A Salvador Sanz

Hospital Universitari i Politècnic la Fe, Valenza, Valencia, Spain

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Publications (36)80.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Introducción. En la insuficiencia cardíaca (IC) existe una importante activación neurohormonal e inflamatoria. También parece existir una disfunción endotelial. Nuestro objetivo ha sido comparar ambos procesos (inflamación y disfunción endotelial) en pacientes con IC.Material y métodos. Comparamos marcadores de disfunción endotelial (células endoteliales circulantes, macropartículas circulantes y factor von Willebrand) y de inflamación (proteína C reactiva, interleuquina 6 y fibrinógeno funcional) en 16 pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca aguda (ICA), 16 con insuficiencia cardíaca crónica (ICC) estable y 32 controles sanos.Resultados. El número de células endoteliales circulantes fue mayor en los pacientes con ICA que en el grupo ICC y que en el grupo control (115,10 ± 63,44 vs 19,67 ± 3,17 vs 11,71 ± 2,92 cel/mL). La cantidad de macropartículas circulantes fue mayor en el grupo ICA que en el ICC y en ambos grupos frente al grupo control (9.627 ± 4.986 vs 3.970 ± 3.452 vs 1.371 ± 739 p/µL). El factor von Willebrand fue mayor en ambos grupos IC que en el control (234,3 ± 45,31 vs 245,92 ± 117,89 vs 100,14 ± 20,7%). Los valores de proteína C reactiva fueron mayores en el grupo ICA que en el ICC y que en el control (20,29 ± 17,56 vs 7,65 ± 4,27 vs 1,44 ± 1,10 mg/dL). La interleuquina 6 se encontró más elevada en los pacientes con ICA respecto al resto de grupos y en los pacientes con ICC respecto a los sanos (9,73 ± 9,37 vs 1,69 ± 1,36 vs 1,01 ± 1,09 pg/mL). Referente al fibrinógeno funcional, sólo encontramos diferencias significativas entre el grupo ICA y el resto de grupos (350 ± 60,48 vs 264,08 ± 67,02 vs 254,29 ± 23,69 mg/dL).Conclusiones. De forma paralela a la inflamación ya conocida en la IC, se produce una disfunción endotelial que a su vez parece ser proporcional a la gravedad de la IC.
    Insuficiencia cardíaca. 03/2012; 7(1):10-15.
  • Revista Espa de Cardiologia 02/2012; 65(2):113-8. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An alteration of the autonomic nervous system has been described in heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to assess, compare and relate the impairment of both arms of the autonomic nervous systems, the sympathetic and parasympathetic (SNS and PNS) in a same group of patients. We analyzed 23 patients with advanced HF (NYHA III-IV/IV and IV/IV) and EF<35% who were on the waiting list for heart transplantation. We assessed the SNS by determining cardiac uptake of (123)I metaiodobenzylguanidine, and analyzed the heart mediastinum rate (HMR) and the myocardial washout rate (WR). The PNS was assessed by 24-hour Holter ECG recording and subsequent analyses of heart rate turbulence (HRT) in which turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS) were determined. In the study of the SNS, HMR values were 1.32 ± 0.12, and WR 0.36 ± 0.1. Higher creatinine levels were associated with a lower WR (r=-0.604; p=0.02). In the study of the SNP, TO was higher the lower the LVEF (r=-0.410; p=0.052), and age was associated with a lower TS (r=-0.4; p=0.059). In the study of the relationships between the SNS and PNS, HMR was correlated in a nearly significant manner with TO (r=-0.399; p=0.059) and WR with TS (r=-0.447; p=0.033). In stable patients with advanced HF (NYHA III-IV and IV/IV), a significant and parallel impairment occurs in both arms of the autonomic nervous system. This could have prognostic implications and would help to prioritize patients on the waiting list for heart transplantation.
    International journal of cardiology 10/2011; 152(1):83-7. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Daclizumab is an interleukin-2 receptor antagonist which is used for induction therapy in heart transplant patients. It has few side effects and is associated with a low infection rate. Postoperative renal failure after heart transplantation is common and potentially fatal. The administration of calcineurin inhibitors in the postoperative period can aggravate the situation. We report the cases of six patients who underwent heart transplantation and developed acute renal failure in the immediate postoperative period. All were administered daclizumab weekly to avoid the introduction of calcineurin inhibitors and to facilitate recovery of renal function. Calcineurin inhibitors were introduced only once renal function had improved. Renal function recovered in all cases and there was a low complication rate. The administration of repeated doses of daclizumab to patients who experience acute postoperative renal failure after heart transplantation may provide an alternative therapeutic approach that enables calcineurin inhibitors to be avoided and, consequently, renal function to recover.
    Revista Espa de Cardiologia 02/2011; 64(3):237-9. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most common, significant problems after heart transplantation (HT) is the development of renal dysfunction. In recent years, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) has replaced the serum creatinine as the standard parameter for its determination. Our objective was to analyze which renal function parameter (creatinine or GFR) at 1 year after HT better classified patients who will die during follow-up. The study included 316 consecutive HT patients surviving at least 1 year after transplantation. Creatinine and GFR were determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD4) equation. Mortality during the follow-up was analyzed to compare both parameters using receiver operating characteristic curves. Over a mean follow-up of 6±3 years, 97 patients died (30.7%). At 1 year after HT, the patients who succumbed displayed a significantly higher mean creatinine value (1.63±0.65 vs 1.41±0.64 mg/dL; P=.004) and a more decreased GFR (53.8 vs 60.8 mL/min/1.73 m2; P=.006). Both groups had the same area under the curve, 0.61 (95% confidence interval: 0.54-0.68; P=.002). Among our population, GFR calculated by the abbreviated MDRD4 equation did not provide any additional prognostic value to serum creatinine at 1 year after HT to predict long-term mortality.
    Transplantation Proceedings 10/2010; 42(8):3196-8. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heart transplant recipients show an abnormal heart rate (HR) response to exercise due to complete cardiac denervation after surgery. They present elevated resting HR, minimal increase in HR during exercise, with maximal HR reached during the recovery period. The objective of this study was to study the frequency of normalization of the abnormal HR in the first 6 months after transplantation. We prospectively studied 27 heart transplant recipients who underwent treadmill exercise tests at 2 and 6 months after heart transplantation (HT). HR responses to exercise were classified as normal or abnormal, depending on achieving all of the following criteria: (1) increased HR for each minute of exercise, (2) highest HR at the peak exercise intensity, and (3) decreased HR for each minute of the recovery period. The HR response at 2 months was compared with the results at 6 months post-HT. At 2 months post-HT, 96.3% of the patients showed abnormal HR responses to exercise. Four months later, 11 patients (40.7%) had normalized HR responses (P<.001), which also involved a significant decrease in the time to achieve the highest HR after exercise (124.4±63.8 seconds in the first test and 55.6±44.6 seconds in the second). A significant improvement in exercise capacity and chronotropic competence was also shown in tests performed at 6 months after surgery. We observed important improvements in HR responses to exercise at 6 months after HT, which may represent early functional cardiac reinnervation.
    Transplantation Proceedings 10/2010; 42(8):3186-8. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal dysfunction (RD) is one of the most significant long-term complications of heart transplantation (HT). Although RD is generally attributed to a direct effect of calcineurin inhibitors, it is more probable that multiple factors contribute to its development. The aim of this study was to search for predictor variables of RD at 1 year after HT. Three hundred sixteen consecutive HT patients were evaluated. The relationship between RD at 1 year (glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2), and pretransplant and 1-year follow-up variables was analyzed. At 1 year following HT, 181 patients (57%) had a glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. On multivariate analysis, pretransplant serum creatinine values (odds ratio [OR] 5.106, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.35-11.09, P=0.0001) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.08-3.83, P=0.027) were significant predictors of RD, and diabetes mellitus was almost significant (OR 1.65, 95% CI: 0.98-2.76, P=0.055). Variables protective against RD were induction therapy with interleukin-2 receptor antagonists versus muromonab-CD3 (OR 0.389, 95% CI: 0.24-0.61, P=0.0001), maintenance treatment with mycophenolate mofetil versus azathioprine (OR 0.42, 95% CI: 0.26-0.68, P=0.0001), and CMV antiviral prophylaxis (OR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.17-0.68, P=0.021). Fifty-seven percent of HT patients had RD at 1 year posttransplant. RD was associated with pretransplant serum creatinine values, CMV infection, and diabetes mellitus. Induction with interleukin-2 receptor antagonists, treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, and antiviral prophylaxis for CMV infection all helped maintain renal function in this cohort of HT patients.
    Transplantation 04/2010; 89(8):977-82. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Europace 01/2010; 11. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein-losing enteropathy is a rare but life-threatening complication that occurs in some patients who develop intestinal lymphangiectasis secondary to increased systemic venous pressure. Although different forms of treatment have been tried, with varying results, the majority were reported to be unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that heart transplantation may be an appropriate therapeutic option for patients who do not respond to medical treatment. At our center, we performed heart transplantations in three patients with this condition. The mean follow-up period was 11+/-2 months. No patient died and the enteropathy regressed in all three.
    Revista Espa de Cardiologia 09/2009; 62(8):937-40. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) and cardiovascular disease occur concurrently, prognosis is affected. Echocardiography can detect structural cardiac abnormalities but using this technique in all patients would place a heavy burden on resources. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the N-terminal fraction of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) can be used as a marker for silent heart disease. NT-proBNP concentration was measured in the 114 consecutive patients with SAHS who underwent echocardiography before starting treatment. Left and right ventricular systolic and diastolic function, as well as structural abnormalities, were studied. Correlations between NT-proBNP concentration and the abnormalities detected were investigated. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was plotted for NT-proBNP concentration and cardiac abnormalities. Data for 98 patients were finally analyzed. NT-proBNP concentration was significantly correlated with ventricular septal thickness (r=0.63), posterior wall thickness (r=0.45), and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (r=0.51) (P<.0001 for all correlations). The area under the ROC curve was significant (0.870; 95% confidence interval, 0.801-0.939; P<.0001). Assuming that specificity would be more useful for clinical practice, we calculated that NT-proBNP concentrations below 100 and 200 pg/mL could rule out structural abnormalities with a reliability of 90% and 100%, respectively. NT-proBNP concentration was strongly correlated with echocardiographic abnormalities and so could be a useful tool for identifying patients who should be referred to the cardiologist.
    Archivos de Bronconeumología 04/2009; 45(4):173-80. · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and objectiveWhen sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) and cardiovascular disease occur concurrently, prognosis is affected. Echocardiography can detect structural cardiac abnormalities but using this technique in all patients would place a heavy burden on resources. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the N-terminal fraction of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) can be used as a marker for silent heart disease.
    Archivos De Bronconeumologia - ARCH BRONCONEUMOL. 01/2009; 45(4):173-180.
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    ABSTRACT: Protein-losing enteropathy is a rare but life-threatening complication that occurs in some patients who develop intestinal lymphangiectasis secondary to increased systemic venous pressure. Although different forms of treatment have been tried, with varying results, the majority were reported to be unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that heart transplantation may be an appropriate therapeutic option for patients who do not respond to medical treatment. At our center, we performed heart transplantations in three patients with this condition. The mean follow-up period was 11±2 months. No patient died and the enteropathy regressed in all three.
    Revista Espanola De Cardiologia - REV ESPAN CARDIOL. 01/2009; 62(8):937-940.
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise capacity has been shown to be reduced among cardiac transplant recipients. This observation is directly connected to both the transplanted heart's dependence on circulating catecholamines and the abnormal sympathoadrenal response to exercise in these patients. Taking into account this background, there is reluctance to use beta-blockers after heart transplantation. Nevertheless, this point remains controversial. Our aim was to examine exercise tolerance after an oral dose of atenolol early after cardiac transplantation. Eighteen nonrejecting, otherwise health, cardiac transplant recipients were included in this study at a mean of 61.9 +/- 25.6 days after surgery; 13 were men. Patients performed controlled exercise to a symptom-limited maximum before and 2 hours after taking an oral dose of atenolol. Heart rate, blood pressure, exercise time, and metabolic equivalent units (METS) were recorded at rest as well as during and after exercise. We compared results depending on taking atenolol. Resting (101.7 +/- 14.5 vs 84 +/- 12.4 bpm; P = .001) and peak heart rates (128.5 +/- 12.9 vs 100.7 +/- 16 bpm; P = .001) were significantly higher before than after beta blockade. Resting systolic blood pressure was slightly higher before compared with after beta blockade (129.3 +/- 23.6 vs 122.2 +/- 20.3 mm Hg; P = .103). However, there was neither a significant difference in the length of exercise (3.17 +/- 1.96 vs 3.40 +/- 2.48 minutes; P = .918) nor in the estimated oxygen consumption (METS; 5.07 +/- 1.8 vs 5.31 +/- 2.2; P = .229). Furthermore, no patient reported a greater degree of tiredness after beta blockade. This study showed little adverse effect on exercise tolerance by beta blockade in recently transplanted patients. Atenolol seemed to be safe in this context.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2009; 41(6):2250-2. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing urgent heart transplantation (HT) have a poorer prognosis and more long-term complications. The objective of this study was to compare the preoperative course in patients undergoing urgent HT according to the need for preoperative intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP). We studied 102 consecutive patients including 23 patients with IABP who underwent urgent HT between January 2000 and September 2006. We excluded patients who received combination transplants, those who underwent repeat HT, and pediatric patients who underwent HT. The statistical methods used were the t test for quantitative variables and the chi(2) test for qualitative variables. A logistic regression model was constructed to assess the possible relationship between IABP and other variables on premature death within 30 days after HT. Mean (SD) patient-age was 50 (10) years. No significant differences were observed in baseline characteristics between the IABP and the non-IAPB groups. The IABP patient group had higher rates of acute graft failure (45.5% vs 35.4%; P = .46) and premature death (18.8% vs 14.8%; P = .67) and shorter long-term survival (40.6 [34.9] vs 54.5 [43.7] mo; P = .30). Multivariate analysis demonstrated no association between the need for IABP and increased frequency of premature death. Use of IABP is not associated with premature or late death. We recommend use of IABP in patients with acute decompensated heart failure to stabilize them before HT.
    Transplantation Proceedings 12/2008; 40(9):3025-6. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is the leading cause of death heart transplant (HT) recipients after the first year. We assessed the influence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in HT recipients on the development of CAV after 1 year of follow-up. From 2001 to 2005, we studied 72 patients who received a HT and survived for at least 1 years. All patients underwent coronary arteriography and intravascular ultrasonography at 1 year after HT. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy was defined as intimal proliferation of 0.5 mm or more. The analyzed CVRFs were age, sex, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking. We also considered the heart disease that was the reason for HT. The statistical tests used in the univariate analysis were the t and chi(2) tests. Logistic regression was performed with the variables obtained at univariate analysis. Mean (SD) recipient age at HT was 51 (9) years. Eighty patients (90.5%) were men. Dyslipidemia was significantly associated with a greater incidence of CAV at 1 year (68.3% vs 41.9%; P = .03). Ischemia, as opposed to all other causes, was also significantly associated with CAV (69.4% vs 44.4%; P = .03). Older age, hypertension, smoking history, and high body mass index were associated with a higher incidence of CAV, albeit without statistical significance. At multivariate analysis, dyslipidemia was the most significant CVRF (P = .045) for the development of CAV. Recipient dyslipidemia is a risk factor for the development of CAV in HT. The remaining traditional CVRFs are more weakly associated with CAV. After HT close monitoring of recipients with pretransplantation CVRFs is essential for early detection of CAV.
    Transplantation Proceedings 12/2008; 40(9):3056-7. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal dysfunction is a serious problem after heart transplantation (HT). The objective of this study was to determine the cardiovascular risk factors associated with medium- to long-term dysfunction after HT. We studied 247 consecutive patients who underwent HT between January 2000 and September 2006 who survived for at least 6 months. We excluded patients receiving combination transplants, those undergoing repeat HT, and pediatric patients undergoing HT. Mean (SD) follow-up was 72 (42) months. We defined renal dysfunction as serum creatinine concentration greater than 1.4 mg/dL during follow-up. Patients were considered to be smokers if they had smoked during the six months before HT, to have hypertension if they required drugs for blood pressure control, and to have diabetes if they required insulin therapy. Statistical tests included the t test and the chi(2) tests. We performed Cox regression analysis using significant or nearly significant values in the univariate analysis. Mean (SD) age of the patients who underwent HT was 52 (10) years, and 217 (87.9%) were men. Renal dysfunction was detected during follow-up in 135 (54.5%) patients. The significant variables at univariate analysis were smoking (61.4% vs. 43.2%; P = .01) and previous renal dysfunction (94.1% vs 52.7%; P = .001). Nearly significant variables were the presence of hypertension before HT (63.8% vs 51.1%; P = .09) and after HT (58.2% vs 44.8%; P = .082). At multivariate analysis, pre-HT smoking and previous renal dysfunction were significant correlates (P = .04 and P = .01, respectively). Renal dysfunction is common after HT. In our analysis, the best predictors were pre-HT dysfunction and smoking. Less important factors were advanced age and post-HT hypertension.
    Transplantation Proceedings 12/2008; 40(9):3049-50. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to determine the factors that cause arterial hypertension after heart transplantation (HT) and the drugs used in its management. We studied 247 consecutive patients who had undergone HT between 2000 and 2006 and who survived for at least 6 months. We excluded patients who received combination transplants, those who underwent repeat transplantation, and pediatric patients who had received transplants. Hypertension was defined as the need to use drugs for its control. Renal dysfunction was defined as serum creatinine concentration greater than 1.4 mg/dL, and diabetes as the need for an antidiabetes drug for its control. Statistical analyses were performed using the t test, the chi(2) test, and Cox regression. Mean (SD) patient age was 52 (10) years, and 87.4% of the patients were men. Follow-up was 72 (42) months. Hypertension was present in 33.3% of patients before HT and in 71.1% at some time after HT. The number of drugs used to control hypertension was 1.3 (0.5); one drug was used in 72.9% of patients. The most often used single class of drugs were calcium channel blockers (63.2%), followed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (20%), and angiotensin receptor blockers (15.8%). Only pre-HT hypertension was significantly associated with greater use of antihypertensive drugs post-HT (mean [SD], 1.48 [0.65] vs 1.22 [0.41]; P = .005). At univariate analysis, only pre-HT hypertension was associated with the presence of post-HT hypertension (80.5% vs 65.5%; P = .02). At Cox regression analysis, recipient age (P = .02) and pre-HT hypertension (P = .004) were associated with post-HT hypertension. Hypertension is common after HT; however, in most patients, it can be controlled with a single antihypertensive agent. The most important factors in the development of hypertension are the presence of pre-HT hypertension and advanced age.
    Transplantation Proceedings 12/2008; 40(9):3051-2. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionIt is not well established whether non-responder patients(NR) to clopidogrel show, as a risk factor, higher number of platelet microaggregates (PMAs) than responder patients (R). These MAPs can affect the microcirculation and is a risk factor to forming larger thrombi, therefore the present study is interesting from this point of view.
    Revista del Laboratorio Clínico. 01/2008; 1(2).
  • Transplantation 01/2008; 86:528-529. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introducción y objetivos. Las concentraciones elevadas de big endotelina 1 (big ET-1) se relacionan con la gravedad y el pronóstico de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca (IC), mientras que N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) es un marcador de remodelado ventricular. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue relacionar los valores de big ET-1 con NT-proBNP y con la función miocárdica. Pacientes y método. Estudiamos a 103 pacientes (75 varones; 63 ± 13 años) diagnosticados de IC. Cada participante completó un cuestionario y fue sometido a un estudio eco-Doppler para la medición de la fracción de eyección (FE), la velocidad de propagación del flujo mitral (Vp) y el desplazamiento del plano auriculoventricular (DPAV). Se realizó una extracción de sangre para determinar los valores de big ET-1, aldosterona y NT-proBNP. Resultados. Para toda la población, el valor de big ET-1 fue de 1,03 ± 0,75 fmol/ml, el de NT-proBNP de 619 (307-1.328) pg/ml, el de aldosterona de 168 ± 102 pg/ml, la FE de 37 ± 10, la Vp de 37 ± 11 cm/s y el DPAV de 8,0 ± 1,7 mm. La big ET-1 se correlacionó positivamente con el NT-proBNP (r = 0,50; p < 0,0001) e inversamente con la FE (r = -­0,30; p < 0,01), la Vp (r = ­-0,30; p < 0,01) y el DPAV (r = -­0,21; p < 0,05). Al dividir la big ET-1 en cuartiles y comparar los valores de NT-proBNP, FE, Vp y DPAV obtuvimos diferencias estadísticamente significativas (ANOVA p < 0,0001, p < 0,01, p < 0,05 y p < 0,05, respectivamente). Conclusiones. Los valores plasmáticos de big ET-1 muestran una correlación positiva con los de NT-proBNP y una correlación inversa con la FE, la Vp y el DPAV. Estos hallazgos ayudan a esclarecer las relaciones entre la función ventricular y la activación neurohormonal en la insuficiencia cardíaca y facilitan la búsqueda de nuevas intervenciones terapéuticas.
    Revista Espanola de Cardiologia 01/2005; 58(3):278. · 3.20 Impact Factor