Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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Publications (232)486.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of iron supplementation on oxidative stress and on the activity of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) in rats experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. For this purpose, twenty rats were divided into four experimental groups with five animals each as follows: groups A and B were composed by healthy animals, while animals from the groups C and D were infected by T. evansi. Additionally, groups B and D received two subcutaneous doses of iron (60 mg kg(-1)) within an interval of five days. Blood samples were drawn on day 8 post infection in order to assess hematological and biochemical variables. Among the main results are: (1) animals from the group C showed reduced erythrogram (with tendency to anemia); however the same results were not observed for the group D; this might be a direct effect of free iron on trypanosomes which helped to reduce the parasitemia and the damage to erythrocytes caused by the infection; (2) iron supplementation was able to reduce NOx levels by inhibiting iNOS, and thus, providing an antioxidant action and, indirectly, reducing the ALT levels in the groups B and D; (3) increase FRAP levels in the group D; (4) reduce ADA activity in serum and erythrocytes in the group C; however, this supplementation (5) increased the protein oxidation in groups B and D, as well as group C (positive control). Therefore, iron showed antioxidant and oxidant effects on animals that received supplementation; and it maintained the activity of E-ADA stable in infected/supplemented animals.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2014; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ex vivo and in vitro effects of quercetin on NTPDase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), and acetycholinesterase (AChE) activities in lymphocytes, as well as the effects of quercetin on butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in serum and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in plasma were determined in rats. For the ex vivo experiment, animals were orally exposed to Cadmium (Cd) for 45 days. Animals were divided into eight groups: saline/ethanol, saline/Querc 5 mg/kg, saline/Querc 25 mg/kg, saline/Querc 50 mg/kg, Cd/ethanol, Cd/Querc 5 mg/kg, Cd/Querc 25 mg/kg, and Cd/Querc 50 mg/kg. The ex vivo data showed an increase in the ATP and ADP hydrolysis and ADA activity in Cd-exposed rats when compared to the control group. The treatment with quercetin 25 and 50 mg/kg prevented this increase in the ATP and ADP hydrolysis, while the treatment with quercetin 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg prevented the increase in the ADA activity. AChE, BChE, and MPO activities ex vivo presented an increase in the Cd-exposed group when compared to the control group, and the treatment with quercetin 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg prevented this increase caused by Cd exposure. The in vitro experiment showed that quercetin 5, 10, 25, or 50 µM decreased the ADA activity proportionally to the increase of the concentrations of quercetin when compared to the control group. Thus, we can suggest that the quercetin is able to modulate NTPDase, ADA, AChE, and MPO activities and contribute to maintain the levels of ATP, adenosine, and acetylcholine normal, respectively, exhibiting potent pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory actions.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 07/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on the ecto-adenosine deaminase activity (E-ADA), zinc seric levels and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL -10) on rats experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Four groups with 10 rats each were used as negative controls (groups A and B), while the animals from the groups C and D were infected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL of cryopreserved blood containing 1.4x10(4) of trypanosomes. Animals of groups B and D received two doses of Zinc (Zn) at 5 mg kg(-1), subcutaneously, on the 2(nd) and 7(th) day post-infection (PI). Blood samples were collected on days 5 (n=5) and 15 PI (n=5). Zn supplementation was able to increase the rat´s longevity and to reduce their parasitemia. It was observed that seric Zn levels were increased on infected animals under Zn supplementation. Animals that were infected and supplemented with Zn showed changes in E-ADA activity and in cytokine levels (P<0.05). Zn supplementation of healthy animals (Group B), increased the E-ADA activity, as well as reduced the concentration of cytokines. Infected animals from groups C and D showed increased levels of cytokines. Finally, we observed that Zn supplementation led to a modulation on cytokine´s level in rats infected by T. evansi, as well as in E-ADA activity.
    Microbial Pathogenesis 06/2014; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is associated with long-term complications in the brain and reduced cognitive ability. Vitamin D3 (VD3 ) appears to be involved in the amelioration of hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our aim was to analyse the potential of VD3 in avoiding brain damage through evaluation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+) K(+) -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and delta aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels from cerebral cortex, as well as memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5): control/saline, control/metformin (Metf), control/VD3 , control/Metf + VD3 , diabetic/saline, diabetic/Metf, diabetic/VD3 and diabetic/Metf + VD3 . Thirty days after treatment, animals were submitted to contextual fear-conditioning and open-field behavioural tests, after which they were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex was dissected. Our results demonstrate a significant memory deficit, an increase in AChE activity and TBARS levels and a decrease in δ-ALA-D and Na(+) K(+) -ATPase activities in diabetic rats when compared with the controls. Treatment of diabetic rats with Metf and VD3 prevented the increase in AChE activity when compared with the diabetic/saline group. In treated diabetic rats, the decrease in Na(+) K(+) -ATPase was reverted when compared with non-treated rats, but the increase in δ-ALA-D activity was not. VD3 prevented diabetes-induced TBARS level and improved memory. Our results show that VD3 can avoid cognitive deficit through prevention of changes in important enzymes such as Na(+) K(+) -ATPase and AChE in cerebral cortex in type 1 diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Cell Biochemistry and Function 06/2014; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effects of quercetin on the impairment of memory and anxiogenic - like behavior induced by cadmium (Cd) exposure. We also investigated possible alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and δ - aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities as well as in oxidative stress parameters in the CNS. Rats were exposed to Cd (2.5mg/Kg) and quercetin (5, 25 or 50mg/Kg) by gavage for 45days. Animals were divided into eight groups (n=10-14): saline/control, saline/Querc 5mg/kg, saline/Querc 25mg/kg, saline/Querc 50mg/kg, Cd/ethanol, Cd/Querc 5mg/kg, Cd/Querc 25mg/kg and Cd/Querc 50mg/kg. Results demonstrated that Cd impaired memory and has anxiogenic effect.Quercetin prevented these harmful effects induced by Cd. AChE activity decreased in cerebral cortex and hippocampus and increased in hypothalamus of Cd-exposed rats. The Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity decreased in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of Cd-exposed rats. Quercetin prevented these effects in AChE and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities. Reactive oxygen species production, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, protein carbonyl content and double - stranded DNA fractions increased in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of Cd-exposed rats. Quercetin prevents totally or partially these effects caused by Cd. Total thiols (T-SH), reduced glutathione (GSH), reductase glutathione (GR) activities decreased and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity increased Cd exposure rats. Co-treatment with quercetin prevented reduction in T-SH, GSH, GR activities and the rise of GST activity. The present findings show that quercetin prevents alterations in oxidative stress parameters as well as AChE and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities, consequently preventing memory impairment and anxiogenic-like behavior displayed by Cd exposure. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the neuroprotective role of quercetin, emphasizing the influence of this flavonoid in the diet for human health, possibly preventing brain injury associated with Cd intoxication.
    Physiology & Behavior 06/2014; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of quercetin on oxidative stress biomarkers in methimazole (MMI) - induced hypothyroidism male rats. Hypothyroidism was induced by administering MMI at 20 mg/100 ml in the drinking water, for 1 month. After achieved hypothyroidism, rats received orally 10 or 25 mg/kg of quercetin (QT) for 8 weeks. 60 male wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (group I, control; group II, QT10; group III, QT25; group IV, hypothyroid; group V, hypothyroid+QT10; group VI, hypothyroid+QT25). Liver, kidney and serum TBARS levels significantly increased in hypothyroid rats when compared to controls, along with increased protein carbonyl (PCO) in liver and increased ROS levels in liver and kidney tissues. QT10 and QT25 were effective in decreasing TBARS levels in serum and kidney, PCO levels in liver and ROS generation in liver and kidney. MMI - induced hypothyroidism also increased TBARS levels in cerebral cortex and hippocampus that in turn were decreased in rats treated with QT25. Moreover, the administration of QT25 to hypothyroid rats resulted in decreased SOD activities in liver and whole blood and increased liver CAT activity. Liver and kidney ascorbic acid levels were restored with quercetin supplementation at both concentrations. QT10 and QT25 also significantly increased total oxidative scavenging capacity in liver and kidney tissues from hypothyroid rats. These findings suggest that MMI - induced hypothyroidism increases oxidative stress parameters and quercetin administration could exert beneficial effects against redox imbalance in hypothyroid status.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels, as well as the biomarkers of cellular damage in the brain of mice experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Sixty mice were divided into two experiments: in experiment I the mice were infected with T. gondii/RH strain, while in experiment II they were infected with T. gondii, strains VEG and ME-49. Our evaluations were carried out on brain homogenized samples, assessing the AChE and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and NOx, TBARS and AOPP levels in all the infected animals, compared with the control group. In both experiments, I and II, it was observed an increase in the activity of AChE and GR, as well as in the levels of NOx in the brain of infected mice with T. gondii. TBARS levels were increased in mice infected with the three different strains, RH, ME-49, and VEG. AOPP concentration was increased only in mice infected with the RH strain. Animals infected with the strains VEG and ME-49 showed histological lesions, associated with the presence of the parasite in the brain. Therefore, the infection by T. gondii is able to interfere in cholinesterase activity and NO levels, in association with oxidative stress and histological lesion.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 05/2014; · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the purine levels and E-ADA activity in the brain of mice (BALB/c) experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii. In experiment I (n=24) the mice were infected with RH strain of T. gondii, while in experiment II (n=36) they were infected with strain ME-49 of T. gondii. Our results showed that, for RH strain (acute phase), an increase in both periods in the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine (only on day 6 PI) and uric acid (only on day 6 PI). By the other hand, the RH strain led, on days 4 and 6 PI, to a reduction in the concentration of inosine. ME-49, a cystogenic strain, showed some differences in acute and chronic phase, since on day 6 PI the levels of ATP and ADP were increased, while on day 30 these same nucleotides were reduced. On day 60 PI, ME-49 induced a reduction in the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, inosine and xanthine, while uric acid was increased. A decrease of E-ADA activity was observed in brain on days 4 and 6 PI (RH), and 30 PI (ME-49); however on day 60 PI E-ADA activity was increased for infection by ME-49 strain. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that infection with T. gondii changes the purine levels and the activity of E-ADA in brain, which may be associated with neurological signs commonly observed in this disease.
    Experimental Parasitology 04/2014; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the flavonoid quercetin can prevent alterations in the behavioral tests and of cholinergic neurotransmission in rats submitted to the ethidium bromide (EB) experimental demyelination model during events of demyelination and remyelination. Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups (20 animals per group): Control (pontine saline injection and treatment with ethanol), Querc (pontine saline injection and treatment with quercetin), EB (pontine 0.1% EB injection and treatment with ethanol), and EB+Querc (pontine 0.1% EB injection and treatment with quercetin). The groups Querc and Querc+EB were treated once daily with quercetin (50mg/kg) diluted in 25% ethanol solution (1ml/kg) and the animals of the control and EB groups were treated once daily with 25% ethanol solution (1ml/kg). Two stages were observed: phase of demyelination (peak on day 7) and phase of remyelination (peak on day 21 post-injection). Behavioral tests (beam walking, foot fault and inclined plane test), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and lipid peroxidation in pons, cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum and cerebral cortex were measured. The quercetin promoted earlier locomotor recovery, suggesting that there was demyelination prevention or further remyelination velocity as well as it was able to prevent the inhibition of AChE activity and the increase of lipidic peroxidation, suggesting that this compound can protect cholinergic neurotransmission. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the neuroprotective role of quercetin and the importance of an antioxidant diet in humans to provide benefits in neurodegenerative diseases such as MS.
    Life sciences 04/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess whether α-tocopherol administration prevented alterations in the ectonucleotidase activities and platelet aggregation induced by high-fat diet in rats. Thus, we examined four groups of male rats which received standard diet, high-fat diet (HFD), α-tocopherol (α-Toc), and high-fat diet plus α-tocopherol. HFD was administered ad libitum and α-Toc by gavage using a dose of 50 mg/kg. After 3 months of treatment, animals were submitted to euthanasia, and blood samples were collected for biochemical assays. Results demonstrate that NTPDase, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase, and 5'-nucleotidase activities were significantly decreased in platelets of HFD group, while that adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity was significantly increased in this group in comparison to the other groups (P < 0.05). When rats that received HFD were treated with α-Toc, the activities of these enzymes were similar to the control, but ADA activity was significantly increased in relation to the control and α-Toc group (P < 0.05). HFD group showed an increased in platelet aggregation in comparison to the other groups, and treatment with α-Toc significantly reduced platelet aggregation in this group. These findings demonstrated that HFD alters platelet aggregation and purinergic signaling in the platelets and that treatment with α-Toc was capable of modulating the adenine nucleotide hydrolysis in this experimental condition.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 03/2014; · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Subjects with Down Syndrome (DS) have an increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disorders. ATP, adenosine, and acetylcholine contribute to the immune response regulation, and NTPDase, adenosine deaminase (ADA) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are important enzymes in the control of the extracellular levels of these molecules. We evaluated the activities of these enzymes and the cytokine levels in samples of DS individuals. The population consisted of 23 subjects with DS and 23 healthy subjects. Twelve milliliters of blood was obtained from each subject and used for lymphocyte and serum preparation. Lymphocytes were separated on ficoll density gradients. After isolation, NTPDase and AChE activities were determined. The NTPDase activity using ADP as substrate was increased in lymphocytes of DS patients compared to control (P<0.05); however, no alterations were observed in the ATP hydrolysis. An increase was observed in the AChE activity in lymphocytes and in ADA activity in serum of DS patients when compared to healthy subjects (P<0.05). In DS subjects, an increase in the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ and a decrease in the IL-10 levels were also observed (P<0.05). Alterations in the NTPDase, ADA and AChE activities as well changes in the cytokine levels may contribute to immunological alterations observed in DS.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 03/2014; · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the main chronic inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) that cause functional disability in young adults. It has unknown etiology characterized by the infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages into the brain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in lymphocytes and whole blood, as well as butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in serum. We also checked the levels of nucleotides, nucleosides, biomarkers of inflammation such as cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum from 29 patients with the relapsing-remitting form of MS (RRMS) and 29 healthy subjects as the control group. Results showed that AChE in lymphocytes and whole blood as well as BChE, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in serum were significantly increased in RRMS patients when compared to the control group (P<0.05). In addition, we observed a decrease in ATP levels and a significant increase in the levels of ADP, AMP, adenosine and inosine in serum from RRMS patients in relation to the healthy subjects (P<0.05). Results also demonstrated an increase in the IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and CRP (P<0.05) and a significant decrease in the IL-10 (P<0.0001) in RRMS patients when compared to control. Our results suggest that alterations in the biomarkers of inflammation and hydrolysis of nucleotides and nucleosides may contribute to the understanding of the neurological dysfunction of RRMS patients.
    Neuroscience 02/2014; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity in whole blood as well as the parameters of oxidative stress, such as reactive species (RS) levels in serum, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as total thiols (T-SH) and non-protein thiols (NPSH) levels in platelets. Moreover, the content of vitamin C and E in plasma and serum, respectively, in lung cancer patients was also investigated. We collected blood samples from patients (n = 28) previously treated for lung cancer with chemotherapy. Patients were classified as stage IIIb and IV according to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). Results showed a decrease of 37% in δ-ALA-D activity in patients with lung cancer when compared to the control group. RS and TBARS levels were 8% and 99% higher in the patient group, respectively. The activity of SOD and CAT as well as the vitamin C content were 41%, 35% and 127% lower in patients when compared with controls, respectively. However, T-SH and vitamin E levels were 27% and 44% higher in lung cancer patients, respectively. Results show that the overproduction of reactive species in patients with lung cancer may be interfering with the activity of δ-ALA-D. Likewise, the decrease in the activity of this enzyme may be contributing for the oxidative stress.
    Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in lymphocytes of lambs experimentally infected by Haemonchus contortus. A total of 14 healthy lambs were used, divided into two groups of seven animals each. Group A (negative control) represented the uninfected animals, and Group B (positive control) was formed by animals infected with 15,000 larvae of H. contortus. Blood was drawn on the days 15, 45 and 75 post-infection (PI) in order to perform the white blood cells (WBC) count, as well as the evaluation of AChE activity in lymphocytes. Parasitological stool exam (eggs per gram of feces - EPG) was performed on the same days to follow up the evolution of the infection. On day 15 PI it was verified negative EPG; however, on days 45 and 75 PI it was observed positive EPG only in the animals of group B. In the three evaluated periods was observed a lower number of leukocytes, associated with decreased lymphocytes and neutrophils in lambs infected by this gastrointestinal nematodes. Lambs infected with H. contortus showed significant (P<0.01) lower AChE activity in lymphocytes compared uninfected. Statistically, there was a positive correlation (P<0.05) between AChE activity in lymphocytes and number of lymphocytes (r=0.69). The lymphocytes are cells with direct participation in the cholinergic system; therefore, based on these results, it can be concluded that the experimental infection with H. contortus influences the number of lymphocytes, and consequently the AChE activity in these cells.
    Experimental Parasitology 01/2014; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with brain alterations that may contribute to cognitive dysfunctions. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeine (CA), abundant in coffee (CF), are natural compounds that have showed important actions in the brain. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of CGA, CA, and CF on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities and TBARS levels from cerebral cortex, as well as memory and anxiety in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5-10): control; control/CGA 5 mg/kg; control/CA 15 mg/kg; control/CF 0.5 g/kg; diabetic; diabetic/CGA 5 mg/kg; diabetic/CA 15 mg/kg; and diabetic/CF 0.5 g/kg. Our results demonstrated an increase in AChE activity and TBARS levels in cerebral cortex, while δ-ALA-D and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities were decreased in the diabetic rats when compared to control water group. Furthermore, a memory deficit and an increase in anxiety in diabetic rats were observed. The treatment with CGA and CA prevented the increase in AChE activity in diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic water group. CGA, CA, and CF intake partially prevented cerebral δ-ALA-D and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity decrease due to diabetes. Moreover, CGA prevented diabetes-induced TBARS production, improved memory, and decreased anxiety. In conclusion, among the compounds studied CGA proved to be a compound which acts better in the prevention of brain disorders promoted by DM.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 12/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anthocyanins are a group of natural phenolic compounds responsible for the colour to plants and fruits. These compounds might have beneficial effects on memory and have antioxidant properties. In the present study we have investigated the therapeutic efficacy of anthocyanins in an animal model of cognitive deficits, associated to Alzheimer's disease, induced by scopolamine. We evaluated whether anthocyanins protect the effects caused by SCO on nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase and acethylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus (of rats. We used 4 different groups of animals: control (CTRL), anthocyanins treated (ANT), scopolamine-challenged (SCO), and scopolamine+anthocyanins (SCO+ANT). After seven days of treatment with ANT (200mg/kg; oral), the animals were SCO injected (1mg/kg; IP) and were performed the behavior tests, and submitted to euthanasia. A memory deficit was found in SCO group, but ANT treatment prevented this impairment of memory (P<0.05). The ANT treatment per se had an anxiolitic effect. AChE activity was increased in both in cortex and hipoccampus of SCO group, this effect was significantly attenuated by ANT (P<0.05). SCO decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities in hippocampus, and ANT was able to significantly (P<0.05) prevent these effects. No significant alteration was found on NOx levels among the groups. In conclusion, the ANT is able to regulate cholinergic neurotransmission and restore the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities, and also prevented memory deficits caused by scopolamine administration.
    International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 12/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the efficacy of rosmarinic acid (RA) in preventing lipid peroxidation and increased activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 8): control, ethanol, RA 10 mg/kg, diabetic, diabetic/ethanol and diabetic/RA 10 mg/kg. After 21 days of treatment with RA, the cerebral structures (striatum, cortex and hippocampus) were removed for experimental assays. The results demonstrated that the treatment with RA (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the level of lipid peroxidation in hippocampus (28%), cortex (38%) and striatum (47%) of diabetic rats when compared with the control. In addition, it was found that hyperglycaemia caused significant increased in the activity of AChE in hippocampus (58%), cortex (46%) and striatum (30%) in comparison with the control. On the other hand, the treatment with RA reversed this effect to the level of control after 3 weeks. In conclusion, the present findings showed that treatment with RA prevents the lipid peroxidation and consequently the increase in AChE activity in diabetic rats, demonstrating that this compound can modulate cholinergic neurotransmission and prevent damage oxidative in brain in the diabetic state. Thus, we can suggest that RA could be a promising compound in the complementary therapy in diabetes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Cell Biochemistry and Function 12/2013; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze if the pre-administration of anthocyanin on memory and anxiety prevented the effects caused by intraceberoventicular streptozotocin (icv-STZ) administration-induced sporadic dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT) in rats. Moreover, we evaluated whether the levels of nitrite/nitrate (NOx), Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and acethylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in the cerebral cortex (CC) and hippocampus (HC) are altered in this experimental SDAT. Male Wistar rats were divided in 4 different groups: control (CTRL), anthocyanin (ANT), streptozotocin (STZ) and streptozotocin+anthocyanin (STZ+ANT). After seven days of treatment with ANT (200mg/kg; oral), the rats were icv-STZ injected (3mg/kg), and four days later were performed the behavior parameters and submitted to euthanasia. A memory deficit was found in STZ group, but ANT treatment showed to prevent this impairment of memory (P<0.05). Our results showed a higher anxiety in icv-STZ group, but the treatment with ANT showed a per se effect and prevented the anxiogenic behavior induced by STZ. Our results reveal that ANT (100μM) tested diplace the specific binding of [H(3)] flunitrazepam to benzodiazepinic site of GABAA receptors. AChE, Ca(+)-ATPase activities and NOx levels were found to be increased in HC and CC in STZ group, which was attenuated by ANT (P<0.05). STZ decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and ANT was able to prevent these effects (P<0.05). In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that ANT is able to regulate ions pump activity and cholinergic neurotransmission, as well as able to enhance memory and act as anxiolytic compound in animals with SDAT.
    Life sciences 11/2013; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Neospora caninum infection is generally latent and asymptomatic, and results in the formation of dormant encysted bradyzoites that remain in the brain and other tissues of infected animals for life, causing major economic and pathological problems. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between infection by N. caninum and its damage to brain tissue through the evaluation of biomarkers of oxidative stress during the acute and chronic phase of the disease. Sixteen gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) were divided into 3 groups: Group A (n=6) was composed by healthy animals, while Group B (n=5) was infected with 0.1 mL containing 2.5x106 tachyzoites of N. caninum in order to achieve the acute phase; and finally, Group C (n=5) was also infected with a lower dose (0.1 mL containing 5x104) of N. caninum tachyzoites in order to reach the chronic phase of the disease. All the evaluations were performed in the brain tissue, with assessment of levels of nitrate/nitrite (NOx), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (AOPP), and activity of glutathione reductase (GR). Brain levels of TBARS and AOPP statistically differed (P<0.05) among the 3 groups when compared to the control group, reducing their levels on day 7 PI, while they were increased on 30 days PI. Brain activity of GR increased significantly in animals from the Group C when compared to groups A and B. On day 7 PI no histological lesions were observed in the brain, whereas in the chronic phase the infected gerbils (day 30 PI) showed areas of inflammatory infiltrate, and the presence of the parasite in the brain. Based on these results, it was possible to conclude that the oxidative stress occurred in both periods, however, with different patterns among them.
    Journal of Parasitology 11/2013; · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neosporosis is an infectious disease primarily of dogs and cattle which has been found in many countries around the world. Neospora caninum causes an important immune response (cellular and humoral) in animals that it infects. Since the participation of the cholinergic system in the immune response is well documented, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between N. caninum infection and activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) during the acute and chronic phase of infection. For that, tachyzoites of N. caninum (Nc-1 strain) were inoculated intraperitoneally in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), which were separated in two experiments, I and II, differing in infective doses of tachyzoites, aiming to reach an acute phase as well as chronic phase, respectively. Samples were collected on day 7 post infection (PI) for Experiment I and on days 15 and 30 PI for experiment II. AChE activity was evaluated on whole blood and brain, while BChE was evaluated in plasma. On day 7 a reduction of AChE in total blood and brain was observed, along with reduction of BChE in plasma of infected animals when compared with non-infected. In Experiment II, AChE activity increased in total blood on day 30 PI; however, maintaining, during the same period, the AChE activity has a reduced in brain tissue. BChE activity was significantly increased on day 30 PI. Based on the results obtained, it was possible to observe a response of the cholinergic system, providing different grades of AChE and BChE activities, in response to the acute and chronic infection of gerbils experimentally infected with N. caninum. These results will serve as initial points to further studies of our research group about the relationship between the infection/disease and the cholinergic system.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2013; · 2.15 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
486.08 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2014
    • Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
      • • Department of Microbiology and Parasitology
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Chemical Engineering (DEQ)
      • • Centre of Natural and Exact Sciences (CCNE)
      Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 1994–2014
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
      • Departamento de Bioquímica
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2010
    • Centro Universitário Franciscano (Unifra)
      Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2009
    • Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology from Rio Grande do Sul
      Farroupilha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2004
    • Universidade de Cruz Alta (UNICRUZ)
      Cruz Alta, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil