C Sapienza

Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (77)514.51 Total impact

  • Matteo Cesaroni, Jasmine Powell, Carmen Sapienza
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    ABSTRACT: We have validated differences in DNA methylation levels of candidate genes previously reported to discriminate between normal colon mucosa of colon cancer patients and normal colon mucosa of individuals without cancer. Here, we report that CpG sites in 16 of the 30 candidate genes selected show significant differences in mean methylation level in normal colon mucosa of 24 cancer patients and 24 controls. A support vector machine trained on these data and data for an additional 66 CpGs yielded an 18-gene signature, composed of 10 of the validated candidate genes plus eight additional candidates. This model exhibited 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity in a 40-sample training set and classified all eight samples in the test set correctly. Moreover, we found a moderate-strong correlation (Pearson coefficients r=0.253-0.722) between methylation levels in colon mucosa and methylation levels in peripheral blood for seven of the 18 genes in the support vector model. These seven genes, alone, classified 44 of the 48 patients in the validation set correctly and five CpGs selected from only two of the seven genes classified 41 of the 48 patients in the discovery set correctly. These results suggest that methylation biomarkers may be developed that will, at minimum, serve as useful objective and quantitative diagnostic complements to colonoscopy as a cancer-screening tool. These data also suggest that it may be possible to monitor biomarker methylation levels in tissues collected much less invasively than by colonoscopy.
    Cancer Prevention Research 05/2014; · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have been associated with several adverse perinatal outcomes involving placentation and fetal growth. It is critical to examine each intervention individually in order to assess its relationship to the described adverse perinatal outcomes. One intervention ubiquitously used in ART is superovulation with gonadotropins. Superovulation results in significant changes in the hormonal milieu, which persist during the peri-implantation and early placentation periods. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that the treatment-induced peri-implantation maternal environment plays a critical role in perinatal outcomes. In this study, using the mouse model, we have isolated the exposure to the peri-implantation period and we examine the effect of superovulation on placentation and fetal growth. We report that the non-physiologic peri-implantation maternal hormonal environment resulting from gonadotropin stimulation appears to have a direct effect on fetal growth, trophoblast differentiation and gene expression. This appears to be mediated, at least in part, through trophoblast expansion and invasion. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanism(s) leading to these observations remain to be elucidated, identifying this modifiable risk factor will not only allow us to improve perinatal outcomes with ART, but help us understand the pathophysiology contributing to these outcomes.
    Biology of Reproduction 12/2013; · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An understanding of early genetic/epigenetic changes in colorectal cancer would aid in diagnosis and prognosis. To identify these changes in human preneoplastic tissue, we first studied our mouse model in which Mthfr(+/-) BALB/c mice fed folate-deficient diets develop intestinal tumors in contrast to Mthfr(+/+) BALB/c mice fed control diets. Transcriptome profiling was performed in normal intestine from mice with low or high tumor susceptibility. We identified 12 upregulated and 51 downregulated genes in tumor-prone mice. Affected pathways included retinoid acid synthesis, lipid and glucose metabolism, apoptosis and inflammation. We compared murine candidates from this microarray analysis, and murine candidates from an earlier strain-based comparison, with a set of human genes that we had identified in previous methylome profiling of normal human colonic mucosa, from colorectal cancer patients and controls. From the extensive list of human methylome candidates, our approach uncovered five orthologous genes that had shown changes in murine expression profiles (PDK4, SPRR1A, SPRR2A, NR1H4, and PYCARD). The human orthologs were assayed by bisulfite-pyrosequencing for methylation at 14 CpGs. All CpGs exhibited significant methylation differences in normal mucosa between colorectal cancer patients and controls; expression differences for these genes were also observed. PYCARD and NR1H4 methylation differences showed promise as markers for presence of polyps in controls. We conclude that common pathways are disturbed in preneoplastic intestine in our animal model and morphologically normal mucosa of patients with colorectal cancer, and present an initial version of a DNA methylation-based signature for human preneoplastic colon. Cancer Prev Res; 6(11); 1-11. ©2013 AACR.
    Cancer Prevention Research 10/2013; · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In eutherian mammals, one X-chromosome in every XX somatic cell is transcriptionally silenced through the process of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). Females are thus functional mosaics, where some cells express genes from the paternal X, and the others from the maternal X. The relative abundance of the two cell populations (X-inactivation pattern, XIP) can have significant medical implications for some females. In mice, the 'choice' of which X to inactivate, maternal or paternal, in each cell of the early embryo is genetically influenced. In humans, the timing of XCI choice and whether choice occurs completely randomly or under a genetic influence is debated. Here, we explore these questions by analysing the distribution of XIPs in large populations of normal females. Models were generated to predict XIP distributions resulting from completely random or genetically influenced choice. Each model describes the discrete primary distribution at the onset of XCI, and the continuous secondary distribution accounting for changes to the XIP as a result of development and ageing. Statistical methods are used to compare models with empirical data from Danish and Utah populations. A rigorous data treatment strategy maximises information content and allows for unbiased use of unphased XIP data. The Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit statistics and likelihood ratio tests indicate that a model of genetically influenced XCI choice better fits the empirical data than models of completely random choice.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 8 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.84.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 05/2013; · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    Keith E Latham, Carmen Sapienza, Nora Engel
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last decade, we have witnessed an explosion of information on genetic factors underlying common human diseases and disorders. This 'human genomics' information revolution has occurred as a backdrop to a rapid increase in the rates of many human disorders and diseases. For example, obesity, Type 2 diabetes, asthma, autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have increased at rates that cannot be due to changes in the genetic structure of the population, and are difficult to ascribe to changes in diagnostic criteria or ascertainment. A likely cause of the increased incidence of these disorders is increased exposure to environmental factors that modify gene function. Many environmental factors that have epidemiological association with common human disorders are likely to exert their effects through epigenetic alterations. This general mechanism of gene-environment interaction poses special challenges for individuals, educators, scientists and public policy makers in defining, monitoring and mitigating exposures.
    Epigenomics 08/2012; 4(4):383-402. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infant birth weight is a complex quantitative trait associated with both neonatal and long-term health outcomes. Numerous studies have been published in which candidate genes (IGF1, IGF2, IGF2R, IGF binding proteins, PHLDA2 and PLAGL1) have been associated with birth weight, but these studies are difficult to reproduce in man and large cohort studies are needed due to the large inter individual variance in transcription levels. Also, very little of the trait variance is explained. We decided to identify additional candidates without regard for what is known about the genes. We hypothesize that DNA methylation differences between individuals can serve as markers of gene "expression potential" at growth related genes throughout development and that these differences may correlate with birth weight better than single time point measures of gene expression. We performed DNA methylation and transcript profiling on cord blood and placenta from newborns. We then used novel computational approaches to identify genes correlated with birth weight. We identified 23 genes whose methylation levels explain 70-87% of the variance in birth weight. Six of these (ANGPT4, APOE, CDK2, GRB10, OSBPL5 and REG1B) are associated with growth phenotypes in human or mouse models. Gene expression profiling explained a much smaller fraction of variance in birth weight than did DNA methylation. We further show that two genes, the transcriptional repressor MSX1 and the growth factor receptor adaptor protein GRB10, are correlated with transcriptional control of at least seven genes reported to be involved in fetal or placental growth, suggesting that we have identified important networks in growth control. GRB10 methylation is also correlated with genes involved in reactive oxygen species signaling, stress signaling and oxygen sensing and more recent data implicate GRB10 in insulin signaling. Single time point measurements of gene expression may reflect many factors unrelated to birth weight, while inter-individual differences in DNA methylation may represent a "molecular fossil record" of differences in birth weight-related gene expression. Finding these "unexpected" pathways may tell us something about the long-term association between low birth weight and adult disease, as well as which genes may be susceptible to environmental effects. These findings increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in human development and disease progression.
    BMC Medical Genomics 04/2012; 5:10. · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have compared DNA methylation in normal colon mucosa between patients with colon cancer and patients without cancer. We identified significant differences in methylation between the two groups at 114 to 874 genes. The majority of the differences are in pathways involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. We also compared transcript levels of genes in the insulin signaling pathway. We found that the mucosa of patients with cancer had significantly higher transcript levels of several hormones regulating glucose metabolism and significantly lower transcript levels of a glycolytic enzyme and a key regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. These differences suggest that the normal colon mucosa of patients with cancer metabolizes dietary components differently than the colon mucosa of controls. Because the differences identified are present in morphologically normal tissue, they may be diagnostic of colon cancer and/or prognostic of colon cancer susceptibility.
    Cancer Prevention Research 03/2012; 5(3):374-84. · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We identified potential epigenetic biomarkers for chronic kidney disease progression by comparing site-specific DNA methylation levels in more than 14,000 genes between African American and Hispanic diabetes patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) and diabetes patients without nephropathy. We identified 187 genes that are differentially methylated between the two groups on at least two CpG sites in each gene in DNA extracted from saliva. Of the 187 genes whose mean methylation levels differed between the two groups, 39 genes, or closely related gene family members, have been reported to be involved in kidney development or diabetic nephropathy, per se, or have been associated with dialysis-induced changes in gene expression in peripheral blood cells. The fact that such a substantial fraction (21%) of the 187 candidate genes have been implicated previously through genome association or transcription profiling studies suggests strongly that the DNA methylation differences we observe are associated with disease predisposition and/or treatment. The fact that these nephropathy and/or dialysis-associated differences between patients were identified in DNA extracted from saliva offers proof-of-principle that inter-individual epigenetic differences may prove useful as predictive biomarkers of disease susceptibility.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 01/2011; 6(1):20-8. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have reported a higher incidence of rare disorders involving imprinted genes among children conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART), suggesting that ART procedures may be disruptive to imprinted gene methylation patterns. We examined intra- and inter-individual variation in DNA methylation at the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the IGF2/H19 and IGF2R loci in a population of children conceived in vitro or in vivo. We found substantial variation in allele-specific methylation at both loci in both groups. Aberrant methylation of the maternal IGF2/H19 DMR was more common in the in vitro group, and the overall variance was also significantly greater in the in vitro group. We estimated the number of trophoblast stem cells in each group based on approximation of the variance of the binomial distribution of IGF2/H19 methylation ratios, as well as the distribution of X chromosome inactivation scores in placenta. Both of these independent measures indicated that placentas of the in vitro group were derived from fewer stem cells than the in vivo conceived group. Both IGF2 and H19 mRNAs were significantly lower in placenta from the in vitro group. Although average birth weight was lower in the in vitro group, we found no correlation between birth weight and IGF2 or IGF2R transcript levels or the ratio of IGF2/IGF2R transcript levels. Our results show that in vitro conception is associated with aberrant methylation patterns at the IGF2/H19 locus. However, very little of the inter- or intra-individual variation in H19 or IGF2 mRNA levels can be explained by differences in maternal DMR DNA methylation, in contrast to the expectations of current transcriptional imprinting models. Extraembryonic tissues of embryos cultured in vitro appear to be derived from fewer trophoblast stem cells. It is possible that this developmental difference has an effect on placental and fetal growth.
    PLoS Genetics 07/2010; 6(7):e1001033. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    Ionel Sandovici, Carmen Sapienza
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    ABSTRACT: Meiotic recombination events typically cluster within narrow regions of the genome termed hotspots. A series of recent papers reveals that PRDM9, a C2H2-type zinc-finger protein with histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase activity, plays a major role in the specification of hotspots. The zinc fingers that contact DNA in a sequence-dependent manner evolve rapidly and are under positive selection, leading to differences in the location of recombination hotspots as well as hybrid sterility.
    F1000 Biology Reports 01/2010; 2.
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    ABSTRACT: The hypothesis that environmental factors alter somatically heritable epigenetic marks and change long-term patterns of gene expression is an exciting possibility in human disease research. Because most common diseases, and many quantitative traits, are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, environmentally induced changes in epigenetic structures can provide a mechanistic link between genes and environment. We believe that inter-individual differences in the epigenetic modification of genes will explain a much greater fraction of inter-individual phenotypic variation than differences in genotype, alone.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 01/2010; 5(1):16-9. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    Carmen Sapienza
    11/2009: pages 127 - 140; , ISBN: 9781444314922
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological data indicate that children conceived in vitro have a greater relative risk of low birth-weight, major and minor birth defects, and rare disorders involving imprinted genes, suggesting that epigenetic changes may be associated with assisted reproduction. We examined DNA methylation at more than 700 genes (1536 CpG sites) in placenta and cord blood and measured gene expression levels of a subset of genes that differed in methylation levels between children conceived in vitro versus in vivo. Our results suggest that in vitro conception is associated with lower mean methylation at CpG sites in placenta and higher mean methylation at CpG sites in cord blood. We also find that in vitro conception-associated DNA methylation differences are associated with gene expression differences at both imprinted and non-imprinted genes. The range of inter-individual variation in gene expression of the in vitro and in vivo groups overlaps substantially but some individuals from the in vitro group differ from the in vivo group mean by more than two standard deviations. Several of the genes whose expression differs between the two groups have been implicated in chronic metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type II diabetes. These findings suggest that there may be epigenetic differences in the gametes or early embryos derived from couples undergoing treatment for infertility. Alternatively, assisted reproduction technology may have an effect on global patterns of DNA methylation and gene expression. In either case, these differences or changes may affect long-term patterns of gene expression.
    Human Molecular Genetics 08/2009; 18(20):3769-78. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gadd45a (growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 alpha) plays a pivotal role in cellular stress responses and is implicated in DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.(1) Recently, it was proposed that GADD45A is a key regulator of active DNA demethylation by way of its role in DNA repair.(2) Barreto et al. reported that Gadd45a overexpression activated transcription from methylation-silenced reporter plasmids and promoted global DNA demethylation. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Gadd45a levels resulted in increased levels of DNA methylation at specific endogenous loci. Based on these exciting results, Gadd45a(-/-) mice might be predicted to have a hypermethylation phenotype. We report here that neither global nor locus-specific methylation is increased in Gadd45a(-/-) mice.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 03/2009; 4(2):98-9. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DDK syndrome is the polar-lethal embryonic death that occurs at the morula-blastocyst transition when female mice of the DDK strain are mated with males from many other inbred strains (so-called alien males). Embryonic death is caused by incompatibility between a DDK oocyte factor and an alien male gene, both of which map to the Om locus on mouse chromosome 11. We compared global transcription patterns of DDK x DDK embryos (high viability) and DDK x C57BL/6 embryos (low viability) at the morula stage, approximately 24 h before any morphological manifestations of DDK syndrome are observed. Of the transcripts that are differentially more abundant in the DDK x C57BL/6 embryos, many are the products of genes induced by the "unfolded protein response." We confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR that a number of genes in this pathway are upregulated in the DDK x C57BL/6 embryos. Immunostaining of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker BIP/GRP78 (immunoglobin-binding protein/glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa), official symbol HSPA5, heat shock protein 5 revealed an accompanying abnormal HSPA5 accumulation and ER structure in the DDK x C57BL/6 embryos. Immunostaining for HERPUD1 (homocysteine-inducible, ER stress-inducible, ubiquitin-like domain member 1) and ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) also revealed accumulation of these stress-response products. Our results indicate that the unfolded protein response is induced in embryos destined to die of DDK syndrome and that the embryonic death observed is associated with inability to resolve the associated ER stress.
    Biology of Reproduction 02/2009; 80(5):944-53. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mouse embryos display a strain-dependent propensity for blastomere cytofragmentation at the two-cell stage. The maternal pronucleus exerts a predominant, transcription-dependent effect on this phenotype, with lesser effects of the ooplasm and the paternal pronucleus. A parental origin effect has been observed as an inequality in the cytofragmentation rate of embryos produced through genetic crosses of reciprocal F(1) hybrid females. To understand the basis for this, we conducted an extensive series of pronuclear transfer studies employing different combinations of inbred and F(1) hybrid maternal and paternal genotypes. We find that the parental origin effect is the result of a transgenerational epigenetic modification, whereby the inherited maternal grandpaternal contribution interacts with the fertilizing paternal genome and the ooplasm. This result indicates that some epigenetic information related to grandparental origins of chromosomes (i.e., imprinting of chromosomes in the mother) is retained through oogenesis and transmitted to progeny, where it affects gene expression from the maternal pronucleus and subsequent embryo phenotype. These results reveal for the first time that mammalian embryonic development can be affected by the epigenotype of at least three individuals. Additionally, we observe a significant suppression of fragmentation by F(1) hybrid ooplasm when it is separated from the F(1) hybrid maternal pronucleus. This latter effect is a striking example of heterosis in the early mammalian embryo, and it provides a new opportunity for examining the molecular mechanisms of heterosis. These results are relevant to our understanding of the mechanisms of epigenetic effects on development and the possible fertility effects of genetic and epigenetic interactions in reproductive medicine.
    Biology of Reproduction 07/2008; 79(4):638-48. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Changes over time in epigenetic marks, which are modifications of DNA such as by DNA methylation, may help explain the late onset of common human diseases. However, changes in methylation or other epigenetic marks over time in a given individual have not yet been investigated. To determine whether there are longitudinal changes in global DNA methylation in individuals and to evaluate whether methylation maintenance demonstrates familial clustering. We measured global DNA methylation by luminometric methylation assay, a quantitative measurement of genome-wide DNA methylation, on DNA sampled at 2 visits on average 11 years apart in 111 individuals from an Icelandic cohort (1991 and 2002-2005) and on average 16 years apart in 126 individuals from a Utah sample (1982-1985 and 1997-2005). Global methylation changes over time. Twenty-nine percent of Icelandic individuals showed greater than 10% methylation change over time (P < .001). The family-based Utah sample also showed intra-individual changes over time, and further demonstrated familial clustering of methylation change (P = .003). The family showing the greatest global methylation loss also demonstrated the greatest loss of gene-specific methylation by a separate methylation assay. These data indicate that methylation changes over time and suggest that methylation maintenance may be under genetic control.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 06/2008; 299(24):2877-83. · 29.98 Impact Factor
  • Fertility and Sterility - FERT STERIL. 01/2008; 90.
  • Carmen Sapienza
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    ABSTRACT: A protein that determines left-right body asymmetry in the mouse is involved in the nonrandom segregation of duplicated chromosomes to daughter cells.
    Science 02/2007; 315(5808):46-7. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    Elena Casa‐Esperón, Carmen Sapienza
    12/2006; , ISBN: 9780470011539

Publication Stats

2k Citations
514.51 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2013
    • Temple University
      • • Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology
      • • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Texas at Arlington
      Arlington, Texas, United States
  • 2002
    • Research Institute of Molecular Pathology
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • Centre for Reproduction and Development
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2001
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Genetics
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 1992–1994
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1989–1994
    • Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research
      La Jolla, California, United States