[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic interventions that target critical elements of the tumor stromal microenvironment may improve blockades to metastatic progression. Here we report characterization of a mechanism that address this opportunity, based on studies of the polyoma middle T-induced mouse model of mammary carcinoma that exhibits aggressive metastases due to lack of the type II TGF-ß receptor (PyMTmgko mice). We hypothesized that PyMTmgko-activated stroma interacts with carcinoma cells to promote invasion and metastasis. Extracellular matrix associated with PyMTmgko tumors was found to exhibit increased stiffness, fibrillar collagen levels and expression of the collagen crosslinking enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX), compared to polyoma middle T-induced mammary carcinomas in mice expressing the type II TGF-ß receptor (PyMTfl/fl). Inhibiting LOX activity in PyMTmgko mice had no effect on tumor latency or size, but decreased tumor metastasis by inhibiting tumor cell intravasation. This phenotype was associated with a decrease in keratin 14-positive myoepithelial cells in PyMTmgko tumors following LOX inhibition along with a decrease in focal adhesion formation. Interestingly, the primary source of LOX was determined to be activated fibroblasts. LOX expression was driven at this site by myeloid cell-derived TGF-ß, which is linked to human breast cancer. Our results suggested that stromal expansion in PyMTmgko tumors was elicited by immune cell infiltrates that promoted fibroblast activation, leading to metastatic behavior by modulating phenotypic characteristics of basal epithelial cells. More broadly, these findings argue that microenvironmental changes triggered by epithelial cells can drive tumor pathogenicity and offer important therapeutic targets to inhibit metastasis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has a dual role during tumor progression, initially as a suppressor and then as a promoter. Epithelial TGF-β signaling regulates fibroblast recruitment and activation. Concurrently, TGF-β signaling in stromal fibroblasts suppresses tumorigenesis in adjacent epithelia, while its ablation potentiates tumor formation. Much is known about the contribution of TGF-β signaling to tumorigenesis, yet the role of TGF-β in epithelial-stromal migration during tumor progression is poorly understood. We hypothesize that TGF-β is a critical regulator of tumor-stromal interactions that promote mammary tumor cell migration and invasion. METHODS: Fluorescently labeled murine mammary carcinoma cells, isolated from either MMTV-PyVmT transforming growth factor-beta receptor II knockout (TβRII KO) or TβRIIfl/fl control mice, were combined with mammary fibroblasts and xenografted onto the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane. These combinatorial xenografts were used as a model to study epithelial-stromal crosstalk. Intravital imaging of migration was monitored ex ovo, and metastasis was investigated in ovo. Epithelial RNA from in ovo tumors was isolated by laser capture microdissection and analyzed to identify gene expression changes in response to TGF-β signaling loss. RESULTS: Intravital microscopy of xenografts revealed that mammary fibroblasts promoted two migratory phenotypes dependent on epithelial TGF-β signaling: single cell/strand migration or collective migration. At epithelial-stromal boundaries, single cell/strand migration of TβRIIfl/fl carcinoma cells was characterized by expression of α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, while collective migration of TβRII KO carcinoma cells was identified by E-cadherin+/p120+/β-catenin+ clusters. TβRII KO tumors also exhibited a twofold greater metastasis than TβRIIfl/fl tumors, attributed to enhanced extravasation ability. In TβRII KO tumor epithelium compared with TβRIIfl/fl epithelium, Igfbp4 and Tspan13 expression was upregulated while Col1α2, Bmp7, Gng11, Vcan, Tmeff1, and Dsc2 expression was downregulated. Immunoblotting and quantitative PCR analyses on cultured cells validated these targets and correlated Tmeff1 expression with disease progression of TGF-β-insensitive mammary cancer. CONCLUSION: Fibroblast-stimulated carcinoma cells utilize TGF-β signaling to drive single cell/strand migration but migrate collectively in the absence of TGF-β signaling. These migration patterns involve the signaling regulation of several epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition pathways. Our findings concerning TGF-β signaling in epithelial-stromal interactions are important in identifying migratory mechanisms that can be targeted as recourse for breast cancer treatment.
Breast cancer research: BCR 07/2012; 14(4):R98. · 5.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By crossing LysM-Cre and TGF-β type II receptor (Tgfbr2) floxed mice we achieved specific deletion of Tgfbr2 in myeloid cells (Tgfbr2(MyeKO) mice). S.c.-injected (LLC, EL4-OVA) and implanted (MMTV-PyMT) carcinoma cells grow slower in Tgfbr2(MyeKO) mice. The number of CD45(+) cells in the tumor tissue was the same in both genotypes of mice, but upon analysis, the percentage of T cells (CD45(+)CD3(+)) in the KO mice was increased. By flow cytometry analysis, we did not detect any differences in the number and phenotype of TAMs, CD11b(+)Gr1(+), and DCs in Tgfbr2(MyeKO) compared with Tgfbr2(MyeWT) mice. ELISA and qRT-PCR data showed differences in myeloid cell functions. In Tgfbr2(MyeKO) TAMs, TNF-α secretion was increased, basal IL-6 secretion was down-regulated, TGF-β did not induce any VEGF response, and there was decreased MMP9 and increased MMP2 and iNOS expression. TGF-β did not have any effect on CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells isolated from Tgfbr2(MyeKO) mice in the regulation of Arg, iNOS, VEGF, and CXCR4, and moreover, these cells have decreased suppressive activity relative to T cell proliferation. Also, we found that DCs from tumor tissue of Tgfbr2(MyeKO) mice have increased antigen-presented properties and an enhanced ability to stimulate antigen-specific T cell proliferation. We conclude that Tgfbr2 in myeloid cells has a negative role in the regulation of anti-tumorigenic functions of these cells, and deletion of this receptor decreases the suppressive function of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells and increases antigen-presenting properties of DCs and anti-tumorigenic properties of TAMs.
Journal of leukocyte biology 06/2012; 92(3):641-51. · 4.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report that IL-17 significantly increases the secretion of CXCL1 and CXCL5 from mammary carcinoma cells, which is downregulated by TGF-β through the type II TGF-β receptor (TβRII). Carcinoma cells with conditional knockout of TβRII (Tgfbr2(KO)) have enhanced sensitivity to IL-17a in the stimulation of chemokine secretion. During polyoma middle T (PyMT) induced tumor progression, levels of Th17 inducing cytokines TGF-β, IL-6, IL-23 were increased in PyMT/Tgfbr2(KO) tumors, which was associated with an increased number of Th17 cells. IL-17 increased the suppressive function of MDSCs on T cells through the upregulation of Arg, IDO, and COX2. Treatment of PyMT/Tgfbr2(KO) mice with anti-IL-17 Ab decreased carcinoma growth and metastatic burden. Analysis of human breast cancer transcriptome databases showed a strong association between IL-17 gene expression and poor outcome in lymph node positive, estrogen receptor negative or luminal B subtypes suggesting potential therapeutic approaches.
Cancer Discovery 10/2011; 1(5):430-41. · 10.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most lethal neoplasms, is characterized by an expanded stroma with marked fibrosis (desmoplasia). We previously generated pancreas epithelium-specific TGF-β receptor type II (Tgfbr2) knockout mice in the context of Kras activation (mice referred to herein as Kras+Tgfbr2KO mice) and found that they developed aggressive PDAC that recapitulated the histological manifestations of the human disease. The mouse PDAC tissue showed strong expression of connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), a profibrotic and tumor-promoting factor, especially in the tumor-stromal border area, suggesting an active tumor-stromal interaction. Here we show that the PDAC cells in Kras+Tgfbr2KO mice secreted much higher levels of several Cxc chemokines compared with mouse pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia cells, which are preinvasive. The Cxc chemokines induced Ctgf expression in the pancreatic stromal fibroblasts, not in the PDAC cells themselves. Subcutaneous grafting studies revealed that the fibroblasts enhanced growth of PDAC cell allografts, which was attenuated by Cxcr2 inhibition. Moreover, treating the Kras+Tgfbr2KO mice with the CXCR2 inhibitor reduced tumor progression. The decreased tumor progression correlated with reduced Ctgf expression and angiogenesis and increased overall survival. Taken together, our data indicate that tumor-stromal interactions via a Cxcr2-dependent chemokine and Ctgf axis can regulate PDAC progression. Further, our results suggest that inhibiting tumor-stromal interactions might be a promising therapeutic strategy for PDAC.
The Journal of clinical investigation 09/2011; 121(10):4106-17. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β superfamily of signaling molecules. BMPs can elicit a wide range of effects in many cell types and have previously been shown to induce growth inhibition in carcinoma cells as well as normal epithelia. Recently, it has been demonstrated that BMP4 and BMP7 are overexpressed in human breast cancers and may have tumor suppressive and promoting effects. We sought to determine whether disruption of the BMP receptor 2 (BMPR2) would alter mammary tumor progression in mice that express the Polyoma middle T antigen. Mice expressing Polyoma middle T antigen under the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter were combined with mice that have doxycycline-inducible expression of a dominant-negative (DN) BMPR2. We did not observe any differences in tumor latency. However, mice expressing the BMPR2-DN had a fivefold increase in lung metastases. We characterized several cell autonomous changes and found that BMPR2-DN-expressing tumor cells had higher rates of proliferation. We also identified unique changes in inflammatory cells and secreted chemokines/cytokines that accompanied BMPR2-DN-expressing tumors. By immunohistochemistry, it was found that BMPR2-DN primary tumors and metastases had an altered reactive stroma, indicating specific changes in the tumor microenvironment. Among the changes we discovered were increased myeloid derived suppressor cells and the chemokine CCL9. BMP was shown to directly regulate CCL9 expression. We conclude that BMPR2 has tumor-suppressive function in mammary epithelia and microenvironment and that disruption can accelerate mammary carcinoma metastases.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2011; 109(8):2814-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulation of fibroblasts is a phenomenon that significantly correlates with formation of aggressive cancers. While studies have shown that the TGF-β signaling pathway is an important regulator of fibroblast activation, the functional contribution of TGF-β signaling in fibroblasts during multi-step tumor progression remains largely unclear. In previous studies, we used a sub-renal capsule transplantation model to demonstrate that homozygous knockout of the Tgfbr2 gene (Tgbr2(FspKO)) enhanced mammary tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we show for the first time a significant role for loss of one Tgfbr2 allele during multi-step mammary tumor progression. Heterozygous deletion of Tgfbr2 in stromal cells in MMTV-PyVmT transgenic mice (PyVmT/Tgfbr2(hetFspKO) mice) resulted in earlier tumor formation and increased stromal cell accumulation. In contrast to previous studies of Tgbr2(FspKO) fibroblasts, Tgfbr2(hetFspKO) fibroblasts did not significantly increase tumor growth, but enhanced lung metastasis in PyVmT transgenic mice and in co-transplantation studies with PyVmT mammary carcinoma cells. Furthermore, Tgfbr2(hetFspKO) fibroblasts enhanced mammary carcinoma cell invasiveness associated with expression of inflammatory cytokines including CXCL12 and CCL2. Analyses of Tgbr2(FspKO) and Tgfbr2(hetFspKO) fibroblasts revealed differences in the expression of factors associated with metastatic spread, indicating potential differences in the mechanism of action between homozygous and heterozygous deletion of Tgfbr2 in stromal cells. In summary, these studies demonstrate for the first time that loss of one Tgfbr2 allele in fibroblasts enhances mammary metastases in a multi-step model of tumor progression, and demonstrate the importance of clarifying the functional contribution of genetic alterations in stromal cells in breast cancer progression.
Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 03/2011; 28(4):351-66. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which a primary tumor affects a selected distant organ before tumor cell arrival remain to be elucidated. This report shows that Gr-1+CD11b+ cells are significantly increased in lungs of mice bearing mammary adenocarcinomas before tumor cell arrival. In the premetastatic lungs, these immature myeloid cells significantly decrease IFN-gamma production and increase proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, they produce large quantities of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and promote vascular remodeling. Deletion of MMP9 normalizes aberrant vasculature in the premetastatic lung and diminishes lung metastasis. The production and activity of MMP9 is selectively restricted to lungs and organs with a large number of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells. Our work reveals a novel protumor mechanism for Gr-1+CD11b+ cells that changes the premetastatic lung into an inflammatory and proliferative environment, diminishes immune protection, and promotes metastasis through aberrant vasculature formation. Thus, inhibition of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells could normalize the premetastatic lung environment, improve host immunosurveillance, and inhibit tumor metastasis.
Cancer Research 08/2010; 70(15):6139-49. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor microenvironment constitutes a reservoir for proteins released from tumor cells and the host, which can contribute significantly to tumor growth and invasion. This study aims to apply a method of combining in vivo microdialysis and proteomics to identify proteins in mammary tumor interstitial fluids, a major component of tumor microenvironment. In vivo microdialysis was performed in polyomavirus middle T antigen (PyVmT) transgenic mouse mammary tumors and age-matched control wild-type mammary glands. Over four hundred proteins were identified from the microdialysis perfusates, using the Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology. Osteopontin (OPN) is one of the proteins overexpressed in breast tumor perfusates, as confirmed with immunoassays. OPN was also found to be present in tumor-associated stroma in both PyVmT and human breast tumors, using immunohistochemistry. Specifically, fibroblasts were further shown to express OPN at both mRNA and protein levels. In vitro assays showed that OPN can stimulate PyVmT breast carcinoma cell proliferation and migration. Finally, the expression of OPN was significantly higher in the peripheral blood of mice bearing breast tumors, compared to wild-type mice. Overall, microdialysis combined with proteomics is a unique technique for identifying proteins in a tumor microenvironment in vivo. Mammary fibroblasts can secrete OPN, and its overexpression in mammary tumor microenvironment may contribute significantly to mammary tumor progression. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12307-010-0046-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A subset of neoplastic cells within human high-grade gliomas has features associated with stem cells. These cells may sustain glioma growth, and their stem-like properties may confer resistance to standard glioma treatments. Whether glioma stem cells derive from indigenous neural stem cells (NSC), or from tumor cells that have reacquired stem cell-like properties, is unknown. However, signaling pathways that are tightly regulated and central to NSC biology, including the Ras/Raf/Erk pathway, are hyperactive and pathogenic in gliomagenesis. Furthermore, data in animal models suggests that, in some cases, tumors are initiated in the subventricular zone (SVZ), a stem/progenitor cell niche in the mature brain. We activated oncogenic K-ras in mouse glioneuronal precursor cells and adult SVZ cells using GFAP-Cre. GFAP-Cre+/K-ras(G12D) mice showed a marked expansion of glial fibriallary acidic protein (GFAP)- and TUJ1-expressing cell populations in the SVZ. In addition, mice developed intermediate grade, infiltrating glioma with 100% penetrance. Tumors were consistently located in the amygdalohippocampal region and nearby cortex, often in association with the lateral ventricle and expanded SVZ. Tumor cells expressed markers associated with neural progenitor cells, including Olig2, Bmi-1, and PDGFR-alpha. These data suggest that infiltrating tumor cells may arise from NSC transformed by activation of oncogenic K-ras in vivo.
Molecular Cancer Research 06/2009; 7(5):645-53. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In human breast cancer, loss of carcinoma cell-specific response to TGF-beta signaling has been linked to poor patient prognosis. However, the mechanisms through which TGF-beta regulates these processes remain largely unknown. In an effort to address this issue, we have now identified gene expression signatures associated with the TGF-beta signaling pathway in human mammary carcinoma cells. The results strongly suggest that TGF-beta signaling mediates intrinsic, stromal-epithelial, and host-tumor interactions during breast cancer progression, at least in part, by regulating basal and oncostatin M-induced CXCL1, CXCL5, and CCL20 chemokine expression. To determine the clinical relevance of our results, we queried our TGF-beta-associated gene expression signatures in 4 human breast cancer data sets containing a total of 1,319 gene expression profiles and associated clinical outcome data. The signature representing complete abrogation of TGF-beta signaling correlated with reduced relapse-free survival in all patients; however, the strongest association was observed in patients with estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) tumors, specifically within the luminal A subtype. Together, the results suggest that assessment of TGF-beta signaling pathway status may further stratify the prognosis of ER-positive patients and provide novel therapeutic approaches in the management of breast cancer.
The Journal of clinical investigation 06/2009; 119(6):1571-82. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroblasts are major cellular components of the tumor microenvironment, regulating tumor cell behavior in part through secretion of extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors, and angiogenic factors. In previous studies, conditional deletion of the type II transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor in fibroblasts (Tgfbr2FspKO) was shown to promote mammary tumor metastasis in fibroblast-epithelial cell cotransplantation studies in mice, correlating with increased expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Here, we advance our findings to show that Tgfbr2(FspKO) fibroblasts enhance HGF/c-Met and HGF/Ron signaling to promote scattering and invasion of mammary carcinoma cells. Blockade of c-Met and Ron by small interfering RNA silencing and pharmacologic inhibitors significantly reduced mammary carcinoma cell scattering and invasion caused by Tgfbr2FspKO fibroblasts. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies to c-Met and Ron significantly inhibited HGF-induced cell scattering and invasion, correlating with reduced Stat3 and p42/44MAPK phosphorylation. Investigation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways by pharmacologic inhibition and small interfering RNA silencing revealed a cooperative interaction between the two pathways to regulate HGF-induced invasion, scattering, and motility of mammary tumor cells. Furthermore, whereas c-Met was found to regulate both the Stat3 and MAPK signaling pathways, Ron was found to regulate Stat3 but not MAPK signaling in mammary carcinoma cells. These studies show a tumor-suppressive role for TGF-beta signaling in fibroblasts, in part by suppressing HGF signaling between mammary fibroblasts and epithelial cells. These studies characterize complex functional roles for HGF and TGF-beta signaling in mediating tumor-stromal interactions during mammary tumor cell scattering and invasion, with important implications in the metastatic process.
Molecular Cancer Research 11/2008; 6(10):1521-33. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) is an important growth inhibitor of epithelial cells and insensitivity to this cytokine results in uncontrolled cell proliferation and can contribute to tumorigenesis. TGF-beta1 signals through the TGF-beta type I and type II receptors, and activates the Smad pathway via phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. Since little is known about the selective activation of Smad2 versus Smad3, we set out to identify novel Smad2 and Smad3 interacting proteins in epithelial cells. A non-transformed human cell line was transduced with Myc-His(6)-Smad2 or Myc-His(6)-Smad3-expressing retrovirus and was treated with TGF-beta1. Myc-His(6)-Smad2 or Myc-His(6)-Smad3 was purified by tandem affinity purification, eluates were subject to SDS-PAGE and Colloidal Blue staining, and select protein bands were digested with trypsin. The resulting tryptic peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and the SEQUEST algorithm was employed to identify proteins in the bands. A number of proteins that are known to interact with Smad2 or Smad3 were detected in the eluates. In addition, a number of putative novel Smad2 and Smad3 associated proteins were identified that have functions in cell proliferation, apoptosis, actin cytoskeleton regulation, cell motility, transcription, and Ras or insulin signaling. Specifically, the interaction between Smad2/3 and the Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Zizimin1, was validated by co-immunoprecipitation. The discovery of these novel Smad2 and/or Smad3 associated proteins may reveal how Smad2 and Smad3 are regulated and/or uncover new functions of Smad2 and Smad3 in TGF-beta1 signaling.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 09/2008; 105(2):596-611. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling has been associated with early tumor suppression and late tumor progression; however, many of the mechanisms that mediate these processes are not known. Using Cre/LoxP technology, with the whey acidic protein promoter driving transgenic expression of Cre recombinase (WAP-Cre), we have now ablated the type II TGF-beta receptor (T beta RII) expression specifically within mouse mammary alveolar progenitors. Transgenic expression of the polyoma virus middle T antigen, under control of the mouse mammary tumor virus enhancer/promoter, was used to produce mammary tumors in the absence or presence of Cre (T beta RII((fl/fl);PY) and T beta RII((fl/fl);PY;WC), respectively). The loss of TGF-beta signaling significantly decreased tumor latency and increased the rate of pulmonary metastasis. The loss of TGF-beta signaling was significantly correlated with increased tumor size and enhanced carcinoma cell survival. In addition, we observed significant differences in stromal fibrovascular abundance and composition accompanied by increased recruitment of F4/80(+) cell populations in T beta RII((fl/fl);PY;WC) mice when compared with T beta RII((fl/fl);PY) controls. The recruitment of F4/80(+) cells correlated with increased expression of known inflammatory genes including Cxcl1, Cxcl5, and Ptgs2 (cyclooxygenase-2). Notably, we also identified an enriched K5(+) dNp63(+) cell population in primary T beta RII((fl/fl);PY;WC) tumors and corresponding pulmonary metastases, suggesting that loss of TGF-beta signaling in this subset of carcinoma cells can contribute to metastasis. Together, our current results indicate that loss of TGF-beta signaling in mammary alveolar progenitors may affect tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis through regulation of both intrinsic cell signaling and adjacent stromal-epithelial interactions in vivo.
Cancer Research 04/2008; 68(6):1809-19. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrant TGFbeta signaling is common in human cancers and contributes to tumor metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells are recruited into mammary carcinomas with type II TGF beta receptor gene (Tgfbr2) deletion and directly promote tumor metastasis. Gr-1+CD11b+ cells infiltrate into the invasive front of tumor tissues and facilitate tumor cell invasion and metastasis through a process involving metalloproteinase activity. This infiltration of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells also results in increased abundance of TGF beta 1 in tumors with Tgfbr2 deletion. The recruitment of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells into tumors with Tgfbr2 deletion involves two chemokine receptor axes, the SDF-1/CXCR4 and CXCL5/CXCR2 axes. Together, these data indicate that Gr-1+CD11b+ cells contribute to TGFbeta-mediated metastasis through enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis.
Cancer Cell 02/2008; 13(1):23-35. · 24.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite its clinical significance, joint morphogenesis is still an obscure process. In this study, we determine the role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling in mice lacking the TGF-beta type II receptor gene (Tgfbr2) in their limbs (Tgfbr2(PRX-1KO)). In Tgfbr2(PRX-1KO) mice, the loss of TGF-beta responsiveness resulted in the absence of interphalangeal joints. The Tgfbr2(Prx1KO) joint phenotype is similar to that in patients with symphalangism (SYM1-OMIM185800). By generating a Tgfbr2-green fluorescent protein-beta-GEO-bacterial artificial chromosome beta-galactosidase reporter transgenic mouse and by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, we determined that Tgfbr2 is highly and specifically expressed in developing joints. We demonstrated that in Tgfbr2(PRX-1KO) mice, the failure of joint interzone development resulted from an aberrant persistence of differentiated chondrocytes and failure of Jagged-1 expression. We found that TGF-beta receptor II signaling regulates Noggin, Wnt9a, and growth and differentiation factor-5 joint morphogenic gene expressions. In Tgfbr2(PRX-1KO) growth plates adjacent to interphalangeal joints, Indian hedgehog expression is increased, whereas Collagen 10 expression decreased. We propose a model for joint development in which TGF-beta signaling represents a means of entry to initiate the process.
The Journal of Cell Biology 07/2007; 177(6):1105-17. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether TGF-beta induced by anticancer therapies accelerates tumor progression. Using the MMTV/PyVmT transgenic model of metastatic breast cancer, we show that administration of ionizing radiation or doxorubicin caused increased circulating levels of TGF-beta1 as well as increased circulating tumor cells and lung metastases. These effects were abrogated by administration of a neutralizing pan-TGF-beta antibody. Circulating polyomavirus middle T antigen-expressing tumor cells did not grow ex vivo in the presence of the TGF-beta antibody, suggesting autocrine TGF-beta is a survival signal in these cells. Radiation failed to enhance lung metastases in mice bearing tumors that lack the type II TGF-beta receptor, suggesting that the increase in metastases was due, at least in part, to a direct effect of TGF-beta on the cancer cells. These data implicate TGF-beta induced by anticancer therapy as a pro-metastatic signal in tumor cells and provide a rationale for the simultaneous use of these therapies in combination with TGF-beta inhibitors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 06/2007; 117(5):1305-13. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) plays complex dual roles as an inhibitor and promoter of tumor progression. Although the influence of the stromal microenvironment on tumor progression is well recognized, little is known about the functions of TGF-beta signaling in the stroma during tumor progression. Using cre-lox technology, expression of the type II TGF-beta receptor was selectively knocked out in fibroblasts (Tgfbr2(FspKO)). In a co-xenograft model, we show that Tgfbr2(FspKO) fibroblasts enhance mammary carcinoma growth and metastasis in mice while increasing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) expression and c-Met signaling downstream pathways including signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a pharmacologic inhibitor (EXEL-7592) of c-Met blocks tumor progression and reduces levels of phospho-Stat3 and phospho-p42/44 MAPK. Similarly, small interfering RNA knockdown of c-Met expression in mammary tumor cells reduces metastasis and c-Met signaling caused by Tgfbr2(FspKO) fibroblasts. The results show that TGF-beta signaling in fibroblasts suppresses tumor metastasis by antagonizing HGF/c-Met signaling within tumor epithelial cells. Furthermore, this co-xenograft model represents a unique context to study stromal TGF-beta and HGF signaling in mammary tumorigenesis.
Cancer Research 06/2007; 67(10):4869-77. · 8.65 Impact Factor