John S Gill

University of British Columbia - Vancouver, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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Publications (96)608.94 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Living kidney donation is declining in the United States. We examined longitudinal trends in living donation as a function of median household income and donor relation to assess the effect of financial barriers on donation in a changing economic environment. The zip code-level median household income of all 71,882 living donors was determined by linkage to the 2000 US Census. Longitudinal changes in the rate of donation were determined in income quintiles between 1999 and 2004, when donations were increasing, and between 2005 and 2010, when donations were declining. Rates were adjusted for population differences in age, sex, race, and ESRD rate using multilevel linear regression models. Between 1999 and 2004, the rate of growth in living donation per million population was directly related to income, increasing progressively from the lowest to highest income quintile, with annualized changes of 0.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.14 to 1.05) for Q1 and 1.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 2.77) for Q5 (P<0.05). Between 2005 and 2010, donation declined in Q1, Q2, and Q3; was stable in Q4; and continued to grow in Q5. Longitudinal changes varied by donor relationship, and the association of income with longitudinal changes also varied by donor relationship. In conclusion, changes in living donation in the past decade varied by median household income, resulting in increased disparities in donation between low- and high-income populations. These findings may inform public policies to support living donation during periods of economic volatility.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 07/2014;
  • John S Gill, Marcello Tonelli
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2014; 312(1):95-96. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obese patients encounter barriers to medical care not encountered by lean patients, and inequities in access to care among obese patients may vary by sex. This study aimed to determine the association of body mass index (BMI) with access to kidney transplantation in men and women. In this retrospective analysis of 702,456 incident ESRD patients aged 18-70 years (captured in the US Renal Data System between 1995 and 2007), multivariate time-to-event analyses were used to determine the association of BMI with likelihood of transplantation from any donor source, transplantation from a living donor, and transplantation from a deceased donor, as well the individual steps in obtaining a deceased donor transplant (activation to the waiting list, and transplantation after wait-listing). Among women, a BMI≥25.0 kg/m(2) was associated with a lower likelihood of transplantation from any donor source (hazard ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.73 to 0.77), transplantation from a living donor (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.77), and transplantation from a deceased donor (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.77). By contrast, among men, a BMI of 25.0-34.9 kg/m(2) was associated with a higher likelihood of the outcomes of transplantation from any donor source (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.11), transplantation from a living donor (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.22), and transplantation from a deceased donor (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.07). Among men, the level beyond which BMI was associated with a lower likelihood of transplantation from any donor source or a living donor was ≥40.0 kg/m(2), and ≥35.0 kg/m(2) in the case of deceased donor transplantation. The association of BMI with access to transplantation varies between men and women. The reasons for this difference should be further studied.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 04/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • E. J. Gordon, J. S. Gill
    American Journal of Transplantation 04/2014; · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of pulsatile perfusion (PP) across different cold ischemic times (CIT) within different donor groups is unclear. This study examined the association of PP with delayed graft function (DGF) in all (n=94,709) deceased donor kidney transplants in the US between 2000 and 2011, as a function of CIT and donor type. Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data, all adult standard criteria donors (SCD, n=71,192), expanded criteria donors (ECD, n=15,122), and donors after circulatory death (DCD, n=8,395) kidney transplant recipients were identified. Within each donor group, transplants were stratified based on duration of CIT: 0 to 6 hours, 6.1 to 12 hours, 12.1 to 18 hours, 18.1 to 24 hours, 24.1 to 30 hours, 30.1 to 36 hours, and greater than 36 hours. Within each group, the odds of DGF with and without PP was determined after adjusting for donor, recipient, and transplant factors, including a propensity score for the likelihood of PP use, and clustering on transplant center using multivariable logistic regression. When stratified by donor type and CIT, the adjusted odds of DGF were lower with PP across all CIT in SCD transplants, when CIT was greater than 6 hours in ECD transplants, and when CIT was between 6 and 24 hours in DCD transplants. CIT was independently associated with a greater risk of DGF irrespective of storage method, but this effect was substantially modified by PP. PP is associated with a reduced risk of DGF irrespective of donor type and CIT. Although PP modifies the impact of CIT on the risk of DGF, it does not eliminate its association with DGF, suggesting the optimal strategy to reduce DGF is to minimize CIT and utilize PP in all deceased donor transplants.
    Transplantation 03/2014; 97(6):668-74. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • John S Gill, Marcello Tonelli
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 02/2014; 311(6):577-9. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    E J Gordon, J S Gill
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    ABSTRACT: As Fallahzadeh et al's study (page 3210) shows that paid donors experience a compromised health status compared to unpaid donors, this editorial calls into question the rigor of the pretransplant evaluation in the Iranian model.
    American Journal of Transplantation 11/2013; · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unlike the United States, the potential to increase organ donation in Canada may be sufficient to meet the need for transplantation. However, there has been no national coordinated effort to increase organ donation. Strategies that do not involve payment for organs, such as investment in health care resources to support deceased donor organ donation and introduction of a remuneration framework for the work of deceased organ donation, should be prioritized for implementation. Financial incentives that may be permitted under existing legislation and that pose little risk to existing donation sources should be advanced, including the following: payment of funeral expenses for potential donors who register their decision on organ donation during life (irrespective of the decision to donate or actual organ donation) and removal of disincentives for directed and paired exchange living donation, such as payment of wages, payment for pain and suffering related to the donor surgery, and payment of directed living kidney donors for participation in Canada's paired exchange program. In contrast, it would be premature to contemplate a regulated system of organ sales that would require a paradigm shift in the current approach to organ donation and legislative change to implement.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 11/2013; · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For eligible candidates, transplantation is considered the optimal treatment compared with dialysis for patients with ESRD. The growing number of patients with ESRD requires new strategies to increase the pool of potential donors. Using decision analysis modeling, this study compared a strategy of paying living kidney donors to waitlisted recipients on dialysis with the current organ donation system. In the base case estimate, this study assumed that the number of donors would increase by 5% with a payment of $10,000. Quality of life estimates, resource use, and costs (2010 Canadian dollars) were based on the best available published data. Compared with the current organ donation system, a strategy of increasing the number of kidneys for transplantation by 5% by paying living donors $10,000 has an incremental cost-savings of $340 and a gain of 0.11 quality-adjusted life years. Increasing the number of kidneys for transplantation by 10% and 20% would translate into incremental cost-savings of $1640 and $4030 and incremental quality-adjusted life years gain of 0.21 and 0.39, respectively. Although the impact is uncertain, this model suggests that a strategy of paying living donors to increase the number of kidneys available for transplantation could be cost-effective, even with a transplant rate increase of only 5%. Future work needs to examine the feasibility, legal policy, ethics, and public perception of a strategy to pay living donors.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kidney transplant failure (TF) is among the leading causes of dialysis initiation. Whether survival is similar for patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) and with hemodialysis (HD) after TF is unclear and may inform decisions concerning dialysis modality selection. Between 1995 and 2007, 16 113 adult dialysis patients identified from the US Renal Data System initiated dialysis after TF. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the impact of initial dialysis modality (1 865 PD, 14 248 HD) on early (1-year) and overall mortality in an intention-to-treat approach. Compared with HD patients, PD patients were younger (46.1 years vs 49.4 years, p < 0.0001) with fewer comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus (23.1% vs 25.7%, p < 0.0001). After adjustment, survival among PD patients was greater within the first year after dialysis initiation [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74 to 0.97], but lower after 2 years (AHR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.29). During the entire period of observation, survival in both groups was similar (AHR for PD compared with HD: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.20). In a sensitivity analysis restricted to a cohort of 1865 propensity-matched pairs of HD and PD patients, results were similar (AHR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.14). Subgroups of patients with a body mass index exceeding 30 kg/m2 [AHR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.52) and with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 (AHR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.98) experienced inferior overall survival when treated with PD. Compared with HD, PD is associated with an early survival advantage, inferior late survival, and similar overall survival in patients initiating dialysis after TF. Those data suggest that increased initial use of PD among patients returning to dialysis after TF may be associated with improved outcomes, except among patients with a higher BMI and those who initiate dialysis at lower levels of eGFR. The reasons behind the inferior late survival seen in PD patients are unclear and require further study.
    Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of racial disparities in access to living donor kidney transplantation focus mainly on patient factors, whereas donor factors remain largely unexamined. Here, data from the US Census Bureau were combined with data on all African-American and white living kidney donors in the United States who were registered in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) between 1998 and 2010 (N=57,896) to examine the associations between living kidney donation (LKD) and donor median household income and race. The relative incidence of LKD was determined in zip code quintiles ranked by median household income after adjustment for age, sex, ESRD rate, and geography. The incidence of LKD was greater in higher-income quintiles in both African-American and white populations. Notably, the total incidence of LKD was higher in the African-American population than in the white population (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.17 to 1.24]), but ratios varied by income. The incidence of LKD was lower in the African-American population than in the white population in the lowest income quintile (IRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.90), but higher in the African-American population in the three highest income quintiles, with IRRs of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.22 to 1.41) in Q3, 1.50 (95% CI, 1.39 to 1.62) in Q4, and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.73 to 2.02) in Q5. Thus, these data suggest that racial disparities in access to living donor transplantation are likely due to socioeconomic factors rather than cultural differences in the acceptance of LKD.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 03/2013; 95(5):705. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information to guide the timing of a second kidney transplantation is limited. We compared outcomes of 3509 preemptive and 14,075 nonpreemptive second kidney transplant recipients in the U.S. Renal Data System between 1995 and 2007. Preemptive recipients had less acute rejection (12% vs. 16%; P<0.0001) and delayed graft function (8% vs. 23%; P<0.0001). Preemptive transplantation was associated with a lower multivariate adjusted risk of allograft failure from any cause including death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.81-0.96) and death with a functioning graft (HR [95% CI], 0.76 [0.66-0.87]) but a similar risk of death-censored graft loss (HR [95% CI], 0.98 [0.88-1.08]). The benefits of preemptive transplantation were evident in all patients groups with first transplant survival equal to or more than 1 year; however, a 34% increased risk of death-censored graft loss was observed in preemptive recipients when first transplant survival was less than 1 year. Benefits and risks of preemptive transplantation vary between primary and second transplant recipients. Benefits in second transplant recipients are primarily due to decreased death with a functioning graft, with no difference in death-censored graft survival. Preemptive transplantation was beneficial when first transplant survival was equal to or more than 1 year but associated with increased risk when graft survival was less than 1 year.
    Transplantation 03/2013; 95(5):705-10. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: New onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) and acute rejection (AR) are important causes of morbidity and risk factors for allograft failure after kidney transplantation. METHODS: In this multi-center, open label, single-arm pilot study, 49 adult (>=18 years of age), low immunologic risk, non-diabetic recipients of a first deceased or living donor kidney transplant received early steroid reduction to 5 mg/day combined with Thymoglobulin(R) (Genzyme Transplant, Cambridge, MA, USA) induction, low dose cyclosporine (2-hour post-dose (C2) target of 600 to 800 ng/ml) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) therapy. RESULTS: Six months after transplantation, two patients (4%) developed NODM and one patient (2%) developed AR. Four patients had impaired fasting glucose tolerance based on 75-g oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). There was one patient death. There were no episodes of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or BK virus nephritis. In contrast, in a historical cohort of n = 27 patients treated with Thymoglobulin induction, and conventional doses of cyclosporine and corticosteroids, the incidence of NODM and AR was 18% and 15%. CONCLUSIONS: The pilot study results suggest that Thymoglobulin induction combined with early steroid reduction, reduced cyclosporine exposure and MPA, may reduce the incidence of both NODM and AR in low immunological risk patients. A future controlled study enriched for patients at high risk for NODM is under consideration.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00706680.
    Transplantation research. 01/2013; 2(1):1.
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    ABSTRACT: BK virus infection has emerged as a major complication in kidney transplantation leading to a significant reduction in graft survival. There are currently no proven strategies to prevent or treat BK virus infection. Quinolone antibiotics, such as levofloxacin, have demonstrated activity against BK virus. We hypothesize that administration of a quinolone antibiotic, when given early post-transplantation, will prevent the establishment of BK viral replication in the urine and thus prevent systemic BK virus infection. The aim of this pilot trial is to assess the efficacy, safety and feasibility of a 3-month course of levofloxacin in the kidney transplant population. This is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with two parallel arms conducted in 11 Canadian kidney transplant centers. A total of 154 patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing kidney transplantation will be randomized to receive a 3-month course of levofloxacin or placebo starting in the early post-transplant period. Levofloxacin will be administered at 500 mg po daily with dose adjustments based on kidney function. The primary outcome will be the time to occurrence of BK viruria within the first year post-transplantation. Secondary outcomes include BK viremia, measures of safety (adverse events, resistant infections,Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea), measures of feasibility (proportion of transplanted patients recruited into the trial), proportion of patients adherent to the protocol, patient drop-out and loss to follow-up,and use of quinolone antibiotics outside of the trial protocol. Results from this pilot study will provide vital information to design and conduct a large, multicenter trial to determine if quinolone therapy decreases clinically meaningful outcomes in kidney transplantation. If levofloxacin significantly reduces BK viruria and urine viral loads in kidney transplantation, it will provide important justification to progress to the larger trial. If the full trial shows that levofloxacin significantly reduces BK infection and improves outcomes, its use in kidney transplantation will be strongly endorsed given the lack of proven therapies for this condition. This trial was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant number:222493) and is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01353339).
    Trials 01/2013; 14(1):185. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Canada has a marked shortfall between the supply and demand for kidneys for transplantation. Median wait times for deceased donor kidney transplantation vary from 5.8 years in British Columbia, 5.2 years in Manitoba and 4.5 years in Ontario to a little over 2 years in Quebec and Nova Scotia. Living donation provides a viable option for some, but not all people. Consequently, a small number of people travel abroad to undergo kidney transplantation by commercial means. The extent to which they are aware of the potential risks to their health and the health of the kidney vendors is unclear. Travel abroad to obtain a kidney commercially i.e. transplant tourism (TT), raises ethical issues which include the exploitation of the poor, uncertainty of donor informed consent to nephrectomy, poor clinical care and lack of follow up for the donor, commodification of the body and inequity of access to medical care for donors. Also, TT widens socioeconomic disparities in access to transplantation, differing from the Canadian system of universal coverage for healthcare. The Canadian transplant community has discussed how to respond to patients who plan to travel abroad for TT or return with a purchased kidney. Unease rests in the tension between the duty to care for legitimate Canadian residents and the unwillingness to enable TT. This paper discusses three anonymized cases and the Canadian responses to TT as recorded in academic literature and a formal statement by relevant professional bodies.
    Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 11/2012; · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The acceptability of financial incentives for organ donation is contentious. This study sought to determine (1) the acceptability of expense reimbursement or financial incentives by the general public, health professionals involved with organ donation and transplantation, and those with or affected by kidney disease and (2) for the public, whether financial incentives would alter their willingness to consider donation. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Web-based survey administered to members of the Canadian public, health professionals, and people with or affected by kidney disease asking questions regarding acceptability of strategies to increase living and deceased kidney donation and willingness to donate a kidney under various financial incentives. RESULTS: Responses were collected from 2004 members of the Canadian public October 11-18, 2011; responses from health professionals (n=339) and people with or affected by kidney disease (n=268) were collected during a 4-week period commencing October 11, 2011. Acceptability of one or more financial incentives to increase deceased and living donation was noted in >70% and 40% of all groups, respectively. Support for monetary payment for living donors was 45%, 14%, and 27% for the public, health professionals, and people with or affected by kidney disease, respectively. Overall, reimbursement of funeral expenses for deceased donors and a tax break for living donors were the most acceptable. CONCLUSION: The general public views regulated financial incentives for living and deceased donation to be acceptable. Future research needs to examine the impact of financial incentives on rates of deceased and living donors.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2012; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of patients older than 65 years are referred for and have access to organ transplantation, and an increasing number of older adults are donating organs. Although short-term outcomes are similar in older versus younger transplant recipients, older donor or recipient age is associated with inferior long-term outcomes. However, age is often a proxy for other factors that might predict poor outcomes more strongly and better identify patients at risk for adverse events. Approaches to transplantation in older adults vary across programs, but despite recent gains in access and the increased use of marginal organs, older patients remain less likely than other groups to receive a transplant, and those who do are highly selected. Moreover, few studies have addressed geriatric issues in transplant patient selection or management, or the implications on health span and disability when patients age to late life with a transplanted organ. This paper summarizes a recent trans-disciplinary workshop held by ASP, in collaboration with NHLBI, NIA, NIAID, NIDDK and AGS, to address issues related to kidney, liver, lung, or heart transplantation in older adults and to propose a research agenda in these areas.
    American Journal of Transplantation 09/2012; 12(10):2608-2622. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disincentives for living kidney donation are common but are poorly understood. We studied 54 483 living donor kidney transplants in the United States between 2000 and 2009, limiting to those with valid zip code data to allow determination of median household income by linkage to the 2000 U.S. Census. We then determined the income and income difference of donors and recipients. The median household income in donors and recipients was $46 334 ±$17 350 and $46 439 ±$17 743, respectively. Donation-related expenses consume ≥ 1 month's income in 76% of donors. The mean ± standard deviation income difference between recipients and donors in transplants involving a wealthier recipient was $22 760 ± 14 792 and in 90% of transplants the difference was <$40 000 dollars. The findings suggest that the capacity for donors to absorb the financial consequences of donation, or of recipients to reimburse allowable expenses, is limited. There were few transplants with a large difference in recipient and donor income, suggesting that the scope and value of any payment between donors and recipients is likely to be small. We conclude that most donors and recipients have similar modest incomes, suggesting that the costs of donation are a significant burden in the majority of living donor transplants.
    American Journal of Transplantation 08/2012; · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    J. S. Gill, B. Strijack
    American Journal of Transplantation 06/2012; 12(6). · 6.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
608.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Division of Nephrology
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2013
    • St. Michael's Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Northwestern University
      • Center for Healthcare Studies
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
    • University of Manitoba
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2003–2013
    • St. Paul's Hospital
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • 2012
    • Mount Sinai School of Medicine
      • Department of Medicine
      Manhattan, NY, United States
  • 2007–2012
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Division of Nephrology
      London, Ontario, Canada
    • Hospital Civil de Guadalajara
      Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
  • 2004–2012
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Medicine
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2010
    • Mount Sinai Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • Department of Nephrology
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
  • 2007–2010
    • The University of Calgary
      • • Section of Nephrology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 2009
    • Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • University of Toronto
      • Division of Neurology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Queen's University
      • Department of Medicine
      Kingston, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002–2003
    • Tufts Medical Center
      • Division of Nephrology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • New England Baptist Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States