culture infective dose (TCID)(50). Serum for neutralizing antibody, and serum, stool, saliva, and urine for viral shedding were collected. Tumor samples were analyzed for activating mutations in the ras and braf oncogenes.
Eighteen patients received 27 doses of Reolysin in 6 dose cohorts accomplishing a 300 fold dose escalation without a protocol-defined dose limiting toxicity. Drug related grade 2 toxicities included fatigue and fever (1 patient each). All patients developed neutralizing antibody during the course of the study. Viral shedding was observed in 6 patients. One patient with anthracycline and taxane refractory breast cancer experienced a partial response (PR) and her tumor had a ras G12A mutation. Biopsy from her chest wall mass showed evidence of necrosis and viral replication by electron microscopy. Overall clinical benefit (1 PR + 7 stable disease) rate was 45%, and appeared higher in patients with viral shedding (67%) than those without (33%).
Reolysin administered monthly as a one-hour infusion is safe and well-tolerated even in multiple doses. Reolysin has anti-tumor activity as a single agent warranting further evaluation, including in combination with chemotherapy. Viral shedding may suggest intrapatient replication yielding a benefit and should be studied carefully in future studies.
Investigational New Drugs 08/2009; 28(5):641-9. · 3.36 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Drug interactions in oncology are common place and largely ignored as we tolerate high thresholds of 'toxic' drug responses in these patients. However, in the era of 'targeted' or seemingly 'less toxic' therapy, these interactions are more commonly flagged and contribute significantly towards poor 'quality of life' and medical fatalities.
This review and opinion article focuses on alteration of chemotherapeutic pharmacokinetic profiles by drug interactions in the setting of polypharmacy. The assumption is that the drugs, with changes in their pharmacokinetics, will contribute towards changes in their pharmacodynamics.
The examples cited for such drug-drug interactions are culled from published literature with an emphasis on those interactions that have been well characterized at the molecular level.
Although very few drug interaction studies have been performed on approved oncology based drugs, it is clear that drugs whose pharmacokinetics profiles are closely related to their pharmacodynamics will indeed result in clinically important drug interactions. Some newer mechanisms are described that involve interactions at the level of gene transcription, whereby, drug metabolism is significantly altered. However, for any given drug interaction, there does not seem to be a comprehensive model describing interactions.
Mechanisms based drug interactions are plentiful in oncology; however, there is an absolute lack of a comprehensive model that would predict drug-drug interactions.
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology 03/2009; 5(2):109-30. · 3.12 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Capecitabine and irinotecan have demonstrated in vitro synergistic anti-cancer activity, and both are substrates for carboxyl esterases (CES). We conducted a study to identify a safe dose and potential drug-drug interactions of this combination.
This was an open-label phase I dose escalation trial. Irinotecan was given as a 30 min infusion on days 1 and 8, and capecitabine on days 1-14 of a 21-day cycle. Plasma for pharmacokinetic analyses was drawn on days 1 and 8.
Forty-seven patients with advanced solid tumors received 202 cycles of chemotherapy in 6 dose cohorts. At the highest dose tested, 1 of 3 patients developed fatal neutropenia and gram-negative sepsis. At dose level 5 (100/2000), 2 of 28 patients developed cycle 1 DLT-grade 3 diarrhea/vomiting, and grade 3 diarrhea. Responses were observed in 9 of 35 (5 of 9 ovarian cancer) evaluable patients. The AUC((0-last)) of irinotecan, SN-38G, and APC were similar on days 1 and 8. However, SN-38 T(max) was longer on Day 8 (0.88 h vs. 1.23 h, p = 0.012). While SN-38 AUC((0-last)) was lower on day 8 by 35%, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.123).
Capecitabine results in a significantly delayed conversion of irinotecan to SN-38, suggesting drug-drug interaction at the level of CES. This suggests caution should be used when irinotecan is combined with substrates of CES, and warrants further study. The combination of irinotecan and capecitabine is safe and well tolerated at 100/2000, and warrants further evaluation in ovarian and breast cancer.
Investigational New Drugs 07/2007; 25(3):237-45. · 3.36 Impact Factor