Eun Kyeong Lee

Pusan National University, Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea

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Publications (35)111.4 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies on senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) have shown that it has an important functional role in the aging process, but its precise participation in cellular works has not been fully determined. We hypothesize that SMP30 plays crucial roles in signaling processes by modulating the balance of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK)/protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and in activating proinflammatory NF-κB. An experimental paradigm of gain and loss of SMP30 function was established using SMP30-overexpressed YPEN-1 cells (herein referred to as "SMP30(+) cells") and SMP30 (Y/-) knockout mouse kidneys. The resulting data show that SMP30 expression suppressed oxidative stress-induced PTK/PTP dysregulation and PP1/2A inactivation in SMP30(+) cells, leading to the suppression of NF-κB activation. In the kidneys of SMP30 (Y/-) mice, SMP30 deficiency was found to induce NF-κB activation via the upstream signaling of NIK/IKK and MAPKs and to upregulate downstream NF-κB-responsive gene expression. In this study, we also demonstrate for the first time that SMP30 deficiency induced PTK activity in SMP30 (Y/-) kidneys, thereby significantly increasing the tyrosine phosphorylation of a catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2Ac-Tyr307). Based on these findings, we propose that SMP30 involves NF-κB regulation through the PTK/PTP balance and that the age-related decrease of SMP30 causes NF-κB activation, which contributes to an exacerbation of the inflammatory process during aging.
    Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany). 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation is a major risk factor underlying aging and the associated diseases of aging; of particular interest is insulin resistance during aging. Chronic inflammation impairs normal lipid accumulation, adipose tissue function, mitochondrial function, and causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which lead to insulin resistance. However, some studies show that insulin resistance itself amplifies chronic inflammation. The activity of the insulin-dependent Akt signaling pathway is highlighted because of its decrease in insulin-sensitive organs, like liver and muscle, which may underlie insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and its increased levels in non-metabolic organs, such as kidney and aorta. In that the prevalence of obesity has increased substantially for all age groups in recent years, our review summarizes the data showing the involvement of chronic inflammation in obesity-induced insulin resistance, which perpetuates reciprocal interactions between the chronic inflammatory process and increased adiposity, thereby accelerating the aging process.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 09/2014; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: FoxO activity and modifications, such as its phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation, may help drive the expression of genes involved in combating oxidative stress by causing the epigenetic modifications, and thus, preserve cellular function during aging and age-related diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer disease. Insulin signaling has been postulated to influence the aging process by increasing resistance to oxidative stress, and slowing the accumulation of oxidative damage. Some antioxidative effects are mediated by a conserved family of forkhead box transcription factors (FoxOs), which in the absence of insulin signaling freely bind to promoters of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. On the other hand, calorie restriction (CR) extends the lifespans of several species via the insulin pathway, and extends longevity and healthspan in diverse species via a conserved mechanism. CR enhances adaptive stress responses at the cellular and organism levels and extends lifespan in a FoxO-independent manner. Thus, increased modification of FoxO is modulated via the hyperinsulinemia-induced PI3K/Akt pathway during aging, and CR reverses this process. Accordingly, FoxO plays an important role in maintenance of metabolic homeostasis and removal of oxidative stress in the aging process and in the effect of CR on lifespan.
    Biogerontology 08/2014; · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skin is in direct contact with the environment and therefore undergoes aging as a consequence of environmentally induce damage. Wrinkle formation is a striking feature of intrinsic and photo-induced skin aging, which are both associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response. The present study was undertaken to identify the mechanisms responsible for the anti-wrinkle effects of MLB, and thus, we investigated whether magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) from Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE associated with wrinkle formation caused by intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging using Sprague-Dawley rats aged 5 and 20 months and ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated human skin fibroblasts cells, respectively. The results obtained showed that the oral administration of MLB significantly upregulated the level of type I procollagen and downregulated the activities and expressions of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) in rat skin. In fibroblasts, MLB suppressed the transactivation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) and activator protein 1(AP-1), which are the two transcription factors responsible for MMP expression, by suppressing oxidative stress and the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Our results show that the antioxidant effect of MLB is due to the direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its inhibitory effects on NF-kB-dependent inflammation genes, such as, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. MLB was found to reverse both age- and UVB-related reductions in skin procollagen levels by suppressing the expressions and activities of NF-kB and AP-1-dependent MMPs by modulating ROS generation and the MAPK signaling pathway. We suggest that MLB potentially has anti-wrinkle and anti-skin aging effects.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e102689. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation exposure is a threat to public health because it causes many diseases, such as cancers and birth defects, due to genetic modification of cells. Compared with the past, a greater number of people are more frequently exposed to higher levels of radioactivity today, not least due to the increased use of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation-emitting devices. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS)-based metabolic profiling was used to investigate radiation- induced metabolic changes in human fibroblasts. After exposure to 1 and 5 Gy of γ-radiation, the irradiated fibroblasts were harvested at 24, 48, and 72 h and subjected to global metabolite profiling analysis. Mass spectral peaks of cell extracts were analyzed by pattern recognition using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The results showed that the cells irradiated with 1 Gy returned to control levels at 72 h post radiation, whereas cells irradiated with 5 Gy were quite unlike the controls; therefore, cells irradiated with 1 Gy had recovered, whereas those irradiated with 5 Gy had not. Lipid and amino acid levels increased after the higher-level radiation, indicating degradation of membranes and proteins. These results suggest that MS-based metabolite profiling of γ-radiation-exposed human cells provides insight into the global metabolic alterations in these cells.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(11):e113573. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the current study, we explored the effect of LDR on the activation of Nrfs transcription factor involved in cellular redox events. Experiments were carried out utilizing 0.05 and 0.5 Gy X-ray irradiated normal human skin fibroblast HS27 cells. The results showed LDR induced Nrf1 and Nrf2 activation and expression of antioxidant genes HO-1, Mn-SOD, and NQO1. In particular, 0.05 Gy-irradiation increased only Nrf1 activation, but 0.5 Gy induced both Nrf1 and Nrf2 activation. LDR-mediated Nrf1/2 activation was accompanied by reactive species (RS) generation and Ca(2+) flux. This effect was abolished in the presence of N-acetyl-cysteine and BAPTA- AM. Furthermore, Nrf1/2 activation by LDR was suppressed by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2. In conclusion, LDR induces Nrf1 and Nrf2 activation and expression of Nrf-regulated antioxidant defense genes through RS and Ca(2+)/ERK1/2 pathways, suggesting new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial role of LDR in HS27 cells. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(5): 258-263].
    BMB reports 05/2013; 46(5):258-263. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular inflammation hypothesis of aging proposes that redox dysregulation causes an age-related activation of NF-κB and its signaling to upregulate various proinflammatory genes. In the present study, we focused on the inactive form of the protein phosphastase 2A (PP2A). More specifically, we aimed to define the correlation between PP2A inactivation and NF-κB activation by age-related oxidative stress. Experimentations were designed to determine the effect of oxidative stress-induced PP2A inactivation on NF-κB activity, utilizing prooxidants t-BHP and AAPH, the PTP inhibitor Na3VO4, and the PP2A inhibitor Calyculin A and PP2A siRNA, in HEK293T cells. We also assessed the phosphorylation of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) and the activities of PP2A and NF-κB in aged rat kidney, utilizing aging-retarding 60% calorie restriction (CR) and inflammation-triggering LPS paradigms. Results revealed that an oxidative stress-induced PTK/PTP imbalance led to phosphorylation of PP2Ac, following exposures to t-BHP, AAPH, and Na3VO4 in HEK293T cells. Subsequently, we found that Calyculin A and PP2A siRNA activates NIK/IKK and MAPKs, leading to upregulation of NF-κB and its dependent oxidative stress. Also, the contrasting relation between PP2A inactivation and NF-κB activation was confirmed by AAPH-induced oxidative status in mice, and non-induced normal status or LPS-induced inflammatory status in aged rats while the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging effects of CR significantly blunted these actions. Thus, we present evidence that PP2A inactivation via PTK/PTP imbalance provoked by oxidative stress causes NF-κB activation, which contributes to the accumulation of oxidative stress in aged rat kidney.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 04/2013; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a mediator of endothelial dysfunction in expression of adhesion molecules (AMs) during aging. This study aimed at investigating the effects of betaine on LPC-related expression of AMs and the molecular modulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in the aorta of aged rats and rat endothelial YPEN-1 cells. The experiment was performed on young (7months) and old (21months) rats; 2 groups of old rats were fed betaine (3 or 6mg•kg-1•day-1 for 10days). Betaine inhibited the expression of LPC-related AMs in the serum and tissue of aged rats, without affecting the elevated levels of serum LPC. Betaine also prevented the generation of reactive species, thereby maintaining the redox status via the enhancement of the thiol status during aging. Furthermore, betaine attenuated NF-κB activation via the dephosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in aged aorta and LPC-treated YPEN-1 cells. Thus, betaine suppressed the LPC-related AM expression associated with NF-κB activation via the upregulation of IKK/MAPKs. Our findings provide insights into the prevention of vascular disorders and the development of interventions based on natural compounds, such as betaine.
    Experimental gerontology 03/2013; · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ginsenoside Rd is a primary constituent of the ginseng rhizome and has been shown to participate in the regulation of diabetes and in tumor formation. Reports also show that ginsenoside Rd exerts anti-oxidative effects by activating anti-oxidant enzymes. Treatment with ginsenoside Rd decreased nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-challenged RAW264.7 cells and in ICR mouse livers (5 mg/kg LPS; LPS + ginsenoside Rd [2, 10, and 50 mg/kg]). Furthermore, these decreases were associated with the down-regulations of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that ginsenoside Rd treatment decreases; 1) nitric oxide production (40% inhibition); 2) PGE2 synthesis (69% to 93% inhibition); 3) NF-κB activity; and 4) the NF-κB-regulated expressions of iNOS and COX-2. Taken together, our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenoside Rd are due to the down-regulation of NF-κB and the consequent expressional suppressions of iNOS and COX-2.
    Journal of ginseng research 03/2013; 37(1):54-63. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Glutathione (GSH) is an important cellular antioxidant and has a critical role in maintaining the balance of cellular redox. In this study, we investigated the GSH biosynthesis genes involved in the elevation of endogenous GSH levels using an irradiation system with an irradiation dose rate of 1.78 mGy/h, which was about 40,000 times less than dose rates used in other studies. The results showed that GSH levels were significantly increased in the low dose (0.02 and 0.2 Gy) irradiated-group compared to the non-irradiated group, but enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase and catalase were not induced at any doses tested. The elevation in GSH was accompanied by elevated expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, but no changes were observed in the expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit and thioredoxin in de novo GSH synthesis. In the case of genes involved in the GSH regeneration cycle, the expression of glutathione reductase was not changed after irradiation, whereas glutathione peroxidase was only increased in the 0.2 Gy irradiated group. Collectively, our results suggest that the de novo pathway, rather than the regeneration cycle may be mainly switched on in response to stimulation with long term low-dose radiation in the spleen.
    Free Radical Research 11/2012; · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among the many experimental paradigms used for the investigation of aging, the calorie restriction (CR) model has been proven to be the most useful in gerontological research. Exploration of the mechanisms underlying CR has produced a wealth of data. To identify key molecules controlled by aging and CR, we integrated data from 84 mouse and rat cDNA microarrays with a protein-protein interaction network. On the basis of this integrative analysis, we selected three genes that are upregulated in aging but downregulated by CR and two genes that are downregulated in aging but upregulated by CR. One of these key molecules is lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK). To further confirm this result on LCK, we performed a series of experiments in vitro and in vivo using kidneys obtained from aged ad libitum-fed and CR rats. Our major significant findings are as follows: (1) identification of LCK as a key molecule using integrative analysis; (2) confirmation that the age-related increase in LCK was modulated by CR and that protein tyrosine kinase activity was decreased using a LCK-specific inhibitor; and (3) upregulation of LCK leads to NF-κB activation in a ONOO(-) generation-dependent manner, which is modulated by CR. These results indicate that LCK could be considered a target attenuated by the anti-aging effects of CR. Integrative analysis of cDNA microarray and interactome data are powerful tools for identifying target molecules that are involved in the aging process and modulated by CR.
    Age 07/2012; · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial barrier function is determined by both transcellular and paracellular permeability, the latter of which is mainly influenced by tight junctions (TJs) and apoptotic leaks within the epithelium. We investigated the protective effects of ferulate on epithelial barrier integrity by examining permeability, TJ protein expression, and apoptosis in Caco-2 cells treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), a strong reactive species inducer. Caco-2 cells pretreated with ferulate (5 or 15 μM) were exposed to t-BHP (100 μM), and ferulate suppressed the t-BHP-mediated increases in reactive species and epithelial permeability in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, ferulate inhibited epithelial cell leakage induced by t-BHP, which was accompanied by decreased expression of the TJ proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin. In addition, pretreatment with ferulate markedly protected cells against t-BHP-induced apoptosis, as evidenced by decreased nuclear condensation, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 cleavage and an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These results suggest that ferulate protects the epithelial barrier of Caco-2 cells against oxidative stress, which results in increased epithelial permeability, decreased TJ protein expression, and increased apoptosis. The most significant finding of our study is the demonstration of protective, ferulate-mediated antioxidant effects on barrier integrity, with a particular focus on intracellular molecular mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 05/2012; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Baicalin is a flavonoid known to modify various redox-related biological activities. Included is its ability to suppress reactive species (RS) producing activity and modulate nuclear factor-κB through cellular redox regulation with enhanced thiol ability. FoxO regulates various genes that are known to be involved in cellular metabolism related to cell death and the oxidative stress response. One such case is the prevention of FoxO1 expression by activated insulin-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, which leads to increased oxidative stress and aging processes. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the molecular modulation of antioxidant baicalin on the insulin-induced FoxO1 inactivation. We used HEK293T cultured cells and kidney tissue isolated from 24-month-old rats treated with baicalin at a dose of 10 or 20 mg/kg/day for 10 days. We found that baicalin enhanced catalase and suppressed RS production in cell system and in isolated kidney tissue in contrast to the nontreated aged rats. Results also showed activation of insulin signaling (PI3K/Akt), FoxO1 phosphorylation/acetylation and the down-regulation of catalase and manganese superoxide dismutase, both of which are FoxO1-targeting genes. Furthermore, baicalin-treated rats showed a decreased FoxO1 phosphorylation via PI3K/Akt cascade and FoxO1 acetylation by the cAMP-response element-binding protein binding protein (CBP). These results strongly suggest that treatment with baicalin influenced phosphorylation/acetylation of FoxO1 by up-regulating PI3K/Akt signaling through insulin in aged rats. Our results further reveal that baicalin regulated FoxO1 phosphorylation via PI3K/Akt by insulin and FoxO1 acetylation by the interaction of CBP and SIRT1, leading to changes in catalase gene expression during aging.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 12/2011; 23(10):1277-84. · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Baicalin, a herb-derived flavonoid compound, has beneficial activities, including the modulation of oxidative stress and inflammation. Nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in regulating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-induced age-related inflammation. We investigated the anti-inflammatory action of baicalin, which depends on its ability to activate PPARγ, and subsequently to suppress NF-κB. We examined baicalin-treated kidney tissue from 24-month-old Fischer 344 aged rats (10 or 20 mg/kg/day for 10 days) and baicalin-fed mice (10 mg/kg/day for 3 days) for in vivo investigations, and used endothelial YPEN-1 cells for in vitro studies. In the baicalin-fed aged rats, there was a marked enhancement of both nuclear protein levels and DNA binding activity of PPARγ, and a decreased expression of NF-κB target genes (VCAM-1, IL-1β, and IL-6) compared with non-baicalin-fed aged rats. Furthermore, to confirm the anti-inflammatory action of PPARγ activated by baicalin, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated cells and mice. The results showed that baicalin induced PPARγ-selective activation in YPEN-1 cells, and that the effects of baicalin were blocked by the PPARγ receptor antagonist, GW9662. In addition, baicalin treatment prevented RS generation, NF-κB activation and the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, whereas it increased PPARγ expression in LPS-treated cells and mouse kidney. Our data suggest that baicalin-induced PPARγ expression reduced age-related inflammation through blocking pro-inflammatory NF-κB activation. These results indicate that baicalin is a novel PPARγ activator and that this agent may have the potential to minimize inflammation.
    Biogerontology 10/2011; 13(2):133-45. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Herein we describe the design, synthesis and biological activities of 2-(substituted phenyl)thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives as novel tyrosinase inhibitors. The target compounds 2a-2j were designed and synthesized from the structural characteristics of N-phenylthiourea, tyrosinase inhibitor and tyrosine, and l-DOPA, the natural substrates of tyrosinase. Among them, (2R/S,4R)-2-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (2g) caused the greatest inhibition 66.47% at 20 μM of l-DOPA oxidase activity of mushroom tyrosinase. Kinetic analysis of tyrosinase inhibition revealed that 2g is a competitive inhibitor. We predicted the tertiary structure of tyrosinase, and simulated the docking of mushroom tyrosinase with 2g. These results suggest that the binding affinity of 2g with tyrosinase is high. Also, 2g effectively inhibited tyrosinase activity and reduced melanin levels in B16 cells treated with α-MSH. These data strongly suggest that 2g can suppress the production of melanin via the inhibition of tyrosinase activity.
    Biochimie 09/2011; 94(2):533-40. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors and the second cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Naphthoquinones such as juglone and plumbagin are compounds used extensively to overcome resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in cancers due to their cytotoxic role. This study is the first to investigate the anti-cancer effect of naphthazarin (Naph), one of the naphthaquinones, in human gastric cancer AGS cells. We showed that Naph exhibited effective preferential cell growth inhibition via G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis, which was associated with reduced levels of Cdc2 and Cdc25C expression. Naph also increased cleaved caspase-3 and Poly ADR(adenosine diphosphate ribose) Polymerase expression, γ-H2AX expression (an indicator of DNA double strand breaks) and DNA fragmentation. We also found the generation of reactive oxygen species is a critical mediator in Naph-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. The non-protein antioxidant, glutathione significantly abolished Naph-mediated inhibition of cell growth and apoptosis. Taken together, our findings showed that Naph not only inhibited cell growth, but also induced apoptosis of AGS cells, suggesting that Naph may be a potential candidate for cancer therapy against gastric cancers.
    International Journal of Oncology 09/2011; 40(1):157-62. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies regarding the discrimination of non-neoplastic lesion, adenoma, and cancer of the stomach using magnifying endoscopy with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement system (FIME) in each different channel of that system have not yet been reported. To ascertain the usefulness of FIME discriminating among the three kinds of gastric lesions. When finding a lesion to be a possible neoplasm using conventional endoscopy, the examiner discriminated among the three kinds of gastric lesions by observing the pit pattern on the lesion using magnifying endoscopy with white light (WLME) and then recorded the image. The procedure was repeated three more times with FIME with channel 0, 2, and 4. The four recorded images per lesion were then given to four raters for discriminating among the three kinds of gastric lesions. The proportion of agreement and the degree of agreement between endoscopic and pathological diagnosis (AEP) by WLME were 0.85 and 0.76, respectively, and those by FIME were 0.91 and 0.86, respectively. All AEPs from discriminations with FIME was higher than that with WLME. AEPs from the discriminations with FIME with channel 4 were higher than those with FIME with channel 0 or 2. The degree of interobserver agreement among the results of the four raters was 0.42 for WLME and 0.50-0.59 for FIME with each of the three different channels. FICE is useful in discriminating among non-neoplastic lesions, adenoma, and cancer of the stomach, and channel 4 of the FICE is better than channel 0 and 2 for the discriminations.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 07/2011; 56(10):2879-86. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ferulate (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is a well-known phenolic compound that scavenges free radicals and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a), a transcription factor that plays important roles in aging processes, decreases with age and is negatively regulated through phosphorylation by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. The present study investigated the efficacy of short-term ferulate feeding on age-related changes in PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a and upstream insulin signaling pathways in aged rats. In addition, changes in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase expression were examined because of their dependence on PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a activity. Short-term feeding experiments were done with a diet containing ferulate that was given to aged rats at doses of 3 or 6 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 10 days. Results showed that FOXO3a activity was increased in the ferulate-fed old group compared with the control old group. Also, ferulate suppressed the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway that is responsible for FOXO3a inhibition in aged rats. Plasma insulin levels and the upstream insulin signaling pathway were also modulated by ferulate correspondingly with PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a activity. The age-related decrease in two major antioxidant enzymes, MnSOD and catalase, was blunted by ferulate, which was accompanied by FOXO3a transcriptional activity. The significance of the present study is the finding that short-term feeding of ferulate effectively modulates age-related renal FOXO3a, PI3K/Akt and insulin signaling pathways, and MnSOD and catalase expression, all of which may be beneficial for attenuating the aging process.
    Age 04/2011; 34(2):317-27. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many tyrosinase inhibitors find application in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products for the prevention of the overproduction of melanin in the epidermis. A series of 5-(substituted benzylidene)hydantoin derivatives 2a-2k were prepared, and their inhibitory activities toward tyrosinase and melanin formation were evaluated. The structures of the compounds were established using (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectral analyses. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity. The best results were obtained for compound 2e which possessed hydroxyl group at R(2) and methoxy group at R(3), respectively. We predicted the tertiary structure of tyrosinase, simulated its docking with compound 2e and confirmed that this compound interacts strongly with mushroom tyrosinase residues as a competitive tyrosinase inhibitor. In addition, we found that 2e inhibited melanin production and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Compound 2e could be considered as a promising candidate for preclinical drug development in skin hyperpigmentation applications. This study will enhance understanding of the mechanism of tyrosinase inhibition and will contribute to the development of effective drugs for use hyperpigmentation.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2011; 1810(6):612-9. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (Ang II), a major effector of the renin-angiotensin system, is now recognized as a pro-inflammatory mediator. This Ang II signaling, which causes transcription of pro-inflammatory genes, is regulated through nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). At present, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of aging on Ang II signaling and NF-κB activation are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to document altered molecular events involved in age-related changes in Ang II signaling and NF-κB activation. Experimentations were carried out using kidney tissues from Fischer 344 rats at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age, and the rat endothelial cell line, YPEN-1 for the detailed molecular work. Results show that increases in Ang II and Ang II type 1 receptor during aging were accompanied by the generation of reactive species. Increased Ang II activated NF-κB by phosphorylating IκBα and p65. Increased phosphorylation of p65 at Ser 536 was mediated by the enhanced phosphorylation of IκB kinase αβ, while phosphorylation site Ser 276 of p65 was mediated by upregulated mitogen-activated and stress-activated protein kinase-1. These altered molecular events in aged animals were partly verified by experiments using YPEN-1 cells. Collectively, our findings provide molecular insights into the pro-inflammatory actions of Ang II, actions that influence the phosphorylation of p65-mediated NF-κB activation during aging. Our study demonstrates the age-related pleiotropic nature of the physiologically important Ang II can change into a deleterious culprit that contributes to an increased incidence of many chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and dementia.
    Age 02/2011; 34(1):11-25. · 6.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

149 Citations
111.40 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • Pusan National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Korea Institute of Toxicology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Dongnam Inst. of Radiological & Medical Sciences
      Ryōzan, South Gyeongsang, South Korea