Moncef Ladjimi

Qatar Foundation, Ad Dawḩah, Baladīyat ad Dawḩah, Qatar

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Publications (40)128.27 Total impact

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    International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 07/2014; 68:274. DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.04.049 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a secondary metabolite produced by some Fusarium species that contaminate a large variety of grains and feedstuffs worldwide. ZEN has been associated with a wide variety of adverse health effects including hepatotoxic, hematologic, immunotoxic and genotoxic. In order to better understand the mechanism of ZEN toxicity, a proteomic approach was applied to characterize cellular responses of hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2) to ZEN exposure. Protein extracts from cultured HepG2 cells treated with 100 µ m ZEN for 8 h, as well as extracts from control cells. The screening method applied to compare the proteome was based on the stable isotope approach of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). This study identified 982 proteins, among which peptides and their corresponding proteins were identified and quantified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Ingenuity pathways analysis software was then used to determine the biological functions and canonical pathways associated with the ZEN-responsive proteins. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 07/2013; 33(7). DOI:10.1002/jat.1766 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of a protein called α-synuclein (α-syn) into inclusions known as lewy bodies (LB) within neurons. This accumulation is also due to insufficient formation and activity of dopamine produced in certain neurons within the substantia nigra. Lewy bodies are the pathological hallmark of the idiopathic disorder and the cascade that allows α-synuclein to misfold, aggregate and form these inclusions has been the subject of intensive research. Targeting these early steps of oligomerization is one of the main therapeutic approaches in order to develop neurodegenerative-modifying agents. Because the folding and refolding of alpha synuclein is the key point of this cascade, we are interested in this review to summarize the role of some molecular chaperones proteins such as Hsp70, Hsp90 and small heat shock proteins (sHsp) and Hsp 104. Hsp70 and its co-chaperone, Hsp70 and small heat shock proteins can prevent neurodegeneration by preventing α-syn misfolding, oligomerization and aggregation in vitro and in Parkinson disease animals models. Hsp104 is able to resolve disordered protein aggregates and cross beta amyloid conformers. Together, these chaperones have a complementary effect and can be a target for therapeutic intervention in PD.
    International journal of biological macromolecules 06/2013; 60. DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.05.032 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the involvement of α-Synuclein (α-Syn) in lipid transport and its role in the normal function and in the pathology of Parkinson disease, it is important to study first the surface properties of the protein at the air/water interface and second its behavior related to biological membranes. For this purpose, the monomolecular film technique was used as membrane model to compare the interactions with various phospholipids of monomeric and fibrillar forms of α-Syn. We have determined the apparent equilibrium surface pressure of the two forms of α-Syn (monomeric and fibrillar form) at the air/water interface. The surface pressures reached by monomeric α-Syn were shown to be higher than the ones of fibrillar α-Syn and similar to the value obtained by mellitin, a lytic peptide of bee venom, which has been described as "protein detergent". The monomeric α-Syn adsorbed more rapidly at the air/water interface with a maximal adsorption rate at least 60-times higher than the fibrillar form. In the presence of a phospholipid monolayer, the surface activities of two α-Syn forms are much greater than observed at the air/water interface. Also we can show that the fibrillar form of α-Syn have a higher value of critical pressure than the monomeric form for the cow brain extract and the Phospatidyl Glycerol (an anionic phospholipid) which confirm its higher affinity for the anionic phospholipid than the monomeric form. According these results, we can suggest that this aggregate form have important implications for the pathological activity and, therefore, for the associated neurotoxicity which can results in layer disruption and cell leakage.
    International journal of biological macromolecules 04/2013; 58. DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.03.057 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species. ZEA often occur as a contaminant in cereal grains and animal feeds. Human exposure occurs by ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated products and can cause serious health problems. It was established that this mycotoxin have an hepato, haemato, immuno and genotoxic properties (Maaroufi et al., 1996; Lioi et al., 2004). While most ZEA toxic effects have been quite well investigated, more studies are required to elucidate its mechanisms of toxicity. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in ZEA toxicity, we used a proteomic approach, to assess the early changes in protein expression initiated by ZEA in HepG2 cells. Our results showed that, after 8h of exposure, cells were still viable and showed a significant change in a number of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. These changes may provide the early affected functions and yield further insight into mechanisms underlying the involvement of mycotoxin-induced diseases.
    Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.etp.2012.11.007 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate), POEGMA, brushes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) on gold-coated silicon wafers. Prior to ATRP, the substrates were grafted by brominated aryl initiators via the electrochemical reduction of a noncommercial parent diazonium salt of the formula BF4−, +N2-C6H4-CH(CH3)Br. The diazonium-modified gold plates (Au-Br) served as macroinitiators for ATRP of OEGMA which resulted in hydrophilic surfaces (Au-POEGMA) that could be used for two distinct objectives: (i) resistance to fouling by Salmonella Typhimurium; (ii) specific recognition of the same bacteria provided that the POEGMA grafts are activated by anti-Salmonella. The Au-POEGMA plates were characterized by XPS, polarization modulation-infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and contact angle measurements. Both Beer-Lambert equation and Tougaard's QUASES software indicated a POEGMA thickness that exceeds the critical ∼10 nm value necessary for obtaining a hydrophilic polymer with effective resistance to cell adhesion. The Au-POEGMA slides were further activated by trichlorotriazine (TCT) in order to covalently bind anti-Salmonella antibodies (AS). The antibody-modified Au-POEGMA specimens were found to specifically attach Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria. This work is another example of the diazonium salt/ATRP process to provide biomedical polymer surfaces. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Surface and Interface Analysis 11/2011; 43(11). DOI:10.1002/sia.3741 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zearalenone (ZEA) is a fungal metabolite that can contaminate feed and foodstuffs and can cause serious health problems for animals as well as for humans. The present investigation was conducted to determine the chronological succession of the main events that characterise ZEA-induced toxicity in human hepatocarcinoma cells. To this aim, we have monitored the effects of ZEA on (1) cell viability, (2) heat-shock protein expression, (3) oxidative damage, (4) DNA fragmentation, (5) the cell cycle and (6) the cell-death-signalling pathway. Our results demonstrated that ZEA reduced cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. When we exposed HepG2 cells to 100 µM ZEA (80% of cells are viable) for different treatment times (2, 4, 8, 24, 30, 48 and 60 h), we demonstrated an induction of Hsp70 protein, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA fragmentation and cell-cycle arrest. These events begin after only 2 h of mycotoxin exposure and are earlier than those implicated in the execution of apoptosis. However, significant apoptotic cell death was observed after at least 30 h of ZEA exposure as a consequence of increased Bax expression, decreased Bcl-2 expression and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm)-released cytochrome c and activated caspase-3 and caspase-9.
    Mycotoxin Research 08/2010; 26(3):187-97. DOI:10.1007/s12550-010-0053-8
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    ABSTRACT: Zearalenone (ZEN) and Ochratoxin A (OTA) are structurally diverse fungal metabolites that can contaminate feed and foodstuff and can cause serious health problems for animals as well as for humans. In this study, we get further insight of the molecular aspects of ZEN and OTA toxicities in cultured human HepG2 hepatocytes. In this context, we have monitored the effects of ZEN and OTA on (i) cell viability, (ii) heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and Hsp 27 gene expressions as a parameter of protective and adaptive response, (iii) oxidative damage, and (iv) cell death pathways. Our results clearly showed that both ZEN and OTA inhibit cell proliferation. For ZEN, a significant induction of Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 was observed. In the same conditions, ZEN generated an important amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidant supplements restored the major part of cell mortality induced by ZEN. However, OTA treatment downregulated Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 protein and mRNA levels and did not induce ROS generation. Antioxidant supplements did not have a significant effect on OTA-induced cell mortality. Using another cell system (Vero monkey kidney cells), we demonstrated that OTA downregulates three members of HSP 70 family: Hsp 70, Hsp 75, and Hsp 78. Our findings showed that oxidative damage seemed to be the predominant toxic effect for ZEN, while OTA toxicity seemed to be rather because of the absence of Hsps protective response. Furthermore, the two mycotoxins induced an apoptotic cell death.
    Environmental Toxicology 12/2009; 24(6):538-48. DOI:10.1002/tox.20449 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin currently detected in stored animal and human food supplies as well as in human sera worldwide. OTA has diverse toxicological effects; however, the most prominent one is the nephrotoxicity. The present investigation was conducted to determine the molecular aspects of OTA toxicity in cultured human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. With this aim, we have monitored the effects of OTA on (i) cell viability, (ii) heat shock protein expressions as a parameter of protective and adaptive response, (iii) oxidative damage, and (iv) cell death signaling pathway. Our results clearly showed that OTA treatment inhibits cell proliferation, downregulates Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 protein and mRNA levels, and did not induce a significant reactive oxygen species generation. We have also demonstrated a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, a cytochrome c release, and an activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 in response to OTA exposure. Moreover, OTA activates p53 expression, while some of its transcriptional target genes (Bax, Bak, PUMA, and p21) were found to downregulate. According to these data, we concluded that OTA may exert an inhibitory action on the transcriptional process. Besides, oxidative damage is not a major contributor to OTA toxicity. This mycotoxin induces a mitochondrial and caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death, which seems to be mediated by p53 transcriptional independent activities.
    Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 03/2009; 23(2):87-96. DOI:10.1002/jbt.20268 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have modelled, using the CHARMM27 energy force field, the structures of closed and open forms of Staphylococcus simulans lipase (SSL) on the basis of the crystal structures of Bacillus stearothermophilus and Staphylococcus hyicus lipases, respectively. The models suggested the presence of a main lid and a second lid that may act with the former as a double door to control the access to the active site. Superimposition of both closed and open forms of SSL allowed us to determine the hinge regions allowing the movements of the main and the second lid upon lipase activation. The flexibility of these hinge regions was checked by molecular dynamics simulations. The SSL models also allowed us to identify key residues involved in binding substrates, calcium or zinc ions.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 08/2008; 286(2):207-21. DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01279.x · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The self-association properties of the molecular chaperone HSC 70 have been assessed by analytical ultracentrifugation. Sedimentation velocity analysis indicates the presence of three species, whose proportions were dependent on protein concentration, but whose sedimentation coefficients, s 20, w, of 4.3 S, 6.6 S and 8.5 S did not vary with concentration, which is indicative of a slowly equilibrating system. Sedimentation equilibrium studies indicate a dissociation into monomers at low HSC 70 concentrations and an association into dimers and trimers at high concentrations. Multiple sets of sedimentation equilibrium data, obtained at various initial loading concentrations and rotor speeds, were adequately fitted to a single set of equilibrium constants by a monomerdimer-trimer association model in which the association constants for the monomer-dimer and dimer-trimer equilibrium. K1−2=1.1.·105 M−1 and K 2−3=0.9·105 M−1 respectively, were nearly identical. Interestingly, na isodesmic, indefinite type of association describes the data almost equally well with a single constant of 1.2·105 M−1. These results might have important implications for the chaperone function of HSC 70.
    08/2007: pages 1-6;
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    ABSTRACT: Data of this study showed that alphaD-alphaE helices and the conserved interdomain linker are two interfaces essential not only for the self-association but also for the functional properties of rat HSC70. Self-association which is a conserved property of HSP70 seems to be important for the activity of these proteins.
    Protein and Peptide Letters 02/2007; 14(8):761-5. DOI:10.2174/092986607781483624 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hexahistidine is a fusion tag used for the isolation of proteins via an immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). In the present study, we have purified and analyzed two constructs of the heat shock protein HSC70 in the presence or the absence of the His-tag (C30WT-His(+)/C30WT and C30DeltaL-His(+)/C30DeltaL). The oligomerization properties of the constructs were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and analytical ultracentrifugation (AU). Results from SEC analysis indicated that the His-tag promotes the dimerization of C30DeltaL-His(+) but has no effect on the elution profile of C30WT-His(+), compared to their respective untagged forms C30DeltaL and C30WT. These observations were also confirmed by AU analysis which indicates that C30DeltaL is stabilized in the dimeric form in the presence of the His-tag. These results emphasize the need to remove the His-tag before structural characterization of some recombinant proteins.
    Journal of Chromatography B 01/2007; 844(2):328-34. DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2006.07.031 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HSP70 from bacteria to man are known to self-associate to form multiple species suggesting that self-association is related to function. In order to determine the structural basis of HSP70 oligomerization, deletion mutants in the C-terminal domain of HSC70, a constitutive member of the HSP70 family, have been constructed and analyzed for their self-association properties by gel electrophoresis, size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation. The results of this investigation indicate that, whereas deletion of the GGMP rich C-terminal extremity of HSC70, containing EEVD motif stabilizes the oligomeric species, deletions of either the aD-aE C-terminal helices or the inter-domain hydrophobic linker contribute to the stabilization of the monomeric form. Thus, two non-contiguous regions, located at both ends of the C-terminal domain of the protein, appear to form the contact interface in the oligomers and may interact in a dynamic fashion leading to the formation of several coexisting species.
    Archives de l'Institut Pasteur de Tunis 02/2006; 83(1-4):53-62.
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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli DnaK and rat Hsc70 are members of the highly conserved 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) family that show strong sequence and structure similarities and comparable functional properties in terms of interactions with peptides and unfolded proteins and cooperation with cochaperones. We show here that, while the DnaK protein is, as expected, able to complement an E. coli dnaK mutant strain for growth at high temperatures and lambda phage propagation, Hsc70 protein is not. However, an Hsc70 in which the peptide-binding domain has been replaced by that of DnaK is able to complement this strain for both phenotypes, suggesting that the peptide-binding domain of DnaK is essential to fulfill the specific functions of this protein necessary for growth at high temperatures and for lambda phage replication. The implications of these findings on the functional specificities of the Hsp70s and the role of protein-protein interactions in the DnaK chaperone system are discussed.
    Journal of Bacteriology 10/2004; 186(18):6248-53. DOI:10.1128/JB.186.18.6248-6253.2004 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The RecQ helicases belong to an important family of highly conserved DNA helicases that play a key role in chromosomal maintenance, and their defects have been shown to lead to several disorders and cancer in humans. In this work, the conformational and functional properties of the Escherichia coli RecQ helicase have been determined using a wide array of biochemical and biophysical techniques. The results obtained clearly indicate that E. coli RecQ helicase is monomeric in solution up to a concentration of 20 microM and in a temperature range between 4 and 37 degrees C. Furthermore, these properties are not affected by the presence of ATP, which is strictly required for the unwinding and translocating activity of the protein, or by its nonhydrolyzable analogue 5'-adenylyl-beta,gamma-imidodiphosphate. Consistent with the structural properties, functional analysis shows that both DNA unwinding activity and single-stranded DNA-stimulated ATPase specific activity were independent of RecQ concentration. The monomeric state was further confirmed by the ATPase-deficient mutants of RecQ protein. The rate of unwinding was unchanged when the wild type RecQ helicase was mixed with the ATPase-deficient mutants, indicating that nonprotein-protein interactions were involved in the unwinding processes. Taken together, these results indicate that RecQ helicase functions as a monomer and provide new data on the structural and functional properties of RecQ helicase that may help elucidate its mechanism action.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2003; 278(37):34925-33. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M303581200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The domain structure of the HSC70-interacting protein (HIP), a 43-kDa cytoplasmic cochaperone involved in the regulation of HSC70 chaperone activity and the maturation of progesterone receptor, has been probed by limited proteolysis and biophysical and biochemical approaches. HIP proteolysis by thrombin and chymotrypsin generates essentially two fragments, an NH2-terminal fragment of 25 kDa (N25) and a COOH-terminal fragment of 18 kDa (C18) that appear to be well folded and stable as indicated by circular dichroism and recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. NH2-terminal amino acid sequencing of the respective fragments indicates that both proteases cleave HIP within a predicted alpha-helix following the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) region, despite their different specificities and the presence of several potential cleavage sites scattered throughout the sequence, thus suggesting that this region is particularly accessible and may constitute a linker between two structural domains. After size exclusion chromatography, N25 and C18 elute as two distinct and homogeneous species having a Stokes radius of 49 and 24 A, respectively. Equilibrium sedimentation and sedimentation velocity indicate that N25 is a stable dimer, whereas C18 is monomeric in solution, with sedimentation coefficients of 3.2 and 2.3 S and f/f(o) values of 1.5 and 1.1 for N25 and C18, respectively, indicating that the N25 is elongated whereas C18 is globular in shape. Both domains are able to bind to the ATPase domain of HSC70 and inhibit rhodanese aggregation. Moreover, their effects appear to be additive when used in combination, suggesting a cooperation of these domains in the full-length protein not only for HSC70 binding but also for chaperone activity. Altogether, these results indicate that HIP is made of two structural and functional domains, an NH2-terminal 25-kDa domain, responsible for the dimerization and the overall asymmetry of the molecule, and a COOH-terminal 18-kDa globular domain, both involved in HSC70 and unfolded protein binding.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2002; 277(1):259-66. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M106881200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Marion Velten, Bruno O. Villoutreix, Moncef M. Ladjimi
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    ABSTRACT: HSC70 interacting protein (HIP) is an essential cytoplasmic cochaperone involved in the regulation of HSC70 chaperone activity and the maturation of progesterone receptor. To determine the quaternary structure and the gross conformation of the protein in solution, a wide array of biochemical and biophysical techniques has been used. Size-exclusion chromatography and sedimentation velocity indicate the presence of a single species with a Stokes radius, R(s), of 55 A and a sedimentation coefficient, s degrees (20,w), of 4.34 S. The combination of these data gives a molecular mass of 101 000 Da, a value close to that of the theoretical molecular mass of a dimer (87 090 Da). Sedimentation equilibrium, performed at various protein concentrations and rotor speeds, gives a molecular mass of 88 284 Da, almost in exact agreement with the molecular mass of a dimer. On the basis of these data, a frictional ratio f/f(0) of 1.6 is obtained, suggesting an elongated shape for the HIP dimer. Secondary structure predictions, supported by circular dichroism experiments, indicate that HIP is an almost all alpha-protein, able to form extended coiled coils. Using threading and comparative model building methods, a structural model of a segment of HIP involved in HSC70 binding has been constructed and potential sites of interaction between HIP and HSC70 are proposed on the basis of electrostatic as well as shape complementarity. Altogether, these results indicate that HIP is an elongated dimer, able to bind two HSC70 molecules through its TPR regions, and suggest the existence of a versatile binding site on HSC70 that may be involved in the interaction of the chaperone with the cochaperones or other interacting proteins.
    Biochemistry 02/2000; 39(2):307-15. DOI:10.1021/bi9917535 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crystallographic and biochemical studies have indicated that the peptide-binding site of the molecular chaperone HSC70 is located in a small subdomain comprising a beta-sheet motif followed by a helical region, and there is some evidence of the involvement of this site in oligomerization of the protein. To determine the structure of this subdomain in solution and examine its involvement in oligomerization of HSC70, a 17-kDa protein (residues 385-540 of HSC70) consisting mainly of the peptide-binding site was constructed and analyzed for oligomerization properties. This small domain was found to bind peptides and to form oligomers in solution, probably tetramers, which dissociated into monomers on peptide binding in a manner comparable with that observed for the whole protein. Furthermore, in the 60-kDa fragment of HSC70, which is composed of the 17-kDa domain and the 44-kDa ATPase domain, not only were the oligomerization properties conserved, but dissociation of multimeric species into monomers on ATP binding also occurred and peptide stimulation of ATPase activity was restored. These results indicate that the isolated 17-kDa peptide-binding domain is necessary and sufficient for oligomerization of the whole protein, suggesting that the peptide-binding site may be involved in the oligomerization process.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 02/1999; 259(1-2):379-84. DOI:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999.00053.x · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    C Purcarea, G Hervé, M M Ladjimi, R Cunin
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    ABSTRACT: The genes coding for aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) in the deep-sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi were cloned by complementation of a pyrB Escherichia coli mutant. The sequence revealed the existence of a pyrBI operon, coding for a catalytic chain and a regulatory chain, as in Enterobacteriaceae. Comparison of primary sequences of the polypeptides encoded by the pyrB and pyrI genes with those of homologous eubacterial and eukaryotic chains showed a high degree of conservation of the residues which in E. coli ATCase are involved in catalysis and allosteric regulation. The regulatory chain shows more-extensive divergence with respect to that of E. coli and other Enterobacteriaceae than the catalytic chain. Several substitutions suggest the existence in P. abyssi ATCase of additional hydrophobic interactions and ionic bonds which are probably involved in protein stabilization at high temperatures. The catalytic chain presents a secondary structure similar to that of the E. coli enzyme. Modeling of the tridimensional structure of this chain provides a folding close to that of the E. coli protein in spite of several significant differences. Conservation of numerous pairs of residues involved in the interfaces between different chains or subunits in E. coli ATCase suggests that the P. abyssi enzyme has a quaternary structure similar to that of the E. coli enzyme. P. abyssi ATCase expressed in transgenic E. coli cells exhibited reduced cooperativity for aspartate binding and sensitivity to allosteric effectors, as well as a decreased thermostability and barostability, suggesting that in P. abyssi cells this enzyme is further stabilized through its association with other cellular components.
    Journal of Bacteriology 08/1997; 179(13):4143-57. · 2.69 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

625 Citations
128.27 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Qatar Foundation
      Ad Dawḩah, Baladīyat ad Dawḩah, Qatar
  • 2008–2011
    • Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin
      • Laboratoire de Génétique et Biologie Cellulaire (LGBC)
      Versailles, Île-de-France, France
  • 1994–2010
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Laboratoire d'Enzymologie et Biochime Structurales
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1996–2002
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Laboratoire d'Enzymologie et Biochimie Structurales
      Gif, Île-de-France, France
  • 1991
    • Free University of Brussels
      • Laboratorium voor Erfelijkheidsleer en Microbiologie
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
  • 1988
    • Chestnut Hill College
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States