[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial permeability transition is a phenomenon in which the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) abruptly opens, resulting in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) dissipation, loss of ATP production, and cell death. Several genetic candidates have been proposed to form the PTP complex, however, the core component is unknown. We identified a necessary and conserved role for spastic paraplegia 7 (SPG7) in Ca2+- and ROS-induced PTP opening using RNAi-based screening. Loss of SPG7 resulted in higher mitochondrial Ca2+ retention, similar to cyclophilin D (CypD, PPIF) knockdown with sustained ΔΨm during both Ca2+ and ROS stress. Biochemical analyses revealed that the PTP is a heterooligomeric complex composed of VDAC, SPG7, and CypD. Silencing or disruption of SPG7-CypD binding prevented Ca2+- and ROS-induced ΔΨm depolarization and cell death. This study identifies an ubiquitously expressed IMM integral protein, SPG7, as a core component of the PTP at the OMM and IMM contact site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale:
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) acting in the cardiomyocyte regulate important signaling events that control cardiac function. Both GRK2 and GRK5, the predominant GRKs expressed in the heart, have been shown to be upregulated in failing human myocardium. Although the canonical role of GRKs is to desensitize G protein-coupled receptors via phosphorylation, it has been demonstrated that GRK5, unlike GRK2, can reside in the nucleus of myocytes and exert G protein-coupled receptor-independent effects that promote maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.
To explore novel mechanisms by which GRK5 acting in the nucleus of cardiomyocytes participates in pathological cardiac hypertrophy.
Methods and results:
In this study, we have found that GRK5-mediated pathological cardiac hypertrophy involves the activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) because GRK5 causes enhancement of NFAT-mediated hypertrophic gene transcription. Transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific GRK5 overexpression activate an NFAT-reporter in mice basally and after hypertrophic stimulation, including transverse aortic constriction and phenylephrine treatment. Complimentary to this, GRK5 null mice exhibit less NFAT transcriptional activity after transverse aortic constriction. Furthermore, the loss of NFATc3 expression in the heart protected GRK5 overexpressing transgenic mice from the exaggerated hypertrophy and early progression to heart failure seen after transverse aortic constriction. Molecular studies suggest that GRK5 acts in concert with NFAT to increase hypertrophic gene transcription in the nucleus via GRK5's ability to bind DNA directly without a phosphorylation event.
GRK5, acting in a kinase independent manner, is a facilitator of NFAT activity and part of a DNA-binding complex responsible for pathological hypertrophic gene transcription.
Circulation Research 10/2014; 115(12). DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.304475 · 11.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Significance:
Heart failure (HF) is a common end point for many underlying cardiovascular diseases. Down-regulation and desensitization of β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) caused by G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 2 (GRK2) are prominent features of HF. Recent Advances and Critical Issues: Significant progress has been made to understand the pathological role of GRK2 in the heart both as a GPCR kinase and as a molecule that can exert GPCR-independent effects. Inhibition of cardiac GRK2 has proved to be therapeutic in the failing heart and may offer synergistic and additional benefits to β-blocker therapy. However, the mechanisms of how GRK2 directly contributes to the pathogenesis of HF need further investigation, and additional verification of the mechanistic details are needed before GRK2 inhibition can be used for the treatment of HF.
The newly identified characteristics of GRK2, including the S-nitrosylation of GRK2 and the localization of GRK2 on mitochondria, merit further investigation. They may contribute to it being a pro-death kinase and result in HF under stressed conditions through regulation of intracellular signaling, including cardiac reduction-oxidation (redox) balance. A thorough understanding of the functions of GRK2 in the heart is necessary in order to finalize it as a candidate for drug development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulates the L-type calcium channel, the ryanodine receptor, and phospholamban (PLB) thereby increasing inotropy. Cardiac contractility is also regulated by p38 MAPK, which is a negative regulator of cardiac contractile function. Aim of this study was to identify the mechanism mediating the positive inotropic effect of p38 inhibition.
Isolated adult and neonatal cardiomyocytes and perfused rat hearts were utilized to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulated by p38. PLB phosphorylation was enhanced in cardiomyocytes by chemical p38 inhibition, by overexpression of dominant negative p38α and by p38α RNAi, but not with dominant negative p38β. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with dominant negative p38α significantly decreased Ca(2+)-transient decay time indicating enhanced sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+-)ATPase function and increased cardiomyocyte contractility. Analysis of signaling mechanisms involved showed that inhibition of p38 decreased the activity of protein phosphatase 2A, which renders protein phosphatase inhibitor-1 phosphorylated and thereby inhibits PP1.
Inhibition of p38α enhances PLB phosphorylation and diastolic Ca(2+) uptake. Our findings provide evidence for novel mechanism regulating cardiac contractility upon p38 inhibition.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 12/2013; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2013.12.005 · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart failure caused by ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death in the developed world. Treatment is currently centered on regimens involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or nitric oxide (NO). These regimens are thought to target distinct molecular pathways. We showed that these pathways were interdependent and converged on the effector GRK2 (GPCR kinase 2) to regulate myocyte survival and function. Ischemic injury coupled to GPCR activation, including GPCR desensitization and myocyte loss, required GRK2 activation, and we found that cardioprotection mediated by inhibition of GRK2 depended on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and was associated with S-nitrosylation of GRK2. Conversely, the cardioprotective effects of NO bioactivity were absent in a knock-in mouse with a form of GRK2 that cannot be S-nitrosylated. Because GRK2 and eNOS inhibit each other, the balance of the activities of these enzymes in the myocardium determined the outcome to ischemic injury. Our findings suggest new insights into the mechanism of action of classic drugs used to treat heart failure and new therapeutic approaches to ischemic heart disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As technological interventions treating acute myocardial infarction (MI) improve, post-ischemic heart failure increasingly threatens patient health. The aim of the current study was to test whether FADD could be a potential target of gene therapy in the treatment of heart failure.
Cardiomyocyte-specific FADD knockout mice along with non-transgenic littermates (NLC) were subjected to 30 minutes myocardial ischemia followed by 7 days of reperfusion or 6 weeks of permanent myocardial ischemia via the ligation of left main descending coronary artery. Cardiac function were evaluated by echocardiography and left ventricular (LV) catheterization and cardiomyocyte death was measured by Evans blue-TTC staining, TUNEL staining, and caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities. In vitro, H9C2 cells transfected with ether scramble siRNA or FADD siRNA were stressed with chelerythrin for 30 min and cleaved caspase-3 was assessed.
FADD expression was significantly decreased in FADD knockout mice compared to NLC. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) upregulated FADD expression in NLC mice, but not in FADD knockout mice at the early time. FADD deletion significantly attenuated I/R-induced cardiac dysfunction, decreased myocardial necrosis, and inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, in 6 weeks long term permanent ischemia model, FADD deletion significantly reduced the infarct size (from 41.20±3.90% in NLC to 26.83±4.17% in FADD deletion), attenuated myocardial remodeling, improved cardiac function and improved survival. In vitro, FADD knockdown significantly reduced chelerythrin-induced the level of cleaved caspase-3.
Taken together, our results suggest FADD plays a critical role in post-ischemic heart failure. Inhibition of FADD retards heart failure progression. Our data supports the further investigation of FADD as a potential target for genetic manipulation in the treatment of heart failure.
PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e73537. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073537 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: GRK2 is abundantly expressed in the heart and its expression and activity is increased in injured or stressed myocardium. This up-regulation has been shown to be pathological. GRK2 can promote cell death in ischemic myocytes and its inhibition by a peptide comprised of the last 194 amino acids of GRK2 (known as βARKct) is cardioprotective. Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate the signaling mechanism that accounts for the pro-death signaling seen in the presence of elevated GRK2 and the cardioprotection afforded by the βARKct. Methods and Results: Using in vivo mouse models of ischemic injury and also cultured myocytes we found that GRK2 localizes to mitochondria providing novel insight into GRK2-dependent pathophysiological signaling mechanisms. Mitochondrial localization of GRK2 in cardiomyocytes was enhanced after ischemic and oxidative stress, events that induced pro-death signaling. Localization of GRK2 to mitochondria was dependent upon phosphorylation at residue Ser670 within its extreme carboxyl-terminus by extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), resulting in enhanced GRK2 binding to heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), which chaperoned GRK2 to mitochondria. Mechanistic studies invivo and invitro showed that ERK regulation of the C-tail of GRK2 was an absolute requirement for stress-induced, mitochondrial-dependent pro-death signaling, and blocking this led to cardioprotection. Elevated mitochondrial GRK2 also caused increased Ca2+-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, a key step in cellular injury. Conclusions: We identify GRK2 as a pro-death kinase in the heart acting in a novel manner through mitochondrial localization via ERK regulation.
Circulation Research 03/2013; DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.300754 · 11.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) kinases (GRKs) play a crucial role in regulating cardiac hypertrophy. Recent data from our lab has shown that, following ventricular pressure overload, GRK5, a primary cardiac GRK, facilitates maladaptive myocyte growth via novel nuclear localization. In the nucleus, GRK5's newly discovered kinase activity on histone deacetylase 5 induces hypertrophic gene transcription. The mechanisms governing the nuclear targeting of GRK5 are unknown. We report here that GRK5 nuclear accumulation is dependent on Ca/calmodulin (CaM) binding to a specific site within the amino terminus of GRK5 and this interaction occurs after selective activation of hypertrophic Gq-coupled receptors. Stimulation of myocytes with phenylephrine or angiotensinII causes GRK5 to leave the sarcolemmal membrane and accumulate in the nucleus, while the endothelin-1 does not cause nuclear GRK5 localization. A mutation within the amino-terminus of GRK5 negating CaM binding attenuates GRK5 movement from the sarcolemma to the nucleus and, importantly, overexpression of this mutant does not facilitate cardiac hypertrophy and related gene transcription and . Our data reveal that CaM binding to GRK5 is a physiologically relevant event that is absolutely required for nuclear GRK5 localization downstream of hypertrophic stimuli, thus facilitating GRK5-dependent regulation of maladaptive hypertrophy.
PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e57324. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0057324 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a well-established therapeutic target for the treatment of heart failure. Herein we identify the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine as a selective inhibitor of GRK2 activity both in vitro and in living cells. In the crystal structure of the GRK2·paroxetine-Gβγ complex, paroxetine binds in the active site of GRK2 and stabilizes the kinase domain in a novel conformation in which a unique regulatory loop forms part of the ligand binding site. Isolated cardiomyocytes show increased isoproterenol-induced shortening and contraction amplitude in the presence of paroxetine, and pretreatment of mice with paroxetine before isoproterenol significantly increases left ventricular inotropic reserve in vivo with no significant effect on heart rate. Neither is observed in the presence of the SSRI fluoxetine. Our structural and functional results validate a widely available drug as a selective chemical probe for GRK2 and represent a starting point for the rational design of more potent and specific GRK2 inhibitors.
ACS Chemical Biology 08/2012; 7(11). DOI:10.1021/cb3003013 · 5.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation of β(2)-adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR) by a family of serine/threonine kinases known as G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) and protein kinase A (PKA) is a critical determinant of cardiac function. Upregulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a well-established causal factor of heart failure, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood.
We sought to determine the relative contribution of PKA- and GRK-mediated phosphorylation of β(2)AR to the receptor coupling to G(i) signaling that attenuates cardiac reserve and contributes to the pathogenesis of heart failure in response to pressure overload.
Overexpression of GRK2 led to a G(i)-dependent decrease of contractile response to βAR stimulation in cultured mouse cardiomyocytes and in vivo. Importantly, cardiac-specific transgenic overexpression of a mutant β(2)AR lacking PKA phosphorylation sites (PKA-TG) but not the wild-type β(2)AR (WT-TG) or a mutant β(2)AR lacking GRK sites (GRK-TG) led to exaggerated cardiac response to pressure overload, as manifested by markedly exacerbated cardiac maladaptive remodeling and failure and early mortality. Furthermore, inhibition of G(i) signaling with pertussis toxin restores cardiac function in heart failure associated with increased β(2)AR to G(i) coupling induced by removing PKA phosphorylation of the receptor and in GRK2 transgenic mice, indicating that enhanced phosphorylation of β(2)AR by GRK and resultant increase in G(i)-biased β(2)AR signaling play an important role in the development of heart failure.
Our data show that enhanced β(2)AR phosphorylation by GRK, in addition to PKA, leads the receptor to G(i)-biased signaling, which, in turn, contributes to the pathogenesis of heart failure, marking G(i)-biased β(2)AR signaling as a primary event linking upregulation of GRK to cardiac maladaptive remodeling, failure and cardiodepression.
Circulation Research 12/2011; 110(2):265-74. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.253260 · 11.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alterations in cardiac energy metabolism downstream of neurohormonal stimulation play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The chronic adrenergic stimulation that accompanies heart failure is a signaling abnormality that leads to the upregulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), which is pathological in the myocyte during disease progression in part owing to uncoupling of the β-adrenergic receptor system. In this study, we explored the possibility that enhanced GRK2 expression and activity, as seen during heart failure, can negatively affect cardiac metabolism as part of its pathogenic profile.
Positron emission tomography studies revealed in transgenic mice that cardiac-specific overexpression of GRK2 negatively affected cardiac metabolism by inhibiting glucose uptake and desensitization of insulin signaling, which increases after ischemic injury and precedes heart failure development. Mechanistically, GRK2 interacts with and directly phosphorylates insulin receptor substrate-1 in cardiomyocytes, causing insulin-dependent negative signaling feedback, including inhibition of membrane translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4. This identifies insulin receptor substrate-1 as a novel nonreceptor target for GRK2 and represents a new pathological mechanism for this kinase in the failing heart. Importantly, inhibition of GRK2 activity prevents postischemic defects in myocardial insulin signaling and improves cardiac metabolism via normalized glucose uptake, which appears to participate in GRK2-targeted prevention of heart failure.
Our data provide novel insights into how GRK2 is pathological in the injured heart. Moreover, it appears to be a critical mechanistic link within neurohormonal crosstalk governing cardiac contractile signaling/function through β-adrenergic receptors and metabolism through the insulin receptor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of prosurvival kinases and subsequent nitric oxide (NO) production by certain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) protects myocardium in ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) models. GPCR signaling pathways are regulated by GPCR kinases (GRKs), and GRK2 has been shown to be a critical molecule in normal and pathological cardiac function.
A loss of cardiac GRK2 activity is known to arrest progression of heart failure (HF), at least in part by normalization of cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) signaling. Chronic HF studies have been performed with GRK2 knockout mice, as well as expression of the βARKct, a peptide inhibitor of GRK2 activity. This study was conducted to examine the role of GRK2 and its activity during acute myocardial ischemic injury using an I/R model.
We demonstrate, using cardiac-specific GRK2 and βARKct-expressing transgenic mice, a deleterious effect of GRK2 on in vivo myocardial I/R injury with βARKct imparting cardioprotection. Post-I/R infarct size was greater in GRK2-overexpressing mice (45.0±2.8% versus 31.3±2.3% in controls) and significantly smaller in βARKct mice (16.8±1.3%, P<0.05). Importantly, in vivo apoptosis was found to be consistent with these reciprocal effects on post-I/R myocardial injury when levels of GRK2 activity were altered. Moreover, these results were reflected by higher Akt activation and induction of NO production via βARKct, and these antiapoptotic/survival effects could be recapitulated in vitro. Interestingly, selective antagonism of β(2)ARs abolished βARKct-mediated cardioprotection, suggesting that enhanced GRK2 activity on this GPCR is deleterious to cardiac myocyte survival.
The novel effect of reducing acute ischemic myocardial injury via increased Akt activity and NO production adds significantly to the therapeutic potential of GRK2 inhibition with the βARKct not only in chronic HF but also potentially in acute ischemic injury conditions.
Circulation Research 10/2010; 107(9):1140-9. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.221010 · 11.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: coronary artery ligation to induce myocardial infarction (MI) in mice is typically performed by an invasive and time-consuming approach that requires ventilation and chest opening (classic method), often resulting in extensive tissue damage and high mortality. We developed a novel and rapid surgical method to induce MI that does not require ventilation.
the purpose of this study was to develop and comprehensively describe this method and directly compare it to the classic method.
male C57/B6 mice were grouped into 4 groups: new method MI (MI-N) or sham (S-N) and classic method MI (MI-C) or sham (S-C). In the new method, heart was manually exposed without intubation through a small incision and MI was induced. In the classic method, MI was induced through a ventilated thoracotomy. Similar groups were used in an ischemia/reperfusion injury model. This novel MI procedure is rapid, with an average procedure time of 1.22 ± 0.05 minutes, whereas the classic method requires 23.2 ± 0.6 minutes per procedure. Surgical mortality was 3% in MI-N and 15.9% in MI-C. The rate of arrhythmia was significantly lower in MI-N. The postsurgical levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase were lower in new method, indicating less inflammation. Overall, 28-day post-MI survival rate was 68% with MI-N and 48% with MI-C. Importantly, there was no difference in infarct size or post-MI cardiac function between the methods.
this new rapid method of MI in mice represents a more efficient and less damaging model of myocardial ischemic injury compared with the classic method.
Circulation Research 10/2010; 107(12):1445-53. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.223925 · 11.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), which is upregulated in the failing human myocardium, appears to have a role in heart failure (HF) pathogenesis. In peripheral lymphocytes, GRK2 expression has been shown to reflect myocardial levels. This study represents an attempt to define the role for GRK2 as a potential biomarker of left ventricular function in HF patients. We obtained blood from 24 HF patients before and after heart transplantation and followed them for up to 1 year, also recording hemodynamic data and histological results from endomyocardial biopsies. We determined blood GRK2 protein by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GRK2 levels were obtained before transplant and at first posttransplant biopsy. GRK2 levels significantly declined after transplant and remained low over the course of the study period. After transplantation, we found that blood GRK2 significantly dropped and remained low consistent with improved cardiac function in the transplanted heart. Blood GRK2 has potential as a biomarker for myocardial function in end-stage HF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) are critical regulators of cellular signaling and function. In cardiomyocytes, GRK2 and GRK5 are two GRKs important for myocardial regulation, and both have been shown to be up-regulated in the dysfunctional heart. We report that increased levels and activity of GRK5 in failing myocardium may have unique significance due to its nuclear localization, a property not shared by GRK2. We find that transgenic mice with elevated cardiac GRK5 levels have exaggerated hypertrophy and early heart failure compared with control mice after pressure overload. This pathology is not present in cardiac GRK2-overexpressing mice or in mice with overexpression of a mutant GRK5 that is excluded from the nucleus. Nuclear accumulation of GRK5 is enhanced in myocytes after aortic banding in vivo and in vitro in myocytes after increased G alpha q activity, the trigger for pressure-overload hypertrophy. GRK5 enhances activation of MEF2 in concert with Gq signals, demonstrating that nuclear localized GRK5 regulates gene transcription via a pathway critically linked to myocardial hypertrophy. Mechanistically, we show that this is due to GRK5 acting, in a non-GPCR manner, as a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC) kinase because it can associate with and phosphorylate the myocyte enhancer factor-2 repressor, HDAC5. Moreover, significant HDAC activity can be found with GRK5 in the heart. Our data show that GRK5 is a nuclear HDAC kinase that plays a key role in maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy apparently independent of any action directly on GPCRs.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2008; 105(34):12457-62. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0803153105 · 9.67 Impact Factor