[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gliomas are a diverse group of brain tumors of glial origin. Most are characterized by diffuse infiltrative growth in the surrounding brain. In combination with their refractive nature to chemotherapy this makes it almost impossible to cure patients using combinations of conventional therapeutic strategies. The drastically increased knowledge about the molecular underpinnings of gliomas during the last decade has elicited high expectations for a more rational and effective therapy for these tumors. Most studies on the molecular pathways involved in glioma biology thus far had a strong focus on growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and phosphatidylinositol phosphatase signaling pathways. Except for the tumor suppressor PTEN, much less attention has been paid to the PTK counterparts, the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) superfamily, in gliomas. PTPs are instrumental in the reversible phosphorylation of tyrosine residues and have emerged as important regulators of signaling pathways that are linked to various developmental and disease-related processes. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on PTP involvement in gliomagenesis. So far, the data point to the potential implication of receptor-type (RPTPdelta, DEP1, RPTPmicro, RPTPzeta) and intracellular (PTP1B, TCPTP, SHP2, PTPN13) classical PTPs, dual-specific PTPs (MKP-1, VHP, PRL-3, KAP, PTEN) and the CDC25B and CDC25C PTPs in glioma biology. Like PTKs, these PTPs may represent promising targets for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in the treatment of high-grade gliomas.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dimerisation of receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) represents an appealing mechanism to regulate their enzymatic activity. Studies thus far mostly concern the dimerisation behaviour of RPTPs possessing two tandemly oriented catalytic PTP domains. Mouse gene Ptprr encodes four different protein isoforms (i.e. PTPBR7, PTP-SL and PTPPBSgamma-42/37) that contain a single PTP domain. Using selective membrane permeabilisation we here demonstrate that PTP-SL, like PTPBR7, is a single membrane-spanning RPTP. Furthermore, these two receptor-type PTPs constitutively formed homo- and hetero-meric complexes as witnessed in chemical cross-linking and co-immunoprecipitation experiments, in sharp contrast to the cytosolic PTPPBSgamma-42 and PTPPBSgamma-37 PTPRR isoforms. This multimerisation occurs independently of the PTP domain and requires the transmembrane domain and/or the proximal hydrophobic region. Using overexpression of a PTPBR7 mutant that essentially lacks the intracellular PTP domain-containing segment, a monomer-mimicking state was forced upon full-length PTPBR7 immunoprecipitates. This resulted in a significant increase in the enzymatic activity of the PTPRR PTP domain, which strengthens the notion that multimerisation represents a general mechanism to tone down RPTP catalytic activity.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2008; 1783(2):275-86. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The two regulatory residues that control the enzymatic activity of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase ERK2 are phosphorylated by the unique MAP kinase kinases MEK1/2 and dephosphorylated by several tyrosine-specific and dual specificity protein phosphatases. Selective docking interactions facilitate these phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events, controlling the specificity and duration of the MAP kinase activation-inactivation cycles. We have analyzed the contribution of specific residues of ERK2 in the physical and functional interaction with the ERK2 phosphatase inactivators PTP-SL and MKP-3 and with its activator MEK1. Single mutations in ERK2 that abrogated the dephosphorylation by endogenous tyrosine phosphatases from HEK293 cells still allowed efficient phosphorylation by endogenous MEK1/2. Discrete ERK2 mutations at the ERK2 docking groove differentially affected binding and inactivation by PTP-SL and MKP-3. Remarkably, the cytosolic retention of ERK2 by its activator MEK1 was not affected by any of the analyzed ERK2 single amino acid substitutions. A chimeric MEK1 protein, containing the kinase interaction motif of PTP-SL, bound tightly to ERK2 through its docking groove and behaved as a gain-of-function MAP kinase kinase that hyperactivated ERK2. Our results provide evidence that the ERK2 docking groove is more restrictive and selective for its tyrosine phosphatase inactivators than for MEK1/2 and indicate that distinct ERK2 residues modulate the docking interactions with activating and inactivating effectors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2005; 280(45):37885-94. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of alternative splice sites, promoters and translation start sites considerably adds to the complexity of organisms. Four mouse cDNAs (PTPBR7, PTP-SL, PTPPBSgamma+ and PTPPBSgamma-) have been cloned that contain different 5' parts but encode identical protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRR catalytic domains. We investigated the genomic origin and coding potential of these transcripts to elucidate their interrelationship. Mouse gene Ptprr exons were identified within a 260 kbp segment on chromosome 10, revealing PTP-SL- and PTPPBSgamma-specific transcription start sites within introns two and four, respectively, relative to the 14 PTPBR7 exons. Northern and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated differential expression patterns for these promoters. Furthermore, transfection studies and AUG codon mutagenesis demonstrated that in PTP-SL and PTPPBSgamma messengers multiple translation initiation sites are being used. Resulting 72, 60, 42 and 37 kDa PTPRR protein isoforms differ not only in the length of their N-terminal part but also in their subcellular localization, covering all major PTP subtypes; receptor-like, membrane associated and cytosolic. In summary, mouse gene Ptprr gives rise to multiple isoforms through the use of distinct promoters, alternative splicing and differential translation starts. These results set the stage for further investigations on the physiological roles of PTPRR proteins.
Genes to Cells 11/2004; 9(10):919-33. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the mouse submembranous protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-BL five PDZ domains are present in between the N-terminal FERM domain, which directs the protein to the cell cortex, and the C-terminal catalytic phosphatase domain. To understand more on the physical role of PTP-BL in this microenvironment, we started to search for PTP-BL PDZ domain-interacting proteins.
Yeast two-hybrid screening for PTP-BL targets resulted in the identification of a novel mouse LIM-only protein termed CRIP2 that is highly homologous to rat ESP1 and human CRP2 sequences. Mouse CRIP2 has a predicted molecular weight of 23 kD and consists of two LIM domains spaced by 68 amino acids. The fourth PDZ domain of PTP-BL is responsible for the binding of CRIP2 protein. Both PTP-BL and CRIP2 mRNAs display a wide, overlapping tissue distribution. Western blot analysis revealed a more restricted expression pattern for CRIP2 with high expression in lung, heart and brain. CRIP2 protein is localized at cell cortical, actin-rich structures, which is concurrent with the subcellular localization of PTP-BL.
The observed characteristics of the LIM domain-containing adaptor protein CRIP2 are consistent with a potential role of PTP-BL in the dynamics of the cortical actin cytoskeleton.
Genes to Cells 08/2003; 8(7):631-44. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mouse gene Ptprr encodes the neuronal protein tyrosine phosphatases PTP-SL and PTPBR7. These proteins differ in their N-terminal domains, with PTP-SL being a cytosolic, membrane-associated phosphatase and PTPBR7 a type I transmembrane protein. In this study, we further explored the nature of the PTP-SL-associated vesicles in neuronal cells using a panel of organelle markers and noted a comparable subcellular distribution for PTP-SL and the beta4-adaptin subunit of the AP4 complex. PTP-SL, PTPBR7 and beta4-adaptin are localised at the Golgi apparatus and at vesicles throughout the cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that PTP-SL, PTPBR7 and beta4-adaptin are all endogenously expressed in brain. Interestingly, coexpression of PTP-SL and beta4-adaptin leads to an altered subcellular localisation for PTP-SL. Instead of the Golgi and vesicle-type staining pattern, still observable for beta4-adaptin, PTP-SL is now distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Although beta4-adaptin was found to interact with the phosphatase domain of PTP-SL and PTPBR7 in the yeast two-hybrid system, it failed to do so in transfected neuronal cells. Our data suggest that the tyrosine phosphatases PTP-SL and PTPBR7 may be involved in the formation and transport of AP4-coated vesicles or in the dephosphorylation of their transmembrane cargo molecules at or near the Golgi apparatus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) contain two tandem PTP domains. For some RPTPs the enzymatically inactive membrane-distal phosphatase domains (D2) were found to bind enzymatically active membrane proximal PTP (D1) domains, and oligomerization has been proposed as a general regulatory mechanism. The RPTP-like proteins IA-2 and IA-2beta, major autoantigens in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, contain just a single enzymatically inactive PTP-like domain. Their physiological role is as yet enigmatic. To investigate whether the catalytically inactive cytoplasmic domains of IA-2 and IA-2beta are involved in oligomerization, we exploited interaction trap assay in yeast and glutathione S-transferase pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation strategies on lysates of transfected COS-1 cells. The results show that IA-2 and IA-2beta are capable of homo- and heterodimerization to which both the juxtamembrane region and the phosphatase-like segment can contribute. Furthermore, they can form heterodimers with some other RPTP members, most notably RPTPalpha and RPTPepsilon, and down-regulate RPTPalpha enzymatic activity. Thus, in addition to homo-dimerization, the enzymatic activity of receptor-type PTPs can be regulated through heterodimerization with other RPTPs, including the catalytically inactive IA-2 and IA-2beta.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2003; 277(50):48139-45. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) contain two tandem PTP domains. For some RPTPs the enzymatically
inactive membrane-distal phosphatase domains (D2) were found to bind enzymatically active membrane proximal PTP (D1) domains,
and oligomerization has been proposed as a general regulatory mechanism. The RPTP-like proteins IA-2 and IA-2β, major autoantigens
in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, contain just a single enzymatically inactive PTP-like domain. Their physiological
role is as yet enigmatic. To investigate whether the catalytically inactive cytoplasmic domains of IA-2 and IA-2β are involved
in oligomerization, we exploited interaction trap assay in yeast and glutathione S-transferase pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation strategies on lysates of transfected COS-1 cells. The results show that
IA-2 and IA-2β are capable of homo- and heterodimerization to which both the juxtamembrane region and the phosphatase-like
segment can contribute. Furthermore, they can form heterodimers with some other RPTP members, most notably RPTPα and RPTPε,
and down-regulate RPTPα enzymatic activity. Thus, in addition to homo-dimerization, the enzymatic activity of receptor-type
PTPs can be regulated through heterodimerization with other RPTPs, including the catalytically inactive IA-2 and IA-2β.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2002; 277(50):48139-48145. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PDZ domains of the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-BL mediate interactions by binding to specific amino acid sequences in target proteins. The solution structure of the second PDZ domain of PTP-BL, PDZ2, displays a compact fold with six beta strands and two alpha-helices. A unique feature of this domain compared to the canonical PDZ fold is an extended flexible loop at the base of the binding pocket, termed L1, that folds back onto the protein backbone, a feature that is shared by both the murine and human orthologues. The structure of PDZ2 differs significantly from the orthologous human structure. A comparison of structural quality indicators clearly demonstrates that the PDZ2 ensemble is statistically more reasonable than that of the human orthologue. The analysis of (15)N relaxation data for PDZ2 shows a normal pattern, with more rigid secondary structures and more flexible loop structures. Close to the binding pocket, Leu85 and Thr88 display greater mobility when compared to surrounding residues. Peptide binding studies demonstrated a lack of interaction between murine PDZ2 and the C terminus of the murine Fas/CD95 receptor, suggesting that the Fas/CD95 receptor is not an in vivo target for PDZ2. In addition, PDZ2 specifically binds the C termini of both human Fas/CD95 receptor and the RIL protein, despite RIL containing a non-canonical PDZ-interacting sequence of E-x-V. A model of PDZ2 with the RIL peptide reveals that the PDZ2 binding pocket is able to accommodate the bulkier side-chain of glutamic acid while maintaining crucial protein to peptide hydrogen bond interactions.
Journal of Molecular Biology 04/2002; 316(5):1101-10. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein tyrosine phosphatases PTP-SL and PTPBR7 differ only in the length of their N-terminal domain. We show here that PTP-SL and PTPBR7 are isoforms derived from a single gene (Ptprr) through developmentally regulated use of alternative promoters. Isoform-specific reverse transcriptase-polymer chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RNA in situ hybridization experiments reveal that PTPBR7 is expressed during early embryogenesis in spinal ganglia cells as well as in developing Purkinje cells. Post-natally, PTPBR7 is expressed in various regions of the adult mouse brain, but expression in Purkinje cells has ceased and is replaced by the PTP-SL-specific transcript. In transient transfection experiments it is confirmed that PTPBR7 is a type I transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase). PTP-SL, however, appears to be a cytosolic membrane-associated PTPase that is located at perinuclear vesicular structures that partly belong to the endosomal compartment. Thus, during maturation of Purkinje cells, a gene-promoter switch results in the replacement of a receptor-type PTPase by a cytosolic vesicle-associated isoform.
European Journal of Neuroscience 12/1999; 11(11):3832-44. · 3.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PTP-BL is a cytosolic multidomain protein tyrosine phosphatase that shares homologies with several submembranous and tumor suppressor proteins. Here we show, by transient expression of modular protein domains of PTP-BL in epithelial MDCK cells, that the presence of a FERM domain in the protein is both necessary and sufficient for its targeting to the apical side of epithelial cells. Furthermore, immuno-electron microscopy on stable expressing MDCK pools, that were obtained using an EGFP-based cell sorting protocol, revealed that FERM domain containing fusion proteins are enriched in microvilli and have a typical submembranous location at about 10-15 nm from the plasma membrane. Immunofluorescence microscopy suggested colocalization of the FERM domain moiety with the membrane-cytoskeleton linker ezrin. However, at the electron microscopy level this colocalization cannot be confirmed nor can we detect a direct interaction by immunoprecipitation assays. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments show that PTP-BL confinement is based on a dynamic steady state and that complete redistribution of the protein may occur within 20 minutes. Our observations suggest that relocation is mediated via a cytosolic pool, rather than by lateral movement. Finally, we show that PTP-BL phosphatase domains are involved in homotypic interactions, as demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid assays. Both the highly restricted subcellular compartmentalization and its specific associative properties may provide the appropriate conditions for regulating substrate specificity and catalytic activity of this member of the PTP family.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using RNA in situ hybridization we compared the expression patterns of the cell adhesion molecule-like receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases LAR, RPTP sigma and RPTP sigma during mouse development. We found that LAR is expressed in basal lamina-associated epithelial tissues of (neuro)ectodermal, neural crest/ectomesenchyme and endodermal origin. RPTP sigma is found in (neuro)ectodermal, neural crest-derived systems and in mesoderm-derived tissues. The expression pattern of RPTP sigma largely parallels that of RPTP sigma, in concordance with their proposed evolutionary history
Mechanisms of Development 10/1998; 77(1):59-62. · 2.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using RNA in situ hybridization we compared the expression patterns of the cell adhesion molecule-like receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases LAR, RPTPδ and RPTPσ during mouse development. We found that LAR is expressed in basal lamina-associated epithelial tissues of (neuro)ectodermal, neural crest/ectomesenchyme and endodermal origin. RPTPσ is found in (neuro)ectodermal, neural crest-derived systems and in mesoderm-derived tissues. The expression pattern of RPTPσ largely parallels that of RPTPσ, in concordance with their proposed evolutionary history (Schaapveld et al., 1995).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase IA-2beta gene (mouse gene symbol Ptprn2) encodes a major autoantigen in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We physically mapped Ptprn2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization to band F of mouse chromosome 12, a region that lacks diabetes susceptibility loci. The mapping confirms the proposed synteny of mouse 12F with band q36 of human chromosome 7.
Cytogenetics and cell genetics 02/1998; 82(3-4):153-5.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The LAR receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase is composed of two intracellular tyrosine phosphatase domains and a cell adhesion molecule-like extracellular region containing three immunoglubulin-like domains in combination with eight fibronectin type-III-like repeats. This architecture suggests that LAR may function in cellular signalling by the regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation through cell–cell or cell–matrix interactions. We used gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells to generate mice lacking sequences encoding both LAR phosphatase domains. Northern blot analysis of various tissues revealed the presence of a truncated LAR mRNA lacking the cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase domains and indicated that this LAR mutation is not accompanied by obvious changes in the expression levels of one of the LAR-like receptor tyrosine phosphatases PTPδ or PTPσ. LAR−/−mice develop and grow normally and display no appreciable histological tissue abnormalities. However, upon breeding we observed an abnormal neonatal death rate for pups from LAR−/−females. Mammary glands of LAR−/−females were incapable of delivering milk due to an impaired terminal differentiation of alveoli at late pregnancy. As a result, the glands failed to switch to a lactational state and showed a rapid involution postpartum. In wild-type mice, LAR expression is regulated during pregnancy reaching maximum levels around Day 16 of gestation. Taken together, these findings suggest an important role for LAR-mediated signalling in mammary gland development and function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PDZ motifs are small protein-protein interaction modules that are thought to play a role in the clustering of submembranous signalling molecules. The specificity and functional consequences of their associative actions is still largely unknown. Using two-hybrid methodology we here demonstrate that the PDZ motif of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) can mediate the binding to several other proteins in brain. Peptide library screening showed that proteins bearing a carboxy-terminal G(D,E)XV* sequence are preferred targets for the nNOS amino-terminal PDZ motif. Potential nNOS targets include a melanoma-associated antigen, cyclophilins and the alpha1C-adrenergic receptor.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of growth factors acting via receptor-type protein-tyrosine kinases in the continuous renewal of the epidermis from the keratinocyte stem cell population has been well established. Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), which dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine-containing proteins, may therefore be expected to play an equally important role in the control of epidermal growth and differentiation. In this study, we have made an inventory of the various PTPases that are expressed during mouse keratinocyte proliferation and maturation. A panel of 13 different PTPases probes was obtained by combining a set of PTPase cDNAs previously cloned from mouse brain and a set of PTPase probes obtained from a normalized keratinocyte PTPase cDNA library. This PTPase cDNA panel, spanning probes for receptor-type as well as cytoplasmic-type family members, was used to monitor RNA expression levels in keratinocyte fractions isolated from murine epidermis and in keratinocyte cell cultures. No overt changes were observed in PTPase mRNA levels in all strata of mouse epidermis, but comparison of cultured cells with freshly isolated keratinocytes revealed several conspicuous differences. In the cultured Balb/MK cell line, absence of PTP delta expression and upregulation of PTP kappa and, to a lesser extent, PTP gamma mRNA ratios were observed compared to the freshly isolated cells. These results provide a basis for further research on the impact of PTPase activity on epidermal growth control.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 06/1996; 106(5):972-6. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) form an important class of cell regulatory proteins. We have isolated overlapping cDNA clones that together comprise an 8 kb transcript encoding a novel murine PTPase which is expressed in various organs. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 2,460 amino acid residues. The predicted protein, PTP-BL, is a large non-transmembrane PTPase that exhibits 80% homology with PTP-BAS, a recently described human PTPase. PTP-BL shares some intriguing sequence homologies with submembranous proteins. It contains a band 4.1-like motif also present in the tumor suppressors neurofibromatosis 2 and expanded, five 80 amino acid repeats also present in the discs-large tumor suppressor, and a single catalytic phosphatase domain. No obvious homologies to other proteins were found for the N-terminal region of the protein other than human PTP-BAS. RNA in situ hybridization experiments show that the PTP-BL gene is expressed in epithelial cells, predominantly in kidney, lung, and skin. These data suggest a cell cortical localization for PTP-BL in epithelial cells and a possible role in the morphology and motility of epithelial tissues.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 01/1996; 59(4):418-30. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase leukocyte common antigen-related molecule (LAR; gene symbol PTPRF) closely resembles cell adhesion molecules, which suggests that it may be involved in the regulation of phosphotyrosine levels through cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. To obtain a better understanding of LAR function, we have characterized the mouse Ptprf gene as a first step toward site-directed mutagenesis studies in vitro and in vivo. The cytoplasmic region of the mouse LAR (mLAR) protein is encoded by 11 exons that span only 4.5 kb of genomic DNA. Compared to the known exon-intron structures of other mammalian receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase genes, such as Ptpra (encoding LRP) and Ptprc (coding for Ly-5), the Ptprf gene part encoding the cytoplasmic region of mLAR contains not only smaller, but also fewer introns. Sequence analysis of both phosphatase domains of mLAR and its homologs MPTP delta and mRPTP sigma revealed a higher evolutionary conservation of the second, C-terminal domain in comparison to the first domain. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to map the Ptprf gene to region C6-D1 on mouse chromosome 4.