M Boscaro

University-Hospital of Padova, Padua, Veneto, Italy

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Publications (318)1082.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) is a rare form of Cushing's syndrome (CS). A variety of in vivo tests to identify aberrant receptor expression have been proposed to guide medical treatment. Unilateral adrenalectomy (UA) may be effective in selected patients but little is known about recurrence during follow-up. To describe a series of patients with BMAH and CS treated by different approaches, with a particular focus on the benefit of UA. We retrospectively assessed 16 patients with BMAH and CS (11 females, 5 males), analysing the in vivo cortisol response to different provocative tests. Twelve of the 16 patients underwent UA and were monitored over the long-term. Based on in vivo test results, octreotide LAR or propranolol were administered in one case of food-dependent CS and two patients with a positive postural test. A significant improvement in biochemical values was seen in all patients but with limited clinical response. UA was performed in 12 patients, producing long-term remission in three (106 ± 28 months; range: 80-135), recurrence in eight (after 54 ± 56 months; range 12-180) and persistence in one other. Four patients subsequently underwent contralateral adrenalectomy for overt CS, one received ketoconazole and four other patients remain under observation for subclinical CS. Conclusions: Medical treatment based on cortisol response to provocative tests had a limited role in our patients, whereas UA was useful in some of them. Although recurrence is likely, the timing of onset is variable and close follow-up is mandatory in order to identify it. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) is a condition of biochemical cortisol excess without the classical clinical features of overt hypercortisolism; it may be associated with some consequences of metabolic syndrome. The most appropriate treatment remains controversial. This study aimed to assess the outcomes of adrenalectomy for SCS. A systematic review was performed. MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Databases (1980-2013) were searched for studies reporting the outcomes of unilateral adrenalectomy with respect to hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity and osteoporosis in patients with SCS. Studies with a questionable diagnosis of SCS, bilateral adrenal involvement and insufficient data were excluded. Of the 105 papers screened, seven were selected; there were six retrospective studies and one randomized clinical trial, including 230 patients. Data analysis was limited by heterogeneity in definition of SCS and endpoints. Hypercortisolism was cured in all operated patients. Laparoscopy was the preferred approach, with a morbidity rate of 0·8 per cent. A beneficial effect of surgery on blood pressure, glucometabolic control and obesity was evident in all studies, with cure or improvement in 72, 46 and 39 per cent of patients respectively, compared with conservative management. The results for lipid metabolism were equivocal, because of a decrease in triglyceridaemia but discordant effects on cholesterol metabolism among the different studies. No beneficial effects on osteoporosis were found. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy seems to be beneficial in reversing several metabolic effects of hypercortisolism, with a low morbidity rate. However, the heterogeneity and low quality of the available studies preclude definitive recommendations. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    British Journal of Surgery 02/2015; 102(4). DOI:10.1002/bjs.9742 · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: A number of factors can influence the reported outcomes of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for Cushing's disease - including different remission and recurrence criteria, for which there is no consensus. Therefore, a comparative analysis of the best treatment options and patient management strategies is difficult. In this review, we investigated the clinical outcomes of initial TSS in patients with Cushing's disease based on definitions of and assessments for remission and recurrence. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed and identified 44 studies with clear definitions of remission and recurrence. When data were available, additional analyses by time of remission, tumour size, duration of follow-up, surgical experience, year of study publication, and adverse events related to surgery were performed. Results: Of the 44 articles selected, only one reported endoscopic TSS. Data from a total of 6,400 patients who received microscopic TSS were extracted and analysed. A variety of definitions of remission and recurrence of Cushing's disease after initial microscopic TSS was used, giving broad ranges of remission (42.0-96.6%; median, 77.9%) and recurrence (3.1-47.4%; median, 11.5%). Better remission and recurrence outcomes were achieved for micro- versus macroadenomas; however, no correlations were found with other parameters, other than improved safety with longer surgical experience. Conclusions: The variety of methodologies used in clinical evaluation of TSS for Cushing's disease strongly support the call for standardization and optimization of studies to inform clinical practice and maximize patient outcomes. Clinically significant rates of failure of initial TSS highlight the need for effective second-line treatments.
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    ABSTRACT: Aggressive pituitary adenomas (PAs) are clinically challenging for endocrinologists and neurosurgeons due to their locally invasive nature and resistance to standard treatment (surgery, medical or radiotherapy). Two pituitary-directed drugs have recently been proposed: temozolomide (TMZ) for aggressive PA, and pasireotide for ACTH-secreting PA. We describe the experience of our multidisciplinary team of endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists, oncologists, otolaryngologists and pathologists with TMZ and pasireotide treatment for aggressive PAs in terms of their radiological shrinkage and genetic features. We considered five patients with aggressive PA, three of them non-secreting (two ACTH-silent and one becoming ACTH secreting), and two secreting (one GH and one ACTH). TMZ was administrated orally at 150–200 mg/m2 daily for 5 days every 28 days to all 5 patients, and 2 of them also received pasireotide 600–900 µg bid sc. We assessed the MRI at the baseline and during TMZ or pasireotide treatment. We also checked for MGMT promoter methylation and IDH, BRAF and kRAS mutations. Considering TMZ, two patients showed PA progression, one stable disease and two achieved radiological and clinical response. Pasireotide was effective in reducing hypercortisolism and mass volume, combined with TMZ in one case. Both treatments were generally well tolerated; one patient developed a grade 2 TMZ-induced thrombocytopenia. None of patients developed hypopituitarism while taking TMZ or pasireotide treatment. No genetic anomalies were identified in the adenoma tissue. TMZ and pasireotide may be important therapies for aggressive PA, alone or in combination.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 01/2015; 122(1). DOI:10.1007/s11060-014-1702-0 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    Filippo Ceccato, Carla Scaroni, Marco Boscaro
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    ABSTRACT: CUSHING’S DISEASE: Excessive corticotroph hormone levels sustained by an adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma lead to a severe clinical condition caused by excess cortisol secretion, called Cushing's disease (CD). Neurosurgery and radiotherapy are used to treat the pituitary adenoma directly, but new medical treatments targeting the corticotroph cells have recently become available. This is a novel multireceptor ligand somatostatin (SST) analog with a high binding affinity for SST receptor 5, the predominant receptor in human corticotroph adenomas that is not downregulated by high cortisol levels (as SST receptor 2 is). Pasireotide has been recently approved by the European Medical Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration for treating adults with CD with recurrent hypercortisolism after surgery, or for whom surgery is not an option. A dose of 600-1,200 μg twice a day can normalize urinary free cortisol levels after 3 months of treatment in up to 28% of patients, reducing their blood pressure and improving their weight, lipid profile, and quality of life. Combining pasireotide with cabergoline to achieve a greater hormone response can normalize cortisol secretion in 50% of patients, and adding ketoconazole induces biochemical control in most patients with CD. The adverse effects of pasireotide are similar to those of other SST analogs, including diarrhea, nausea, and biliary sludge or gallstones. Hyperglycemia is common during pasireotide treatment, which affects the secretion of pancreatic insulin and intestinal glucagon-like peptide 1. Self-monitoring is essential to achieve good metabolic control, and endocrinologists should first administer metformin if insulin resistance is evident and then add dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors/glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists or insulin. In recent years, medical treatment with pasireotide has been proposed as monotherapy for adults with CD characterized by mild to moderate hypercortisolemia, as well as in combination with other available therapies. It is generally well-tolerated, but endocrinologists need to monitor glucose levels to ensure prompt treatment.
    Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 01/2015; 11:425-34. DOI:10.2147/TCRM.S37314 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Report the efficacy and safety of pasireotide sc in patients with Cushing's disease during an open-ended, open-label extension to a randomized, double-blind, 12-month, Phase III study. 162 patients entered the core study. 58 patients who had mean UFC ≤ ULN at month 12 or were benefiting clinically from pasireotide entered the extension. Patients received the same dose of pasireotide as at the end of the core study (300-1,200 μg bid). Dose titration was permitted according to efficacy or drug-related adverse events. 40 patients completed 24 months' treatment. Of the patients who entered the extension, 50.0 % (29/58) and 34.5 % (20/58) had controlled UFC (UFC ≤ ULN) at months 12 and 24, respectively. The mean percentage decrease in UFC was 57.3 % (95 % CI 40.7-73.9; n = 52) and 62.1 % (50.8-73.5; n = 33) after 12 and 24 months' treatment, respectively. Improvements in clinical signs of Cushing's disease were sustained up to month 24. The most frequent drug-related adverse events in patients who received ≥1 dose of pasireotide (n = 162) from core baseline until the 24-month cut-off were diarrhea (55.6 %), nausea (48.1 %), hyperglycemia (38.9 %), and cholelithiasis (31.5 %). No new safety issues were identified during the extension. Reductions in mean UFC and improvements in clinical signs of Cushing's disease were maintained over 24 months of pasireotide treatment. The safety profile of pasireotide is typical for a somatostatin analogue, except for the frequency and degree of hyperglycemia; patients should be monitored for changes in glucose homeostasis. Pasireotide represents the first approved pituitary-targeted treatment for patients with Cushing's disease.
    Pituitary 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11102-014-0618-1 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) theory suggests that genetic alterations in stem cells are the direct cause for cancer. The evidence for a CSC population that results in pituitary tumors is poor. Some studies report the isolation of CSCs, but a deep characterization of the stemness of these cells is lacking. Here, we report the isolation and detailed characterization of progenitor mesenchymal cells (PMCs) from both growth hormone-secreting (GH(+)) and non-secreting (NS) pituitary adenomas, determining the immunophenotype, the expression of genes related to stemness or to pituitary hormone cell types, and the differentiative potential towards osteo-, chondro- and adipogenic lineages. Finally, the expression of CD133, known as a marker for CSCs in other tumors, was analyzed. Isolated cells, both from GH(+) and NS tumors, satisfy all the criteria for the identification of PMCs and express known stem cell markers (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, NANOG), but do not express markers of pituitary hormone cell types (PITX2, PROP1, PIT1). Finally, PMCs express CD133. We demonstrated that pituitary tumors contain a stem cell population that can generate cell types characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells, and express CD133, which is associated with CSCs in other tumors.Cancer Gene Therapy advance online publication, 19 December 2014; doi:10.1038/cgt.2014.63.
    Cancer Gene Therapy 12/2014; 22(1). DOI:10.1038/cgt.2014.63 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pasireotide is a multireceptor-targeted somatostatin analog effective in the treatment of Cushing's disease (CD). We evaluate the value of an acute pasireotide suppression test (PST) in predicting response to medium/long-term treatment in CD. Nineteen patients with active CD were prospectively investigated at two referral centers from May 2013 to August 2014. Follow-up data (median 6 months; range 1-9 months) were available for sixteen patients. All patients received at 09:00 h a single subcutaneous (sc) injection of 600 μg pasireotide. Serum cortisol and plasma ACTH were assessed before, and every 2 h for 8 h after, drug administration. Late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) was assessed before and after pasireotide administration. After acute PST, all patients were continued on pasireotide 600 μg sc twice a day. During PST, cortisol and ACTH levels quickly decreased in all patients except one with a mean percentage fall, respectively, of 48.9 ± 24.3 and 48.1 ± 25.4 % compared to baseline. LNSC decreased in about 82 % of patients (14/17) achieving a normalization in five of them. Pasireotide treatment was associated with a normalization of 24-h urinary-free cortisol at last follow-up in about 68 % of patients. A fall >27 % of LNSC during PST calculated by ROC curve was the best parameter in predicting a positive response to treatment with pasireotide (sensitivity 91 %; specificity 100 %; positive predictive value 100 %; negative predictive value 75 %). Acute PST may be useful to identify CD patients who will benefit from pasireotide treatment. A LNSC fall >27 % as well as a LNSC normalization during PST is associated with a probability of 100 % of achieving a favorable response to pasireotide treatment in the medium/long term.
    Endocrine 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12020-014-0499-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a major public health problem also in men and it recognizes hypogonadism as a major cause.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s40618-014-0187-1 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Several clinical studies testify the critical role played by estrogens in male bone metabolism. The aim of our study is to assess the effect of a single injection of testosterone enanthate in a group of hypogonadal men on 17β estradiol serum levels and some bone metabolic parameters. Method Twenty-one hypogonadal males were given one testosterone enanthate injection (250 mg). Blood samples were drawn before the injection and after 1, 2 and 3 weeks. The following variables were measured: Total testosterone (TT), 17β estradiol (17β E2), Sex hormone binding globulin, total alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx). Results After testosterone injection, both TT and 17β E2 increased, peaking 1 week after the injection. Individual observation of the response of 17β E2 to testosterone showed that a subgroup (n = 9) failed to respond with any increase in 17β E2 at any of the weekly tests (group E2−), while the remainder (n = 12) showed a significant increase in 17β E2, which reached a mean value three times higher than at baseline (group E2+). The E2− patients reached a TT peak lower than that observed in the E+ group. CTx serum levels declined progressively in the E2+ group, reaching the significance (p = 0.03) at the end of the study, while it did not change in E− group. Conclusion This study suggests that a single injection of testosterone might have different effects on the production of endogenous estrogens, and a significant reduction of bone resorption parameters takes place only in the patients who show a significant increase of 17ß estradiol in response to testosterone administration.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 10/2014; 38(4). DOI:10.1007/s40618-014-0183-5 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cushing's disease (CD) is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events, particularly after surgery. No guidelines are available on the management of patients with CD undergoing pituitary transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). We aimed to compare the effectiveness of different prophylactic procedures on the prevention of thrombotic events after surgery in CD.
    Pituitary 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11102-014-0600-y · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Fracture risk data following curative treatment of Cushing's syndrome (CS) are scarce and the role of bisphosphonates in bone recovery after remission is controversial. We evaluated the effects of hypercortisolism remission in bone recovery in CS. Then, we assessed if the FRAX (R) algorithm calculated before the cure can predict fracture risk after cure. Methods Thirty-six patients with CS were retrospectively investigated. Bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and left femur (both neck and total hip were considered), and fracture risk using FRAX (R) algorithm with femoral neck BMD were evaluated at diagnosis and after a median follow-up of 24 months (range 12-108 months) from hypercortisolism remission. Data about bone active therapy were analyzed. Results Hypercortisolism remission was associated with the improvement of all densitometric parameters and with the reduction of fracture risk. The percentage change in BMD and the fracture risk were not significantly different in bisphosphonate-treated vs. untreated patients. During follow-up, three fractured patients at baseline exhibited a new vertebral fracture. A baseline 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures (FRAX (R) Major) of 17 % was able to predict the occurrence of a new vertebral fracture during follow-up after cure with 100 % sensitivity, 77 % specificity, 81 % positive predictive value and 100 % negative predictive value. Conclusions Osteoporosis and fracture risk may be reversible after curative treatment of CS, regardless of bisphosphonate therapy. We suggest applying the FRAX (R) algorithm to all active CS patients using a baseline FRAX (R) Major of 17 % as "intervention threshold".
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 07/2014; 37(10). DOI:10.1007/s40618-014-0126-1 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pasireotide is a multi-receptor-targeted somatostatin analogue approved in the EU and in the US for the treatment of adults with Cushing's disease (CD). Pasireotide has a safety profile similar to other somatostatin analogues with the exception of hyperglycemia. In this report and literature review, the current understanding of predicting a positive treatment response to pasireotide in CD and the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) during pasireotide treatment are discussed and analyzed.
    Pituitary 06/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11102-014-0582-9 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most frequent thyroid cancer entity, accounting for 88 % of cases. It may metastasize and loose iodine uptake capability, preventing any radioiodine or surgical treatment. The main gene altered in PTC is BRAF, which is found altered in over 50 % of cases. Moreover MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways are greatly implicated in PTC development. Many target therapies for PTC are currently under investigation, unfortunately without the expected results. Aim of this study was to characterized the preclinical effectiveness of novel promising drugs, RAF265, SB590885 and ZSTK474 in 3 thyroid cancer cell lines (BCPAP, K1, 8505C). RAF265 and SB590885 target differentially BRAF, while ZSTK474 acts on PI3K. IC50 demonstrated high drug activities ranging from 0.1 to 6.2 μM, depending on drugs and cell type, while combination index revealed an interesting synergistic effect of combination regimen (RAF265 + ZSTK474 and SB590885 + ZSTK474) in almost all cell lines. Moreover this synergistic effect was particularly evident by Western blot, whereas dual MAPK and PI3K/Akt inhibition was detected. In addition, treating cells with SB590885 induced marked morphological changes, leading to massive vacuolization. This suggests an activation of apoptotic process, as underlined by Annexin V flow cytometry analysis. Also cell cycle was altered in treated cells, without evidence of a common pattern, but rather with a more specific effect relying on single drug or combination regimen used. Since beneficial effects of in vitro combination regimen (RAF265 + ZSTK474 and SB590885 + ZSTK474), it is recommended additional investigation. These data suggest the potential use of combination regimen in in vivo experiment or afterwards in human PTC.
    Investigational New Drugs 05/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10637-014-0108-3 · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • 04/2014; DOI:10.1530/endoabs.35.P46
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    ABSTRACT: The Endocrine Society Clinical Guidelines recommend measuring 24h urinary free cortisol (UFF) using a highly accurate method as one of the first-line screening tests for the diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome (CS). We evaluated the performance of UFF, urinary free cortisone (UFE), and the UFF/UFE ratio, measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The LC-MS/MS was used to analyze UFF and UFE in 43 surgically confirmed CS patients: 26 with Cushing's disease (CD, 16 de novo and 10 recurrences), 11 with adrenal and 6 with ectopic-CS; 22 CD patients in remission; 14 eu-cortisolaemic CD patients receiving medical therapy; 60 non-CS patients, and 70 healthy controls. Sensitivity and specificity were determined in the combined groups of non-CS patients, healthy controls, and CD in remission. UFF >170 nmol/24h showed 98.7% specificity and 100% sensitivity for de novo CS, whilst sensitivity was 80% for recurrent CD patients, who were characterized by lower UFF levels. The UFF/UFE and UFF+UFE showed lower sensitivity and specificity than UFF. Ectopic-CS patients had the highest UFF and UFF/UFE levels, which were normal in the CD remission patients and in those receiving medical therapy. Our data suggests high diagnostic performance of UFF excretion, measured using LC-MS/MS, in detecting de novo CS. UFF/UFE and UFF+UFE assessments are not useful in the first step of CS diagnosis, although high levels were found to be indicative of ectopic-CS.
    European Journal of Endocrinology 04/2014; DOI:10.1530/EJE-14-0061 · 3.69 Impact Factor
  • 04/2014; DOI:10.1530/endoabs.35.P957
  • 04/2014; DOI:10.1530/endoabs.35.P19
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    ABSTRACT: Late night salivary cortisol (LNSC) is useful for diagnosing hypercortisolism and monitoring patients with Cushing's disease (CD) following pituitary surgery. It may also be a better index of cortisol secretion than serum cortisol or urinary free cortisol (UFC). No data regarding the role of LNSC in the early monitoring of patients with CD receiving drug therapy has been published. We investigated the value of LNSC in monitoring the short-term efficacy of pasireotide. Seven patients who were enrolled in a phase II study investigating the efficacy of pasireotide in CD (CSOM230B2208) were included in this analysis. Patients self-administered subcutaneous pasireotide 600 μg bid for 15 days. LNSC and UFC levels were assessed at baseline and day 15. At baseline, all patients had elevated LNSC which was correlated significantly with UFC levels (r = 0.97, P = .0002). At day 15, LNSC was reduced in six patients. LNSC decreases were observed from day 1 (-20 %) and persisted until day 15 (overall mean reduction from baseline -51 %), with the greatest decrease on day 5 (-58 %). At day 15, UFC levels were decreased in all patients and normalized in one that restored also salivary cortisol rhythm. In patients with CD, pasireotide rapidly reduced and normalized both UFC and LNSC levels. LNSC may be a simple, non-invasive biomarker to assess the early response to pasireotide, particularly in determining whether cortisol rhythm is normalized in patients with normalized UFC levels. Further studies are warranted.
    Pituitary 01/2014; 18(1). DOI:10.1007/s11102-014-0557-x · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a complex multifactorial disease, which also has an impact on quality of life. The aim of this paper is to identify the correlates of perceived health related quality of life in obese, overweight and normal weight Italians older adults. 205 subjects at the age >= 60 yrs. were recruited into the Division of Endocrinology of the Polytechnic University of Marche Region, Ancona (Italy). A protocol of questionnaires was constructed for data collection, and included domains such as physical activity, quality of life, socio-psychological aspects. The association of the latter variables with SF-36 Health Survey physical component (PCS-36) were evaluated in the whole sample. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the effect of independent variables on PCS-36 and the physical subscales of SF-36. PCS-36 showed a lower score in the obese and overweight subjects than the normal weight group (post-hoc test, p < 0.001 and p < 0.05 respectively). Age, gender (male), Body Mass Index, years of education, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) total score, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression, number of medications prescribed and number of diseases were included in the model. Negative and significant PCS-associated variables included depression (p = 0.009), BMI (p = 0.001), age in years (p = 0.007), whereas positive and significant PCS-associated independent variables were years of education (p = 0.022), physical activity (p = 0.026). BMI was negatively associated with all the physical subscales of SF-36 (p < 0.05). Research funding should be invested in the study of the benefits accruing from reducing obesity in the elderly.
    BMC Public Health 01/2014; 14(1):35. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-35 · 2.32 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,082.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990–2015
    • University-Hospital of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 2002–2014
    • Università Politecnica delle Marche
      • • Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences - DISCLIMO
      • • Chair of Endocrinology
      • • Chair of Internal Medicine
      Ancona, The Marches, Italy
  • 1979–2014
    • University of Padova
      • • Department of Molecular Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine DIMED
      • • Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 2012
    • Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
      Modène, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
    • Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Ancona
      Ancona, The Marches, Italy
  • 2010
    • University Children's Hospital Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2004
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1999
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 1991
    • University of Catania
      Catania, Sicily, Italy
    • It-Robotics
      Vicenza, Veneto, Italy
  • 1989
    • University of Bologna
      • Department of Psychology PSI
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy