[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that causes severe renal dysfunction. The kinin B1 receptor has been associated with the migration of immune cells to injured tissue as well as with renal inflammation. To examine the role of the kinin B1 receptor in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, we used kinin B1 receptor knockout mice and treatment with a receptor antagonist before and after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin injection caused exacerbation of renal macrophage and neutrophil migration, higher levels of serum creatinine and blood urea, upregulation of B1 receptor mRNA and an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines expression. B1 receptor knockout mice exhibited a reduction in serum creatinine and blood urea levels, diminished apoptosis, and decreased cisplatin-induced upregulation of inflammatory components. Moreover, treatment with the B1 receptor antagonist prior to cisplatin administration normalized serum creatinine, blood urea levels, protected from acute tubular necrosis, apoptosis-related genes, and prevented upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, we propose that kinins have an important role in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by impairing immune cells migration to renal tissue during cisplatin nephrotoxicity.
Kinin B1 receptor is upregulated after cisplatin exposure. Kinin B1 receptor deficiency diminishes the nephrotoxicity caused by cisplatin. Kinin B1 receptor deficiency ameliorates the inflammatory response. Kinin B1 receptor deficiency diminishes apoptosis caused by cisplatin. Kinin B1 receptor antagonism ameliorates renal function after cisplatin injection.
Journal of Molecular Medicine 12/2013; · 4.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria is a widespread infectious disease caused by the parasite Plasmodium. During pregnancy, malaria infection leads to a range of complications that can affect both the mother and fetus, including stillbirth, infant mortality and low birth weight. In this study, we utilized a mouse model of placental malaria (PM) infection to determine the importance of MyD88 in the host immune response to Plasmodium during pregnancy. Initially, we demonstrated that the Plasmodium berghei NK65GFP strain adhered to placental tissue via chondroitin sulfate A and induced PM in mice with a C57BL/6 genetic background. To evaluate the involvement of MyD88 in the pathology of PM, we performed a histopathological analysis of placentas obtained from MyD88-/- and wild type (WT) mice following infection on the 19th gestational day. Our data demonstrated that the detrimental placental alterations observed in the infected mice were correlated with the expression of the MyD88 protein. Moreover, in the absence of this protein, IL-6 and TNF-α production was significantly reduced in the infected mice. More importantly, in contrast to fetuses from infected WT mice, which exhibited a reduction in body weight, the fetuses from MyD88-/- infected mice did not display significant weight loss compared to their non-infected littermates. In addition, we observed a decrement of maternal care associated with malaria infection, which was attenuated in the MyD88-deficient mice. Collectively, the results of this study illustrate the pivotal importance of the MyD88 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of placental malaria, thus presenting new possibilities for targeting MyD88 in therapeutic interventions.
Infection and immunity 12/2013; · 4.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin is an adipose-secreted hormone that plays an important role in both metabolism and immunity. Leptin has been shown to induce Th1 polarization and inhibit Th2 responses. Additionally, leptin induces Th17 responses, inhibits regulatory T (Treg) cells and modulates autoimmune diseases. Here, we investigated whether leptin mediates its activity on T cells by influencing dendritic cells (DCs) to promote Th17 and Treg cell immune responses in mice. We observed that leptin deficiency: i) reduced the expression of DC maturation markers, ii) decreased DC production of IL-12, TNF-α and IL-6, iii) increased DC production of TGF-β, and iv) limited the capacity of DCs to induce syngeneic CD4(+) T-cell proliferation. As a consequence of this unique phenotype, DCs generated under leptin-free conditions induced Treg or TH 17 cells more efficiently than DCs generated in the presence of leptin. These data indicate important roles for leptin in DC homeostasis and the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory and regulatory immune responses by DCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
European Journal of Immunology 11/2013; · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Components of high molecular-weight (PI) obtained from Ascaris suum extract down-regulate the Th1/Th2-related immune responses induced by ovalbumin (OVA)-immunization in mice. Furthermore, the PI down-modulates the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to activate T lymphocytes by an IL-10-mediated mechanism. Here, we evaluated the role of toll like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and 4) in the modulatory effect of PI on OVA-specific immune response and the PI interference on DC full activation. An inhibition of OVA-specific cellular and humoral responses were observed in wild type (WT) or in deficient in TLR2 (TLR2(-/-)) or 4 (TLR4(-/-)) mice immunized with OVA plus PI when compared with OVA-immunized mice. Low expression of class II MHC, CD40, CD80 and CD86 molecules was observed in lymph node (LN) cells from WT, TLR2(-/-) or TLR4(-/-) mice immunized with OVA plus PI compared with OVA-primed cells. We also verified that PI was able to modulate the activation of DCs derived from bone marrow of WT, TLR2(-/-) or TLR4(-/-) mice induced in vitro by agonists of TLRs, as observed by a decreased expression of class II MHC and costimulatory molecules and by low secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Its effect was accompanied by IL-10 synthesis. In this sense, the modulatory effect of PI on specific-immune response and DC activation is independent of TLR2 or TLR4.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) appears to be an endogenous defensive mechanism used by cells to reduce inflammation and tissue damage in a number of injury models. HO-1, a stress-responsive enzyme that catabolizes heme into carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin and iron, has previously been shown to protect grafts from ischemia/reperfusion and rejection. In addition, the products of the HO-catalyzed reaction, particularly CO and biliverdin/bilirubin, have been shown to exert protective effects in the liver against a number of stimuli, as in chronic hepatitis C and in transplanted liver grafts. Furthermore, the induction of HO-1 expression can protect the liver against damage caused by a number of chemical compounds. More specifically, the CO derived from HO-1-mediated heme catabolism has been shown to be involved in the regulation of inflammation; furthermore, administration of low concentrations of exogenous CO has a protective effect against inflammation. Both murine and human HO-1 deficiencies have systemic manifestations associated with iron metabolism, such as hepatic overload (with signs of a chronic hepatitis) and iron deficiency anemia (with paradoxical increased levels of ferritin). Hypoxia induces HO-1 expression in multiple rodent, bovine and monkey cell lines, but interestingly, hypoxia represses expression of the human HO-1 gene in a variety of human cell types (endothelial cells, epithelial cells, T cells). These data suggest that HO-1 and CO are promising novel therapeutic molecules for patients with inflammatory diseases. In this review, we present what is currently known regarding the role of HO-1 in liver injuries and in particular, we focus on the implications of targeted induction of HO-1 as a potential therapeutic strategy to protect the liver against chemically induced injury.
World journal of hepatology. 10/2013; 5(10):541-549.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenine overload promotes intratubular crystal precipitation and interstitial nephritis. We showed recently that these abnormalities are strongly attenuated in mice knockout for toll-like receptors-2, -4, MyD88, ASC or caspase-1. We now investigated whether NF-κB activation also plays a pathogenic role in this model. Adult male Munich-Wistar rats were distributed among three groups: C (n = 17), receiving standard chow; ADE (N = 17), given adenine in the chow at 0.7% for 1 week and 0.5% for 2 weeks; and ADE+PDTC (N = 14), receiving adenine as above and the NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), 120 mg/kg/day in drinking water. After 3 weeks, widespread crystal deposition was seen in tubular lumina and in the renal interstitium, along with granuloma formation, collagen accumulation, intense tubulointerstitial proliferation and increased interstitial expression of inflammatory mediators. Part of the crystals was segregated from tubular lumina by a newly formed cell layer and, at more advanced stages, appeared to be extruded to the interstitium. p65 nuclear translocation and IKK-α increased abundance indicated activation of the NF-κB system. PDTC treatment prevented p65 migration and normalized IKK-α, limited crystal shift to the interstitium and strongly attenuated interstitial fibrosis/inflammation. These findings indicate that the complex inflammatory phenomena associated with this model depend, at least in part, on NF-κB activation, and suggest that the NF-κB system may become a therapeutic target in the treatment of chronic kidney disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a systemic inflammatory process in which Th1 responses predominate affecting other organs including the lungs. The present study explored the phagocytic and microbicidal capacity of macrophages in rats with lung inflammation that underwent IRI. Methods: The alveolar macrophages of rats sensitised to OVA were evaluated for phagocytosis and bacterial killing 24h after antigen challenge in animals with or without prior submission to 60 min of renal ischaemia. Results: Bronchoalveolar lavage had a high level of cellular infiltrate in immunised animals (420%) compared with control animals; IRI significantly reduced this infiltration (52%). Macrophages from animals immunised and challenged with OVA presented a 10x increase in phagocytic capacity compared to the control group, whereas immunised animals subjected to IRI showed a reduction in the phagocytic index of 68%. The killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae by macrophages from immunised animals was higher (56%) compared with the control group but reduced in animals submitted to IRI (45%). Immunised and challenged group showed an increase in gene expression levels of IL-10(450%), HO-1 (259%), INF-γ (460%) and MCP-1 (370%) compared to the immunised group subjected to IRI. Conclusions: Renal ischaemia and reperfusion injury apparently alters the phagocytic and microbicidal capacity of macrophages, reducing lung inflammation to OVA.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 02/2013; 31(2-3):179-188. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract There is a consensus in the scientific literature that supports the importance of the kallikrein kinin and renin angiotensin systems in renal physiology, but notably few studies have investigated their importance after renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effects of the insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) gene and the +9/-9 polymorphism in the kinin B2 receptor (B2R) gene in kidney-transplanted patients (n= 215 ACE, n= 203 B2R) compared with 443 healthy individuals. Demographic results showed that there is a higher frequency of the D allele (high plasma ACE activity) and +9 allele (lower B2R expression) in transplanted compared with control. Furthermore, we also observed a higher frequency of these alleles in patients who had an elevated level of plasma creatinine. At day 7 post-transplantation, we found a higher prevalence of individuals with the DD genotype with elevated plasma creatinine level. Furthermore, individuals with the DD genotype had a higher chronic allograft and graft loss compared with II patients genotype which showed no loss of graft. Taken together, our data suggest that the DD genotype is an indicator of an unfavorable prognosis to renal transplantation and could be related to kinin modulation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract There is a consensus in the scientific literature that supports the importance of the kallikrein kinin and renin angiotensin systems in renal physiology, but few studies have investigated their importance after renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effects of the insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and the +9/-9 polymorphism in the kinin B2 receptor (B2R) gene in kidney-transplanted patients (n=215 ACE, n=203 B2R) compared with 443 healthy individuals. Demographic results showed that there is a higher frequency of the D allele (high plasma ACE activity) and +9 allele (lower B2R expression) in transplant patients compared with control individuals. We also observed a higher frequency of these alleles in patients who had an elevated level of plasma creatinine. At day 7 post-transplantation, we found a higher prevalence of individuals with the DD genotype with elevated plasma creatinine level. Furthermore, individuals with the DD genotype had a higher chronic allograft dysfunction and graft loss compared with the II patient genotype, which showed no loss of graft. Taken together, our data suggest that the DD genotype is an indicator of an unfavorable prognosis following renal transplantation and could be related to kinin modulation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO) had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO)-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The protective properties of CO led researchers to develop uses for it, resulting in devices and molecules that can deliver CO in vitro and in vivo. The resulting interest in clinical investigations was immediate. Studies regarding the CO/HO-1 modulation of immune responses and their effects on various immune disorders gave rise to transplantation research, where CO was shown to be essential in the protection against organ rejection in animal models. This review provides a perspective of how CO modulates the immune system to improve transplantation and suggests its use as a therapy in the field.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatments that effectively prevent chronic kidney disease (CKD) when initiated early often yield disappointing results when started at more advanced phases. We examined the long-term evolution of renal injury in the 5/6 nephrectomy model (Nx) and the effect of an association between an AT-1 receptor blocker, losartan (L), and hydrochlorothiazide (H), shown previously to be effective when started one month after Nx. Adult male Munich-Wistar rats underwent Nx, being divided into four groups: Nx+V, no treatment; Nx+L, receiving L monotherapy; Nx+LH, receiving the L+H association (LH), and Nx+AHHz, treated with the calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, the vascular relaxant, hydralazine, and H. This latter group served to assess the effect of lowering blood pressure (BP). Rats undergoing sham nephrectomy (S) were also studied. In a first protocol, treatments were initiated 60 days after Nx, when CKD is at a relatively early stage. In a second protocol, treatments were started 120 days after Nx, when glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis are already advanced. In both protocols, L treatment promoted only partial renoprotection, whereas LH brought BP, albuminuria, tubulointerstitial cell proliferation and plasma aldosterone below pretreatment levels, and completely detained progression of renal injury. Despite normalizing BP, the AHHz association failed to prevent renal damage, indicating that the renoprotective effect of LH was not due to a systemic hemodynamic action. These findings are inconsistent with the contention that thiazides are innocuous in advanced CKD. In Nx, LH promotes effective renoprotection even at advanced stages by mechanisms that may involve anti-inflammatory and intrarenal hemodynamic effects, but seem not to require BP normalization.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e56215. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renovascular hypertension induced by 2 Kidney-1 Clip (2K-1C) is a renin-angiotensin-system (RAS)-dependent model, leading to renal vascular rarefaction and renal failure. RAS inhibitors are not able to reduce arterial pressure (AP) and/or preserve the renal function, and thus, alternative therapies are needed. Three weeks after left renal artery occlusion, fluorescently tagged mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) (2×10(5) cells/animal) were injected weekly into the tail vein in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. Flow cytometry showed labeled MSC in the cortex and medulla of the clipped kidney. MSC prevented a further increase in the AP, significantly reduced proteinuria and decreased sympathetic hyperactivity in 2K-1C rats. Renal function parameters were unchanged, except for an increase in urinary volume observed in 2K-1C rats, which was not corrected by MSC. The treatment improved the morphology and decreased the fibrotic areas in the clipped kidney and also significantly reduced renal vascular rarefaction typical of 2K-1C model. Expression levels of IL-1β, TNF-α angiotensinogen, ACE, and Ang II receptor AT1 were elevated, whereas AT2 levels were decreased in the medulla of the clipped kidney. MSC normalized these expression levels. In conclusion, MSC therapy in the 2K-1C model (i) prevented the progressive increase of AP, (ii) improved renal morphology and microvascular rarefaction, (iii) reduced fibrosis, proteinuria and inflammatory cytokines, (iv) suppressed the intrarenal RAS, iv) decreased sympathetic hyperactivity in anesthetized animals and v) MSC were detected at the CNS suggesting that the cells crossed the blood-brain barrier. This therapy may be a promising strategy to treat renovascular hypertension and its renal consequences in the near future.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e78464. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC) exhibit immunosuppressive capabilities both in vitro and in vivo. Their use for therapy in the transplant field is attractive as they could render the use of immunosuppressive drugs unnecessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ADSC therapy on prolonging skin allograft survival. Animals that were treated with a single injection of donor allogeneic ADSC one day after transplantation showed an increase in donor skin graft survival by approximately one week. This improvement was associated with preserved histological morphology, an expansion of CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) in draining lymph nodes, as well as heightened IL-10 expression and down-regulated IL-17 expression. In vitro, ADSC inhibit naïve CD4(+) T cell proliferation and constrain Th-1 and Th-17 polarization. In summary, infusion of ADSC one day post-transplantation dramatically increases skin allograft survival by inhibiting the Th-17 pathogenic immune response and enhancing the protective Treg immune response. Finally, these data suggest that ADSC therapy will open new opportunities for promoting drug-free allograft survival in clinical transplantation.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e76396. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental evidence and epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (eLPS) or other TLR agonists prevent asthma. We have previously shown in the OVA-model of asthma that eLPS administration during alum-based allergen sensitization blocked the development of lung TH2 immune responses via MyD88 pathway and IL-12/IFN-γ axis. In the present work we determined the effect of eLPS exposure during sensitization to a natural airborne allergen extract derived from the house dust mite Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Mice were subcutaneously sensitized with Bt allergens co-adsorbed onto alum with or without eLPS and challenged twice intranasally with Bt. Cellular and molecular parameters of allergic lung inflammation were evaluated 24 h after the last Bt challenge. Exposure to eLPS but not to ultrapure LPS (upLPS) preparation during sensitization to Bt allergens decreased the influx of eosinophils and increased the influx of neutrophils to the airways. Inhibition of airway eosinophilia was not observed in IFN-γdeficient mice while airway neutrophilia was not observed in IL-17RA-deficient mice as well in mice lacking MyD88, CD14, TLR4 and, surprisingly, TLR2 molecules. Notably, exposure to a synthetic TLR2 agonist (PamCSK4) also induced airway neutrophilia that was dependent on TLR2 and TLR4 molecules. In the OVA model, exposure to eLPS or PamCSK4 suppressed OVA-induced airway inflammation. Our results suggest that B. tropicalis allergens engage TLR4 that potentiates TLR2 signaling. This dual TLR activation during sensitization results in airway neutrophilic inflammation associated with increased frequency of lung TH17 cells. Our work highlight the complex interplay between bacterial products, house dust mite allergens and TLR signaling in the induction of different phenotypes of airway inflammation.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e67115. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the size of adipocytes increases during obesity, the establishment of resident immune cells in adipose tissue becomes an important source of proinflammatory mediators. Exercise and caloric restriction are two important, nonpharmacological tools against body mass increase. To date, their effects on the immune cells of adipose tissue in obese organisms, specifically when a high-fat diet is consumed, have been poorly investigated. Thus, after consuming a high-fat diet, mice were submitted to chronic swimming training or a 30% caloric restriction in order to investigate the effects of both interventions on resident immune cells in adipose tissue. These strategies were able to reduce body mass and resulted in changes in the number of resident immune cells in the adipose tissue and levels of cytokines/chemokines in serum. While exercise increased the number of NK cells in adipose tissue and serum levels of IL-6 and RANTES, caloric restriction increased the CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and MCP-1 levels. Together, these data demonstrated that exercise and caloric restriction modulate resident immune cells in adipose tissues differently in spite of an equivalent body weight reduction. Additionally, the results also reinforce the idea that a combination of both strategies is better than either individually for combating obesity.
Mediators of Inflammation 01/2013; 2013:395672. · 3.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Background data: Regardless of the etiology, CKD involves progressive widespread tissue fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and loss of kidney function. This process also occurs in kidney allograft. At present, effective therapies for this condition are lacking. We investigated the effects of LLLT on the interstitial fibrosis that occurs after experimental UUO in rats. Methods: The occluded kidney of half of the 32 Wistar rats that underwent UUO received a single intraoperative dose of LLLT (AlGaAs laser, 780 nm, 22.5 J/cm(2), 30 mW, 0.75 W/cm(2), 30 sec on each of nine points). After 14 days, renal fibrosis was assessed by Sirius red staining under polarized light. Immunohistochemical analyses quantitated the renal tissue cells that expressed fibroblast (FSP-1) and myofibroblast (α-SMA) markers. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and Smad3. Results: The UUO and LLLT animals had less fibrosis than the UUO animals, as well having decreased expression inflammatory and pro-fibrotic markers. Conclusions: For the first time, we showed that LLLT had a protective effect regarding renal interstitial fibrosis. It is conceivable that by attenuating inflammation, LLLT can prevent tubular activation and transdifferentiation, which are the two processes that mainly drive the renal fibrosis of the UUO model.
Photomedicine and laser surgery 11/2012; · 1.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human adipose tissue have a great potential for use in cell therapy due to their ease of isolation, expansion, and differentiation, besides the relative acceptance from the ethical point of view. Our intention was to isolate and promote in vitro expansion and differentiation of MSCs from human adipose tissue into cells with a pancreatic endocrine phenotype. Human adipose tissue obtained from patients undergoing abdominal dermolipectomy was digested with type I collagenase. MSCs isolated by plastic adherence and characterized by cytochemistry and FACS were expanded in vitro. MSC differentiation into an endocrine phenotype was induced over 2 to 4 months with high glucose (25 mmol/L) media containing nicotinamide, exendin-4, and 2-mercaptoethanol. Insulin and glucagon expressions were analyzed by immunofluorescence. Cells isolated from human adipose tissue and expanded in vitro expressed MSC markers as confirmed by FACS and cytochemistry. Insulin but not glucagon production by differentiated cells was demonstrated by immunofluorescence. MSCs isolated from human adipose tissue were induced to differentiate in vitro into an endocrine phenotype that expressed insulin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-lymphocyte depletion is a strategy to reverse the impact of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in progression to chronic allograft dysfunction, especially among patients at high risk for delayed graft function (DGF).
The present work assessed the effect of thymoglobulin among a population with a high incidence of DGF. We analyzed 209 transplanted patients: 97 in the thymoglobulin and 112 in the control group.
The main complication was DGF (59.3%), with a similar incidence in both groups (63.9% vs 55.3%; P = .36). Acute rejection episodes (ARE) were decreased with thymoglobulin (8.2% vs 28.5%; P < .001), but cytomegalovirus viremia was 3.4-fold more frequent (58.3% vs 17.1%; P < .001). One-year graft function was significantly better in the thymoglobulin group (59.2 ± 17.2 vs 51.8 ± 15.3 mL/min; P = .004), even when censored by ARE (59.7 ± 17.5 vs 53.3 ± 14.4; P = .023). The same difference was observed at the 2-year follow-up (P = .024), even when censored for ARE (P = .045). A multivariate analysis showed thymoglobulin to be a factor strongly associated with protection of graft function (P = .039).
Despite not reducing the incidence of DGF, thymoglobulin induction significantly reduced the incidence of ARE and showed a long-term profile of protection of renal graft function, independent of the reduction in ARE.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin, an adipose-secreted hormone, links metabolism and immunity. Our aim was to determine whether leptin affects the alloimmune response. We used an allogeneic skin transplant model as a means to analyze the allograft immune response in Lep(ob/ob) and wild-type mice. Leptin deficiency results in an increased frequency of Treg and Th2 cells and a prolonged graft survival. These effects of leptin deficiency indicate the importance of leptin and obesity in modulating the allograft immune responses. Our data suggest a possible explanation for the increased susceptibility of hyperleptinemic obese patients to acute and chronic graft rejection.
American Journal of Transplantation 09/2012; · 6.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, has significant morbidity and mortality as 20-40% of patients progress to end-stage renal disease within 20 years of onset. In order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of IgAN, we systematically evaluated renal biopsies from such patients. This showed that the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway was activated in the mesangium of patients presenting with over 1 g/day proteinuria and elevated blood pressure, but absent in biopsy specimens of patients with IgAN and modest proteinuria (<1 g/day). ERK activation was not associated with elevated galactose-deficient IgA1 or IgG specific for galactose-deficient IgA1 in the serum. In human mesangial cells in vitro, ERK activation through mesangial IgA1 receptor (CD71) controlled pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and was induced by large-molecular-mass IgA1-containing circulating immune complexes purified from patient sera. Moreover, IgA1-dependent ERK activation required renin-angiotensin system as its blockade was efficient in reducing proteinuria in those patients exhibiting substantial mesangial activation of ERK. Thus, ERK activation alters mesangial cell-podocyte crosstalk, leading to renal dysfunction in IgAN. Assessment of MAPK/ERK activation in diagnostic renal biopsies may predict the therapeutic efficacy of renin-angiotensin system blockers in IgAN.Kidney International advance online publication, 5 September 2012; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.192.
Kidney International 09/2012; · 7.92 Impact Factor