[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, xylanases have expanded their use in many processing industries, such as pulp, paper, food, and textile. This study aimed the production and partial characterization of a thermostable xylanase from a novel thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Caldicoprobacter algeriensis strain TH7C1(T) isolated from a northeast hot spring in Algeria. The obtained results showed that C. algeriensis xylanase seems not to be correlated with the biomass growth profile whereas the maximum enzyme production (140.0 U/ml) was recorded in stationary phase (18 h). The temperature and pH for optimal activities were 70 °C and 11.0, respectively. The enzyme was found to be stable at 50, 60, 70, and 80 °C, with a half-life of 10, 9, 8, and 4 h, respectively. Influence of metal ions on enzyme activity revealed that Ca(+2) enhances greatly the relative activity to 151.3 %; whereas Hg(2+) inhibited significantly the enzyme. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the production of xylanase by the thermophilic bacterium C. algeriensis. This thermo- and alkaline-tolerant xylanase could be used in pulp bleaching process.
Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 08/2014; · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The shallow submarine hydrothermal field of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) discharges hydrogen- and methane-rich fluids with low salinity, temperature (<40°C) and high pH (11) produced by the serpentinization reactions of the ultramafic basement into the lagoon seawater. They are responsible for the formation of carbonate chimneys at the lagoon seafloor. CE-SSCP fingerprinting, quantitative PCR and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed changes in microbial community structure, abundance and diversity depending on the location, water depth and structure of the carbonate chimneys. The low archaeal diversity was dominated by few uncultured Methanosarcinales similar to those found in other serpentinization-driven submarine and subterrestrial ecosystems (e.g. Lost City, The Cedars). The most abundant and diverse bacterial communities were mainly composed of Chloroflexi, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Functional gene analysis revealed similar abundance and diversity of both Methanosarcinales methanoarchaea and Desulfovibrionales- and Desulfobacterales sulfate-reducers in the studied sites. Molecular studies suggest that redox reactions involving hydrogen, methane and sulfur compounds (e.g. sulfate) are the energy driving forces of the microbial communities inhabiting the Prony hydrothermal system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thermophilic sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain VC-16 (DSM 4304), which is known to oxidize fatty acids and n-alkenes, was shown to oxidize saturated hydrocarbons (n-alkanes in the range C10-C21) with thiosulfate or sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor. The amount of n-hexadecane degradation observed was in stoichiometric agreement with the theoretically expected amount of thiosulfate reduction. One of the pathways used by anaerobic microorganisms to activate alkanes is addition to fumarate that involves alkylsuccinate synthase as a key enzyme. A search for genes encoding homologous enzymes in A. fulgidus identified the pflD gene (locus-tag AF1449) that was previously annotated as a pyruvate formate lyase. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this gene is of bacterial origin and was likely acquired by A. fulgidus from a bacterial donor through a horizontal gene transfer. Based on three-dimensional modeling of the corresponding protein and molecular dynamic simulations, we hypothesize an alkylsuccinate synthase activity for this gene product. The pflD gene expression was upregulated during the growth of A. fulgidus on an n-alkane (C16) compared with growth on a fatty acid. Our results suggest that anaerobic alkane degradation in A. fulgidus may involve the gene pflD in alkane activation through addition to fumarate. These findings highlight the possible importance of hydrocarbon oxidation at high temperatures by A. fulgidus in hydrothermal vents and the deep biosphere.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 24 April 2014; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.58.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the deep-branching order Thermotogales are widespread in
various terrestrial, submarine and subterrestrial extreme environments.
This bacterial order included both thermophilic and hyperthermophilic
anaerobic microorganisms so far pertaining to ten genera. It is only
recently (2011) that cultivation of a mesophilic member of this order
belonging to a novel genus, Mesotoga, has been successful. All members,
with the exception of Mesotoga spp., are recognized as high hydrogen
producers having possible applications in biotechnology with a peculiar
emphasis for members of the genus Thermotoga (e.g. T. maritima
and T. neapolitana). The ecology, phylogeny and metabolism linked to
hydrogen production of these bacteria, are reviewed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel thermotolerant, anaerobic, Gram-positive staining, spore-forming bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in the Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain designated FatNI3T grew at temperatures from15 to 55 °C (optimum 30°C) and at pH between 5.8 and 8.9 (optimum 7.7). It is slightly halophilic requiring at least 0.5% NaCl for growth (optimum 2.5-3.0%), and supporting it up to 6 %. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Growth of strain FatNI3T was inhibited in the presence of sulfite (2 mM) or nitrite (2 mM). Strain FatNI3T fermented cellobiose, glucose, mannose, maltose, sucrose, galactose, lactose, ribose, fructose, rhamnose, raffinose, xylose, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypcase. The main fermentation products from glucose metabolism were acetate, ethanol, H2 and CO2. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0. The main polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, glycolipids and phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.6 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological properties, strain FatNI3T (= DSM 25904 = JCM 18391) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as a novel species of the genus Vallitalea, V. pronyensis sp. nov..
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 01/2014; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel anaerobic, chemo-organotrophic sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain Olac 40T, was isolated from a Tunisian wastewater digestor. Cells were curved motile rods or vibrios (5.0-7.0 x 0.5 μm). Strain Olac 40T grew at temperatures between 15 and 50°C (optimum 40°C), and at pH between 5.0 and 9.0 (optimum 7.1). It did not require NaCl for growth but tolerated it up to 50 g l-1 (optimum 2 g l-1). In the presence of sulfate or thiosulfate, strain Olac 40T used lactate, pyruvate and formate as energy sources. Growth was observed on H2 only in the presence of acetate as carbon source. In the presence of sulfate or thiosulfate, the end-products of lactate oxidation were acetate, sulfide and CO2. Sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite were used as terminal electron acceptors, but not elemental sulfur, nitrate and nitrite. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Olac 40T was 70 mol %. Profile of polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, aminophospholipid and four phospholipids The main fatty acids were C16: 0, anteiso-C15: 0 and iso-C15: 0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain Olac 40T was affiliated with the family Desulfovibrionaceae within the class Deltaproteobacteria. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons and physiological characteristics, strain Olac 40T is proposed to be assigned to a new species of the genus Desulfocurvus, for which the name Desulfocurvus thunnarius is proposed. The type strain is Olac 40T (=DSM 26129T= JCM 18546T).
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 06/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An anaerobic thermophilic bacterium designated CA9F1 was isolated from a thermal spring in France. Strain CA9F1 was observed to grow at temperatures between 55 and 70 °C (optimum 65 °C) and at pH between 6.8 and 9.5 (optimum pH 7.4). Strain CA9F1 does not require salt for growth (0-10 g l(-1) NaCl), with an optimum at 1 g l(-1). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 38.5 mol% (Tm). The major cellular fatty acids identified were C15:0, C16:0, C17:0 iso. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties, strain CA9F1 was identified as Thermovenabulum gondwanense and this species was studied in more detail. Strain CA9F1 is a Gram-positive bacterium which forms a complex and regular multilayered cell wall structure, here characterised as being due to the presence of an S-layer. The network covers the entire cell surface and forms a hexagonal structure resembling that observed for Deinococcus radiodurans. The main protein component of the S-layer possesses domains comparable to that of the S-layer protein of Halothermothrix orenii. The characteristics of the strain were compared to that of T. gondwanese R270(T) isolated from microbial mats thriving in the thermal waters of a Great Artesian Basin bore runoff channel at 66 °C, in Australia. Significant differences were observed between CA9F1 and the type strain. One of the major physiological differences is the inability of CA9F1 to reduce Fe(III). An emended description of T. gondwanense is given.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 06/2013; · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped mesophilic, halophilic bacterium staining Gram-negative, was isolated from sediments of Guaymas basin. The strain, designated Ra1766G1T, grew at 20-40 °C (optimum 30-35 °C) and at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 6.5-7.5). It required 0.5%-7.5% NaCl (optimum 2%-3%) for growth. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, fumarate, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Strain Ra1766G1T used cellobiose, glucose, mannose, maltose, arabinose, raffinose, galactose, ribose, saccharose, pyruvate and xylose as electron donors. The main fermentation product from glucose metabolism was acetate. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso DMA-C15:0 and C16:0. The main polar lipids consisted of diphosphatiglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, glycolipids and phospholipids.The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 31.2 mol%. The closest phylogenetic relatives of Ra1766G1T were Natranaerovirga pectinivoraT (92.4% similarity), Natranaerovirga hydrolytica (90.2% similarity) and Defluviitalea saccharophilaT (88.9% similarity). On the basis of phylogenetic inference and phenotypic properties, strain Ra1766G1T (= DSM 24848T = JCMT= 16313) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of a novel genus, Vallitalea guaymasensis gen. nov., sp. nov.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 02/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strain VNs100T, a novel mesophilic anaerobic rod-cocoid-shaped bacterium, having a sheath-like outer structure (toga) was isolated from a water sample collected in the area of underground gas storage. It was non-motile with cells appearing singly (2-4 μm long x 1-2 μm wide), in pairs, or as long chains and stained Gram-negative. Strain VNs100T was heterotrophic, able to use arabinose, cellobiose, fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, lactate, mannose, maltose, raffinose, ribose, sucrose and xylose as energy sources only in the presence of elemental sulfur as terminal electron acceptor. Acetate, CO2 and sulfide were the end-products of sugar metabolism. Hydrogen was not detected. Elemental sulfur, but not thiosulfate, sulfate and sulfite, were reduced into sulfide. It grew at temperatures between 30°C and 50°C (optimum 45°C), at pH between 6.2 and 7.9 (optimum 7.3-7.5) and at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 15 g.L-1 (optimum 2 g.L-1). The DNA G+C content was 47.5 mol%. The main cellular fatty acid was C16:0. Phylogenetic analysis of the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence indicated that strain VNs100T had as its closest relatives 'Mesotoga sulfurireducens' (97.1 % similarity) and Mesotoga prima (similarity of 97.1 % and 97.7 % with each of its two genes respectively) within the order Thermotogales. Hybridization between strain VNS100T and 'Mesotoga sulfurireducens' and between strain VNS100T and Mesotoga prima is 12.9% and 20.6 %, respectively. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and taxonomic characteristics, strain VNs100T is proposed as a novel species of genus Mesotoga within the family Thermotogaceae, order Thermotogales. The name Mesotoga infera, sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VNs100T (= DSM 25546 = JCM 18154).
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 02/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AM13 is a piezophilic, mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing bacterium collected from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney on the East Pacific Rise (2,600 m depth, 13°N). We report the genome sequence of this bacterium, which includes a 3,702,934-bp chromosome and a circular plasmid of 5,328 bp.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gram-positive spore-forming sulfate reducers and particularly members of the genus Desulfotomaculum are commonly found in the subsurface biosphere by culture based and molecular approaches. Due to their metabolic versatility and their ability to persist as endospores. Desulfotomaculum spp. are well-adapted for colonizing environments through a slow sedimentation process. Because of their ability to grow autotrophically (H2/CO2) and produce sulfide or acetate, these microorganisms may play key roles in deep lithoautotrophic microbial communities. Available data about Desulfotomaculum spp. and related species from studies carried out from deep freshwater lakes, marine sediments, oligotrophic and organic rich deep geological settings are discussed in this review.
Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2013; 4:362. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by trypanosomes transmitted to humans by the tsetse fly, in which they accomplish their development into their infective metacyclic form. The crucial step in parasite survival occurs when it invades the fly midgut. Insect digestive enzymes and immune defenses may be involved in the modulation of the fly's vector competence, together with bacteria that could be present in the fly's midgut. In fact, in addition to the three bacterial symbionts that have previously been characterized, tsetse flies may harbor additional bacterial inhabitants. This review focuses on the diversity of the bacterial flora in Glossina, with regards to the fly species and their geographical distribution. The rationale was (i) that these newly identified bacteria, associated with tsetse flies, may contribute to vector competence as was shown in other insects and (ii) that differences may exist according to fly species and geographic area. A more complete knowledge of the bacterial microbiota of the tsetse fly and the role these bacteria play in tsetse biology may lead to novel ways of investigation in view of developing alternative anti-vector strategies for fighting human-and possibly animal-trypanosomiasis.
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 01/2013; 3:34.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Desulfotomaculum hydrothermale, a sulfate-reducing, spore-forming bacterium isolated from a Tunisian hot spring. The genome is composed of 2.7 Mb, with a G+C content of 49.48%, and it contains 2,643 protein-coding sequences.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Desulfosporosinus species are sulfate-reducing bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes. Their genomes will give insights into the genetic repertoire and evolution of sulfate reducers typically thriving in terrestrial environments and able to degrade toluene (Desulfosporosinus youngiae), to reduce Fe(III) (Desulfosporosinus meridiei, Desulfosporosinus orientis), and to grow under acidic conditions (Desulfosporosinus acidiphilus).
Journal of bacteriology 11/2012; 194(22):6300-1. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel anaerobic thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium designated LINDBHT1 was isolated from an anaerobic treating abattoir wastewaters digestor in Tunisia. Strain LINDBHT1 grew at temperatures between 50 and 65°C (optimum 55-60°C), and at pH between 5.9 and 9.2 (optimum pH 6.0-6.8). Strain LINDBHT1 required salt for growth (1-40 g NaCl l-1), with an optimum at 20-30g/L. In the presence of sulfate as terminal electron acceptor, strain LINDBHT1 used H2/CO2, propanol, butanol and ethanol as carbon and energy sources but fumarate, formate, lactate and pyruvate were not utilized. Butanol was converted to butyrate, while propanol and ethanol were oxidized to propionate and acetate, respectively. Sulfate, sulfite and thiosulfate were utilized as terminal electron acceptors but elemental sulfur, iron (III), fumarate, nitrate and nitrite were not used. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 44.4 mol %. Phylogenetic analysis of the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence indicated that strain LINDBHT1 was affiliated to the genus Desulfotomaculum with Desulfotomaculum halophilum and Desulfotomaculum alkaliphilum as its closest phylogenetic relatives (about 89% of similarity). This bacterium will constitute a new species of the genus Desulfotomaculum, Desulfotomaculum peckii (the type strain LINDBHT1T = DSM 23769T = JCM 17209T).
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 10/2012; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacterium, designated D2C22T was isolated from the hydrothermal hot spring of Guelma in the Northeast Algeria. The strain was Gram-positive, non-sporulated, not motile and rod-shaped, appearing singly or in pairs (0.3-0.4 µm x 8-9 µm). It grew anaerobically at temperatures between 50 and 80 °C (optimum 65 °C) and at pH between 5-9 (optimum 6.8). It did not require NaCl for growth, but tolerated it until 20 gl-1. Strain D2C22T used glucose, galactose, lactose, fructose, ribose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, cellobiose, mannose, melibiose, saccharose, xylan and pyruvate (only in the presence of yeast extract or biotrypcase) as electron donors. The end-products from glucose fermentation were acetate, lactate, CO2, and H2. Nitrate, nitrite, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfate, and sulfite were not used as electron acceptors. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0. The DNA G+C content was 41.6 mol %. Phylogenetic analysis of the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence indicated that strain D2C22T had Caldicoprobacter oshimai, Caldicoprobacter algeriensis and Acetomicrobium faecale as its closest relative (similarity of 95.5%, 95.5 % and 95.3 % respectively). Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and taxonomic characteristics, strain D2C22T is proposed as a novel species of the genus Caldicoprobacter within the order Clostridiales, for which the name Caldicoprobacter guelmensis is proposed. The type strain is D2C22T (= DSM =24605T = JCM= 17646T).
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 10/2012; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A strictly anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, halotolerant, rod-shaped bacterium, was isolated from a water sample of a Tunisian hot spring. The strain designated BELH25T was non motile with cells appearing singly or in pairs (0.4-0.6 µm x 2-6 µm). It grew at temperatures between 45°C and 70°C (optimum 55°C), pH between 6.2 and 8.0 (optimum 7.0) and NaCl concentration between 0 and 4 % (optimum 0-2.0 %). Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Strain BELH25T used cellobiose, fructose, galactose, glucose, maltose, mannose, saccharose, starch and yeast extract as electron donors. The main fermentation products from glucose metabolism were formate, acetate, ethanol and CO(2). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso- C15:0, iso- C17:0 and anteiso-C15:0. The DNA G+C content was 37.2 mol %. Phylogenetic analysis of the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence indicated that strain BELH25T had Caloramator viterbiensis and Fervidicella metallireducens as its closest relatives (identity of 92.2 and 92.1 % respectively) and that the strain was positioned approximatively equidistantly between the two genera. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and taxonomic characteristics, strain BELH25T is proposed as a novel species of a new genus within the order Clostridiales, family Clostridiaceae for which the name Fonticella tunisiensis is proposed. The type strain is BELH25T (= DSM 24455 T = JCM 17559T).
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 09/2012; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During attempts to obtain novel, human-associated species of the domain Archaea, a coccoid micro-organism, designated strain B10(T), was isolated in pure culture from a sample of human faeces collected in Marseille, France. On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA and mcrA gene sequences, the novel strain was classified as a methanogenic archaeon. Cells of the strain were non-motile, Gram-staining-positive cocci that were approximately 850 nm in diameter and showed autofluorescence at 420 nm. Cells were lysed by 0.1% (w/v) SDS. With hydrogen as the electron donor, strain B10(T) produced methane by reducing methanol. The novel strain was unable to produce methane when hydrogen or methanol was the sole energy source. In an atmosphere containing CO(2), strain B10(T) could not produce methane from formate, acetate, trimethylamine, 2-butanol, 2-propanol, cyclopentanol, 2-pentanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 2,3-butanediol. Strain B10(T) grew optimally with 0.5-1.0% (w/v) NaCl, at pH 7.6 and at 37 °C. It required tungstate-selenite for growth. The complete genome of the novel strain was sequenced; the size of the genome was estimated to be 2.05 Mb and the genomic DNA G+C content was 59.93 mol%. In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the highest sequence similarities (98.0-98.7%) were seen between strain B10(T) and several uncultured, methanogenic Archaea that had been collected from the digestive tracts of a cockroach, a chicken and mammals. In the same analysis, the non-methanogenic 'Candidatus Aciduliprofundum boonei' DSM 19572 was identified as the cultured micro-organism that was most closely related to strain B10(T) (83.0% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Each of the three treeing algorithms used in the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain B10(T) belongs to a novel order that is distinct from the Thermoplasmatales. The novel strain also appeared to be distinct from Methanosphaera stadtmanae DSM 3091(T) (72.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), another methanogenic archaeon that was isolated from human faeces and can use methanol in the presence of hydrogen. Based on the genetic and phenotypic evidence, strain B10(T) represents a novel species of a new genus for which the name Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is B10(T) ( = DSM 24529(T) = CSUR P135(T)).
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 08/2012; 62(Pt 8):1902-7. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The methanogenic Archaea Methanosphaera stadtmanae has been detected in the human gut microbiota by both culture and culture-independent methods. Its growth reaches an exponential phase after 5 to 7-day culture in medium 322 (10% vol). Our recent successful isolation of Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis, a tungstate-selenite-requiring Archaea sharing similar metabolism characteristics with M. stadtmanae prompted us to study the effects of tungsten and selenium on M. stadtmanae growth.
Addition of 0.2 mg/L sodium tungstate to medium 322 yielded, 48 hours after inoculation, a growth rate equivalent to that obtained after 6 days with control culture as measured by methane monitoring and optical density measurement. Addition of 50 μg/mL sodium selenate had no effect on M. stadtmanae growth. Quantitative real-time PCRs targeting the M. stadtmanae 16S rRNA confirmed these data.
These data provide new information regarding the poorly known nutritional requirements of the human gut colonizing organismsM. stadtmanae. Adding sodium tungstate to basal medium may facilitate phenotypic characterization of this organism and additionally aid the isolation of new Archaeafrom complex host microbiota.