Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger

Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina (UNOESC), Ruy Barbosa, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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Publications (265)543.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the protective effect of curcumin on memory loss and on the alteration of acetylcholinesterase and ectonucleotidases activities in rats exposed chronically to cadmium (Cd). Rats received Cd (1 mg/kg) and curcumin (30, 60, or 90 mg/kg) by oral gavage 5 days a week for 3 months. The animals were divided into eight groups: vehicle (saline/oil), saline/curcumin 30 mg/kg, saline/curcumin 60 mg/kg, saline/curcumin 90 mg/kg, Cd/oil, Cd/curcumin 30 mg/kg, Cd/curcumin 60 mg/kg, and Cd/curcumin 90 mg/kg. Curcumin prevented the decrease in the step-down latency induced by Cd. In cerebral cortex synaptosomes, Cd-exposed rats showed an increase in acetylcholinesterase and NTPDase (ATP and ADP as substrates) activities and a decrease in the 5'-nucleotidase activity. Curcumin was not able to prevent the effect of Cd on acetylcholinesterase activity, but it prevented the effects caused by Cd on NTPDase (ATP and ADP as substrate) and 5'-nucleotidase activities. Increased acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in different brain structures, whole blood and lymphocytes of the Cd-treated group. In addition, Cd increased lipid peroxidation in different brain structures. Higher doses of curcumin were more effective in preventing these effects. These findings show that curcumin prevented the Cd-mediated memory impairment, demonstrating that this compound has a neuroprotective role and is capable of modulating acetylcholinesterase, NTPDase, and 5'-nucleotidase activities. Finally, it highlights the possibility of using curcumin as an adjuvant against toxicological conditions involving Cd exposure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2015.
    Environmental Toxicology 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/tox.22213 · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypercholesterolemia is a metabolic disorder characterized by high levels of low-density lipoprotein and blood cholesterol, causing inflammatory lesion. Purinergic signaling modulates the inflammatory and immune responses through adenine nucleotides and nucleoside. Guaraná has hypocholesterolemic and antiinflammatory properties. Considering that there are few studies demonstrating the effects of guaraná powder on the metabolism of adenine nucleotides, we investigated its effects on the activity of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) and ecto-adenosine deaminase activity in lymphocytes of rats with diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. The rats were divided into hypercholesterolemic and normal diet groups. Each group was subdivided by treatment: saline, guaraná powder 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day and caffeine concentration equivalent to highest dose of guaraná, fed orally for 30 days. An increase in adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis was observed in the lymphocytes of rats with hypercholesterolemia and treated with 25 or 50 mg/kg/day when compared with the other groups. The hypercholesterolemic group treated with the highest concentration of guaraná powder showed decreased ecto-adenosine deaminase activity compared with the normal diet groups. Guaraná was able to reduce the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to basal levels in hypercholesterolemic rats. High concentrations of guaraná associated with a hypercholesterolemic diet are likely to have contributed to the reduction of the inflammatory process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5499 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ginger [Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)] and turmeric [Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae)] rhizomes have been reportedly used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension. However, the prevention of its complication such as male infertility remains unexplored. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effects of ginger and turmeric rhizomes on some biomarkers of male reproductive function in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (. n=. 10): normotensive control rats; induced (L-NAME hypertensive) rats; hypertensive rats treated with atenolol (10. mg/kg/day); normotensive and hypertensive rats treated with 4% supplementation of turmeric or ginger, respectively. After 14 days of pre-treatment, the animals were induced with hypertension by oral administration of L-NAME (40. mg/kg/day). The results revealed significant decrease in serum total testosterone and epididymal sperm progressive motility without affecting sperm viability in hypertensive rats. Moreover, increased oxidative stress in the testes and epididymides of hypertensive rats was evidenced by significant decrease in total and non-protein thiol levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity with concomitant increase in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DFCH) oxidation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production. Similarly, decreased testicular and epididymal NO level with concomitant elevation in arginase activity was observed in hypertensive rats. However, dietary supplementation with turmeric or ginger efficiently prevented these alterations in biomarkers of reproductive function in hypertensive rats. The inhibition of arginase activity and increase in NO and testosterone levels by both rhizomes could suggest possible mechanism of action for the prevention of male infertility in hypertension. Therefore, both rhizomes could be harnessed as functional foods to prevent hypertension-mediated male reproductive dysfunction.
    Toxicology Reports 10/2015; 2:1357-1366. DOI:10.1016/j.toxrep.2015.10.001
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in total blood and liver tissue; butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in serum and liver tissue; adenosine deaminase (ADA) in serum and liver tissue; and pyruvate kinase (PK) in liver tissue of rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica. Animals were divided into two groups with 12 animals each, as follows: group A (uninfected) and group B (infected). Samples were collected at 20 (A1 and B1;n=6 each) and 150 (A2 and B2; n=6 each) days post-infection (PI). Infected animals showed an increase in AChE activity in whole blood and a decrease in AChE activity in liver homogenates (P<0.05) at 20 and 150 days PI. BChE and PK activities were decreased (P<0.05) in serum and liver homogenates of infected animals at 150 days PI. ADA activity was decreased in serum at 20 and 150 days PI, while in liver homogenates it was only decreased at 150 days PI (P<0.05). Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in serum were increased (P<0.05), while concentrations of total protein and albumin were decreased (P<0.05) when compared to control. The histological analysis revealed fibrous perihepatitis and necrosis. Therefore, we conclude that the liver fluke is associated with cholinergic and purinergic dysfunctions, which in turn may influence the pathogenesis of the disease.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 10/2015; 211(11). DOI:10.1016/j.prp.2015.09.006 · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated the efficiency of rosmarinic acid (RA) in preventing the alteration of oxidative parameters in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were divided into six groups (n = 8): control, ethanol, RA 10 mg/kg, diabetic, diabetic/ethanol, and diabetic/RA 10 mg/kg. After 3 weeks of treatment, we found that TBARS levels in liver and kidney were significantly increased in the diabetic/saline group and the administration of RA prevented this increase in the liver and kidney (P < 0.05). Diabetes caused a significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the diabetes/saline group (P < 0.05). However, the treatment with 10 mg/kg RA (antioxidant) prevented this alteration in SOD and CAT activity in the diabetic RA group (P < 0.05). In addition, RA reverses the decrease in ascorbic acid and non-protein-thiol (NPSH) levels in diabetic rats. The treatment with RA also prevented the decrease in the Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. Furthermore, RA did not have any effect on glycemic levels. These results indicate that RA effectively reduced the oxidative stress induced by STZ, suggesting that RA is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of pathological conditions in diabetic models.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s13105-015-0438-4 · 1.97 Impact Factor

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    ABSTRACT: Dogs are the main host of Leishmania infantum, and the clinical presentation may range from asymptomatic to systemic manifestations. The immune mechanisms in infected, but clinically healthy dogs, prevails Th1 response mediated by cytokines. In this sense, adenosine deaminase (ADA) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are considered as key enzymes in several physiological processes, including the modulation of inflammatory process. Considering the variable immune response against Leishmania and the known participation of ADA and BChE, the aim of this study was to assess the relation between these two enzymes with the inflammatory response as well as hepatic function in dogs naturally infected with L. infantum. For this purpose, the activity of ADA and BChE was assessed in sera of 24 dogs naturally infected with L. infantum, plus 17 healthy dogs. The naturally infected dogs had clinical signs compatible with leishmaniasis and sera activities of ADA (P<0.01) and BChE (P<0.05) decreased, when compared to the healthy group. The reduction of ADA activity probably represented an effect on inflammatory response, especially due to the decreased hydrolysis of extracellular adenosine, might in order to protect against tissue damage and, also, setting a down-regulation on pro-inflammatory cytokines. BChE enzyme had no effect on modulating the immune response in leishmaniasis, but it decreased, a fact may related to deficiency of synthesis in the liver. Therefore, ADA and BChE activities reduced probably in order to protect against extra tissue damage and due failure in synthesis, respectively.
    Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cimid.2015.09.004 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hydrolysis of adenine nucleotide linked to the membrane of the platelets is changed in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) probably due to a greater arterial blockage and cell damage in patients with ST elevation (STEMI) than in those without ST segment elevation (NSTEM). This study aimed to compare the extracellular hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides on the platelet surface of STEMI and NSTEMI patients. This study was carried out with 50 patients with AMI (STEMI and NSTEMI). The extracellular hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides and nucleoside adenosine as well as the expression of NTPDase were verified in platelets. The results demonstrated that STEMI patients had significantly higher extracellular hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides (p < 0.001), ADA (adenosine deaminase) activity (p < 0.05), as well as troponin levels (p < 0.0001) when compared to NSTEMI patients. Findings suggest that the extracellular hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides and increase in the ADA activity are higher in patients with STEMI than in those with NSTEMI probably because there was a blockage in this major arterial with a large area of damaged tissue.
    Clinical laboratory 08/2015; 61(7):761-7. DOI:10.7754/Clin.Lab.2014.141136 · 1.13 Impact Factor
  • Daniela F Passos · Maria Rosa C Schetinger · Daniela Br Leal ·
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a serious condition associated to severe immune dysfunction and immunodeficiency. Mechanisms involved in HIV-associated immune activation, inflammation and loss of CD4+ T cells have been extensively studied, including those concerning purinergic signaling pathways. Purinergic signaling components are involved in viral entry and replication and disease progression. Research involving the participation of purinergic signaling in HIV infection has been not only important to elucidate disease mechanisms but also to introduce new approaches to therapy. The involvement of purinergic signaling in the pathogenesis of HIV infection and its implications in the control of the HIV infection are reviewed in this paper.
    08/2015; 4(3):285-94. DOI:10.5501/wjv.v4.i3.285
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    ABSTRACT: Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis have been reported infecting a variety of Carnivora species worldwide, including domestic dogs and wild canids. Since both diseases can follow their course while the infected animals remain asymptomatic, assessments of different parameters that may help toward reaching a more accurate diagnosis are welcome. In this regard, the aim of the present study was to assess the activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in serum from naturally infected dogs. Forty-nine samples from dogs were used in our study: 15 positive for E. canis (8 asymptomatic and 7 symptomatic animals); 8 positive for H. canis; 14 with mixed infection; and 12 uninfected (used with control). Our results showed that the ADA activity was lower (P < 0.001) in serum from dogs with both infections singly and with mixed infection, in comparison with the uninfected animals (P < 0.001). The symptomatic dogs for E. canis had lower ADA activity when compared with asymptomatic dogs by H. canis (P < 0.01). Therefore, ADA activity reduces in positive dogs for E. canis and H. canis, which can be related to an inflammatory response against infection.
    Comparative Clinical Pathology 07/2015; 24(5). DOI:10.1007/s00580-015-2157-1 · 0.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on its free form and complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) when associated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (ST) on cytokines levels of mice (n = 60) experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii. Groups A and E were used as controls (untreated): negative and positive, respectively. The onset of treatment started 20 days post-infection (PI), and it lasted for 10 consecutive days. ST was administered orally in doses of 0.5 mg kg(-1) for groups B and F, while 100 mg kg(-1) was the dose for resveratrol in its free form (groups C - G), inclusion complex (groups D and H), and on free and inclusion complex together (groups I - J). On day 31 PI, blood samples were collected in order to evaluate the cytokine profile. The mice that received drug combination (I and J) showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number of cysts in the brain compared to other infected groups (E - H). The results showed that mice from the Group E had increased (P < 0.001) levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while IL-10 levels were reduced when compared to the Group A. Additionally, there were increased levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in animals of groups C and D, respectively (P < 0.05). Animals of the Group B showed reduced levels of IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ (P < 0.05). Mice infected and treated (groups F - J) showed increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines along with a reduction of IL-10. Treatment with the combination of drugs (the Group J) led to a protective effect, i.e. reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, resveratrol associated with ST was able to modulate seric cytokine profile and moderate the tissue inflammatory process caused by T. gondii infection, as well as to reduce parasite multiplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Microbial Pathogenesis 07/2015; 87. DOI:10.1016/j.micpath.2015.07.013 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neural stem cells proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glial cells, being responsible for embryonic and postnatal development of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as for regeneration in the adult brain. These cells also play a key role in maintaining the physiological integrity of the CNS in face of injury or disease. The previous study has demonstrated that bradykinin (BK) treatment simultaneously induces neuronal enrichment (indicating that BK contributes to neurogenesis) and reduced proliferation rates during in vitro differentiation of rat embryonic telencephalon neural precursor cells (NPCs). Here, we provide a mechanism for the unresolved question whether (i) the low rate of proliferation is owed to enhanced neurogenesis or, conversely, (ii) the alteration of the population ratio could result from low proliferation of NPCs and glial cells. In agreement with the previous study, BK promoted neuron-specific β3-tubulin and MAP2 expression in differentiating embryonic mouse neurospheres, whereas glial protein expression and global proliferation rates decreased. Furthermore, BK augmented the global frequency of cells in G0 -phase of cell cycle after differentiation. Heterogeneous cell populations were observed at this stage, including neurons that always remaining a quiescent state (G0 -phase). It is noteworthy that BK did not interfere with proliferation of any particular cell type, evidenced by coimmunostaining for nestin, β3-tubulin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). Thus, we conclude that neuronal enrichment is owing only to the fostering of neurogenesis, and that the low proliferation rate on the seventh day of differentiation is a consequence and not the cause of BK-induced neuronal enrichment. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
    Cytometry Part A 07/2015; 87(10). DOI:10.1002/cyto.a.22705 · 2.93 Impact Factor

  • Comparative Clinical Pathology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00580-015-2154-4 · 0.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer that affects dogs, and in many cases it leads to death. Thus, given the importance of this disease, to clarify its pathogenesis is an important measure. In this sense, the aim of this study was to investigate the levels of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO), oxidative and antioxidant status, as well as the activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in dogs diagnosed with mammary carcinoma. With this purpose, thirty-three (33) serum samples from female dogs with histopathological diagnosis of mammary carcinoma, without evidence of metastasis, were used (group B). The material was classified based on the degree of malignancy, as follows: subgroup B1 (low-grade malignancy; n=26) and subgroup B2 (high grade of malignancy; n=7). Serum samples from healthy females (group A; n=10) were used as negative control. Our results showed that levels of cytokines (TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-1, and IL-6), NOx (nitrite/nitrate), AOPP (protein oxidation), and FRAP (antioxidant power) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in dogs with mammary carcinoma (group B), when compared with group A. On the other hand, ADA activity was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in both subgroups B1 and B2, when compared with group A. BChE activity, however, was reduced (P<0.05) only in subgroup B2 when compared with group A and subgroup B1. Unlike other variables, NO, AOPP, and IFN-γ were influenced by the degree of tumor malignancy, i.e., their levels were even higher in subgroup B2. Therefore, based on these results, we can conclude that all variables investigated are related to the pathogenesis of this disease, since they were altered in dogs with mammary tumor. Additionally, we suggest that ADA activity had an anti-inflammatory effect on these tumor samples, probably in order to modulate the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 06/2015; 211(9). DOI:10.1016/j.prp.2015.06.011 · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ginger rhizomes and its varieties are used in folk medicine for the treatment of several cerebrovascular diseases with limited scientific basis for their action. Hence, in this study, we investigate the effects of two ginger varieties (red and white) on ectonucleotidases (NTPDase and 5′-nucleotidase), adenosine deaminase (ADA) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in synaptosomes of cerebral cortex from l-NAME induced hypertensive rats. The animals were divided into seven groups (n = 10): normotensive control rats; hypertensive rats; hypertensive rats treated with atenolol; normotensive and hypertensive rats treated with 4% supplementation of red or white ginger, respectively. After 14 days of pre-treatment with both ginger rhizomes the animals were induced with hypertension by oral administration of l-NAME. The results revealed an increase of ATP and AMP hydrolysis as well as ADA and AChE activities of cerebral cortex synaptosomes in induced rats when compared with the control. The supplementation of both gingers prevented these alterations by decreasing ATP and AMP hydrolysis and ADA and AChE activities in cerebral cortex. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that both gingers interfere with the purinergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in cerebral cortex of hypertensive rats. Therefore, we can suggest that both gingers exert neuroprotective potential under hypertensive state.
    Journal of applied biomedicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jab.2015.06.001 · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aluminum (Al) is the most widely distributed metal in the environment and is extensively used in daily life leading to easy exposure to human beings. Besides not having a recognized physiological role, Al may produce adverse effects through the interaction with the cholinergic system contributing to oxidative stress. The present study evaluated, in similar conditions of parenteral nutrition, whether the reaction of silicon (SiO2) with Al(3+) to form hydroxyaluminosilicates (HAS) reduces its bioavailability and toxicity through intraperitoneal administrations of 0.5 mg Al/kg/day and/or 2 mg Si/kg/day in Wistar rats. Al and Si concentrations were determined in rat brain tissue and serum. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were analyzed in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus, and blood. An increase in the Al concentration was verified in the Al + Si group in the brain. All the groups demonstrated enhanced Si compared to the control animals. Al(3+) increased LPO measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in cerebellum and hippocampus, whereas SiO2 reduced it when compared with the control group. An increase of AChE activity was observed in the Al-treated group in the cerebellum whereas a decrease of this enzyme activity was observed in the cortex and hippocampus in the Al and Al + Si groups. Al and Si concentrations increased in rat serum; however, no effect was observed in blood TBARS levels and AChE activity. SiO2 showed a protective effect in the hippocampus and cerebellum against cellular damage caused by Al(3+)-induced lipid peroxidation. Thus, SiO2 may be considered an important protector in LPO induced by Al(3+).
    Biological trace element research 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12011-015-0392-6 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    05/2015; 37(2). DOI:10.5902/2179460X15921
  • Andréia Machado Cardoso · Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger · Paulo Correia-de-Sá · Jean Sévigny ·
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    ABSTRACT: Adenine and uracil nucleotides play key functions in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). For instance, ATP acts as a neurotransmitter, co-transmitter and neuromodulator in the ANS. The purinergic system encompasses (1) receptors that respond to extracellular purines, which are designated as P1 and P2 purinoceptors, (2) purine release and uptake, and (3) a cascade of enzymes that regulate the concentration of purines near the cell surface. Ectonucleotidases and adenosine deaminase (ADA) are enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of ATP (and other nucleotides such as ADP, UTP, UDP, AMP) and adenosine, respectively. Accordingly, these enzymes are expected to play an important role in the control of neuro-effector transmission in tissues innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS. Indeed, ectonucleotidases have the ability to either terminate P2 receptor responses initiated by nucleoside triphosphates (ATP and UTP), and/or to favor the activation of ADP (e.g. P2Y1,12,13) and UDP (e.g. P2Y6) and/or adenosine (P1) specific receptors. In addition, ectonucleotidases can also importantly protect some P2 receptors from desensitization (e.g. P2X1, P2Y1). In this review, we present the (putative) roles of ectonucleotidases and ADA in the ANS with a focus on their regulatory activity at neuro-effector junctions in the following tissues: heart, vas deferens, urinary bladder, salivary glands, blood vessels and the intestine. We also present their implication in nociceptive transmission. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Autonomic neuroscience: basic & clinical 05/2015; 191. DOI:10.1016/j.autneu.2015.04.014 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) presence and its enzymatic activity in Toxoplasma gondii (RH strain) tachyzoites and to test a well-known inhibitor of this enzyme. Tachyzoites were obtained from cell culture (sample 1) and peritoneal fluid of experimentally infected mice (sample 2). The protein concentration was determined for each pellet of tachyzoite. In this study, our hypothesis is that T. gondii has the enzyme AChE just like other parasites, and this knowledge might be helpful to develop new chemotherapy strategies to fight toxoplasmosis. The AChE activity was detected in the parasite using 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0 mg mL−1 concentrations of protein from tachyzoites. AChE activity has increased progressively according to protein increase, up to a certain point, when it had reduced activity when higher concentrations of protein were tested. The AChE activity of T. gondii was also inhibited with the use of trichlorfon, similar to what occurs with other parasites. Based on these results, we conclude that the enzyme AChE is present in T. gondii tachyzoites. Trichlorfon is able to inhibit the enzyme detected in this study, which might become an option for chemotherapy.
    Comparative Clinical Pathology 05/2015; 24(3):687-690. DOI:10.1007/s00580-014-2010-y · 0.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
543.74 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina (UNOESC)
      Ruy Barbosa, Santa Catarina, Brazil
  • 1996-2015
    • Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Centre of Natural and Exact Sciences (CCNE)
      • • Department of Chemical Engineering (DEQ)
      • • Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis
      Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 1994-2014
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
      • • Departamento de Bioquímica
      • • Institute of Basic Sciences and Health
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil