[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impedance analysis using high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) enables the recognition of pharyngeal residue in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. The aims of this study were to evaluate appropriate criteria for impedance analysis in a large patient cohort, as well as the diagnostic accuracy and agreement of analysis performed by HRIM trainees.
Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility 06/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. Self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) have been used as palliative treatment or bridge to surgery for obstructions caused by colorectal cancer (CRC). We assessed the long-term outcomes of palliative SEMSs and evaluated the risk factors influencing complications. Materials and methods. One hundred and seventy-five patients underwent SEMS placement for acute malignant colorectal obstruction. Of the 72 patients who underwent palliative treatment for primary CRC, 30 patients received chemotherapy (CT) for primary cancer (CT group) and 42 underwent best supportive treatment (BST) without CT (BST group). Results. There was a significant difference in late migration between the CT group and the BST group (20.0% in CT group, 2.4% in BST group, p = 0.018). Response to CT influenced the rate of late obstruction (0% in disease control, 35.7% in disease progression, p = 0.014). However, late obstruction was not associated with stent properties, such as diameter or type (≤22 mm vs. >22 mm, 13.5% vs. 14.3%, p = 1.00; uncovered stent vs. covered stent, 15.5% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.675) and migration (≤22 mm vs. >22 mm, 16.2% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.108; uncovered stent vs. covered stent, 8.6% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.615) in palliative SEMS. Conclusion. The administration of CT increases the rate of stent migration, and disease control by CT can reduce the risk of obstruction by maintaining the luminal patency of palliative SEMSs.
Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 05/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and AimSafety and efficacy data on endoscopic treatment of duodenal neoplasm are limited. We suggest the technical feasibility of endoscopic procedures by evaluating the results of endoscopic treatment for nonampullary duodenal adenoma and adenocarcinoma.Methods
Forty-five patients who underwent endoscopic treatment for nonampullary duodenal adenoma with or without malignant transformation between September 2003 and March 2012 were included. Endoscopic polypectomy of duodenal polyp (DPP), duodenal endoscopic mucosal resection (DEMR), and duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (DESD) were selected as endoscopic treatments for each lesion.ResultsMean lesion size was 9.1 mm, and most lesions were located in the second portion of the duodenum. There were 40 adenomas and five early stage adenocarcinomas arising from adenomas. Of the 45 duodenal neoplasms, five patients were treated with DPP, 33 with DEMR, and seven patients with a large duodenal lesion underwent DESD. Minimum 1-year follow-up endoscopies were performed in 42 patients, excepting three patients treated after October 2011. Median follow-up was 24.8 months. Of the 45 patients, en bloc resection was performed in 43 (95.6%). A complete resection was performed in 41 patients (91.1%). No significant bleeding events occurred. Perforations occurred in three patients who underwent DESD. All perforations were noticed during the procedures and completely closed by endoscopic clipping. There was one recurrence at 6 months after DPP.Conclusion
Endoscopic treatment is minimally invasive management for duodenal adenomas and superficial adenocarcinomas. It would be helpful for medical doctors in the management of duodenal neoplasms.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 04/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The technique of endoscopic submucosal dissection is occasionally used for resection of myogenic tumors originating from muscularis mucosa or muscularis propria of stomach and esophagus. However, endoscopic treatments for esophageal myogenic tumors >2 cm have rarely been reported. Herein, we report a case of large leiomyoma originating from muscularis propria in the upper esophagus. A 59-year-old woman presented with dysphagia. Esophagoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography revealed an esophageal subepithelial tumor which measured 25×20 mm in size, originated from muscularis propria, and was located at 20 cm from the central incisors. The tumor was successfully removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection and there were no complications after en bloc resection. Pathologic examination was compatible with leiomyoma. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2013;62:234-237).
The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi 10/2013; 62(4):234-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to validate a new scoring system for the differential diagnosis of astric subepithelial tumors (SETs) without histological envidence, and to determine its diagnostic yield for different gastric SETs.
Data of patients with gastric SETs treated with endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection or surgical resection from April 2001 to October 2012 at the Soonchunhyang University Hospital (Bucheon, Korea) were retrospectively reviewed. Four variables, including location, shape, layer of origin and echogenicity of the tumor on endosonography (EUS) were used to validate the new scoring system.
Among the 226 gastric SETs, 69 (30.5%) had gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), 68 (30.1%) had ectopic pancreases and 35 (15.5%) had leiomyoma. Most GISTs were located at the fundus and body (79.7%), whereas a majority of leiomyomas were found at the cardia (80.0%). Ectopic pancreas was mostly found at the antrum (88.2%). GISTs were mainly irregular and round in shape, while ectopic pancreas and lipoma were oval, and leiomyomas were irregularly shaped on EUS. With a score range of 0-1 for leiomyoma, 2-3 for GISTs, 4-6 for ectopic pancreas and 7-8 for lipoma, the sensitivity and specificity of the scoring system were 75.8% and 85.4% for GISTs, 84.6% and 73.1% for ectopic pancreas, 75.9% and 99.5% for leiomyoma, and 91.7% and 96.7% for lipoma, respectively.
The new scoring system was simple and relatively useful for predicting the histology of gastric SET without acquiring tissues. Prospective studies with large sample sizes are needed in the future.
Journal of Digestive Diseases 08/2013; · 1.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and study aim: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a novel laser system for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of gastric epithelial neoplasia. Patients and methods: A total of 10 patients underwent ESD by a single expert endoscopist. A thulium 2-μm wavelength laser system was used for ESD procedures. Instead of using endoscopy knives, a 550-μm flexible silica fiber was inserted through the working channel of the endoscope. Results: In all patients, ESD was completed using only the thulium laser, without the need for endoscopy knives. The median total procedure time was 49 minutes (range 35 - 203). In 8 /10 patients (80 %), no active bleeding was observed during ESD. The final pathologic mapping revealed low-grade dysplasia (n = 4), differentiated adenocarcinoma (n = 5), and signet ring cell carcinoma (n = 1). Curative resection was achieved in 9 /10 patients (90 %). There were no significant complications, such as delayed bleeding or perforation. Conclusions: The thulium laser system was feasible in ESD of gastric epithelial neoplasia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR) is the main mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of transient lower esophageal sphincter movement in patients with or without gastroesophageal reflux by high-resolution manometry (HRM).
From June 2010 to July 2010, we enrolled 9 patients with GERD (GERD group) and 9 subjects without GERD (control group), prospectively. The manometry test was performed in a semi-recumbent position for 120 minutes following ingestion of a standardized, mixed liquid and solid meal. HRM was used to identify the frequency and duration of TLESR, esophageal shortening length from incomplete TLESR, upper esophageal sphincter (UES) response, and the related esophageal motor responses during TLESR.
TLESR occurred in 33 in the GERD group and 34 in the control group after 120 minutes following food ingestion. Duration of TLESR and length of esophageal shortening did not differ between 2 groups. UES pressure increase during TLESR was mostly detected in patients with GERD, and UES relaxation was observed frequently in the control group during TLESR. TLESR-related motor responses terminating in TLESR were predominantly observed in the control group.
Increased UES pressure was noted frequently in the GERD group, suggesting a mechanism for preventing harmful reflux, which may be composed mainly of fluid on the larynx or pharynx. However, patients with GERD lacked the related motor responses terminating in TLESR to promote esophageal emptying of refluxate.
Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility 07/2013; 19(3):332-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been accepted as a standard treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC). However, the indication of ESD in undifferentiated-type EGC was controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic outcomes of ESD in undifferentiated-type EGC according to expanded indication. Methods: At Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, a total of 82 lesions in 81 patients with undifferentiated-type EGC were treated with ESD. The therapeutic outcomes of ESD were evaluated by resection method (en bloc resection; piecemeal resection), histologic curative resection, complications and recurrence rates after ESD. Results: The rate on en bloc resection and complete resection rate were 87.8% (72/82) and 80.5% (66/82), respectively. In signet ring cell carcinoma, the complete resection rate was higher than those in poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet ring cell features, but there was no statistical significance (89.3% vs. 75.0%, 76.7%; p=0.347). The lateral margin positivity rate in poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet ring cell features were 12.5%, 3.6% and 13.3%, respectively (p=0.395). The vertical margin positivity rate were 12.5%, 3.6% and 10.0%, respectively (p=0.485). The overall recurrence rate was 3.0% during a mean follow-up period of 37.4 months. Conclusions: ESD may be considered as a feasible treatment for undifferentiated-type EGC according to expanded indication. The therapeutic outcome of ESD in undifferentiated-type EGC is likely to be favorable, though further longer follow-up studies are needed. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2013;61:196-202).
The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi 04/2013; 61(4):196-202.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscularis propria of the esophagus is organized into circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Goal of this review is to summarize the role of longitudinal muscle in physiology and pathophysiology of esophageal sensory and motor function. Simultaneous manometry and ultrasound imaging that measure circular and longitudinal muscle contraction respectively reveal that during peristalsis 2 layers of the esophagus contract in perfect synchrony. On the other hand, during transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), longitudinal muscle contracts independently of circular muscle. Recent studies provide novel insights, i.e., longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus induces LES relaxation and possibly descending relaxation of the esophagus. In achalasia esophagus and other motility disorders there is discoordination between the 2 muscle layers. Longitudinal muscle contraction patterns are different in the recently described three types of achalasia identified by high-resolution manometry. Robust contraction of the longitudinal muscle in type II achalasia causes pan-esophageal pressurization and is the mechanism of whatever little esophageal emptying that take place in the absence of peristalsis and impaired LES relaxation. It may be that preserved longitudinal muscle contraction is also the reason for superior outcome to medical/surgical therapy in type II achalasia esophagus. Prolonged contractions of longitudinal muscles of the esophagus is a possible mechanism of heartburn and "angina like" pain seen in esophageal motility disorders and possibly achalasia esophagus. Novel techniques to record longitudinal muscle contraction are on the horizon. Neuro-pharmacologic control of circular and longitudinal muscles is different, which provides an important opportunity for the development of novel pharmacological therapies to treat sensory and motor disorders of the esophagus.
Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility 04/2013; 19(2):126-36.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUNDAIMS: Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder. Recently, a novel endoscopic technique, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), was introduced as an alternative treatment for achalasia. We report the results and short term outcomes of POEM for patients with achalasia.
POEM was performed in 13 patients with achalasia. The procedure consisted of creating a submucosal tunnel followed by endoscopic myotomy of circular muscle bundles. The mucosal entry was closed by conventional hemostatic clips. A validated clinical symptom score (Eckardt score) and high resolution manometry were used to evaluate the outcomes.
Both the clinical score of achalasia, as well as the resting lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, were significantly reduced after POEM. Mean posttreatment Eckardt score was 0.4±0.7, compared to 6.4±1.9 prior to the treatment (p=0.001). The mean pretreatment and posttreatment LES pressure was 30.3 and 15.3 mm Hg, respectively (p=0.007). Following POEM, symptomatic relief from dysphagia without reflux symptoms was observed in all patients (13/13). No serious complications related to POEM were encountered.
Based upon our initial experience, the authors believe that POEM is a feasible, safe, and effective treatment and may possibly substitute established treatments of refractory achalasia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of bone loss in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex, multifactorial, and only partly understood. We aimed to examine the extent and risk factors of bone mass reduction and to analyze the impact of early onset of a disease before attaining peak bone mass in IBD patients.
We compared the risk factors for osteoporosis and BMD at the lumbar spine and the hip bone in IBD patients.
A total of 44 patients with IBD were enrolled. Twenty-one and 23 patients were diagnosed as IBD before and after the age of 30 and designated as group A and group B, respectively. Group A had significant bone mass reduction at the lumbar spine than group B (BMD, 1.01±0.10 vs. 1.14±0.17, p<0.01; T-score, -1.22±0.84 vs. -0.08±1.39, p<0.01; Z-score, -1.11±0.81 vs. -0.03±1.32, p<0.01, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that patients diagnosed as IBD before the age of 30 had possible risk factor of bone mass reduction (hazard ratio, 3.96; p=0.06).
Bone mass reduction was more severe in patients who were diagnosed with IBD before the age of 30 than in those diagnosed after the age of 30.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The causes of functional anorectal outlet obstruction (outlet obstruction) include functional defecation disorder (FDD), rectocele, and rectal intussusception (RI). It is unclear whether outlet obstruction is associated with rectal hyposensitivity (RH) in patients with functional constipation (FC). The aim of this study was to determine the association between RH and outlet obstruction in patients with FC.
This was a retrospective study using a prospectively collected constipation database, and the population comprised 107 patients with FC (100 females; median age, 49 years). We performed anorectal manometry, defecography, rectal barostat, and at least two tests (balloon expulsion test, electromyography, or colon transit time study). RH was defined as one or more sensory threshold pressures raised beyond the normal range on rectal barostat. We investigated the association between the presence of RH and an outlet obstruction such as large rectocele (> 2 cm in size), RI, or FDD.
Forty patients (37.4%) had RH. No significant difference was observed in RH between patients with small and large rectoceles (22 [44.9%] vs. 18 [31%], respectively; p = 0.140). No significant difference was observed in RH between the non-RI and RI groups (36 [36.7%] vs. 4 [30.8%], respectively; p = 0.599). Furthermore, no significant difference in RH was observed between the non-FDD and FDD groups (19 [35.8%] vs. 21 [38.9%], respectively; p = 0.745).
RH and outlet obstruction are common entities but appear not to be significantly associated.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 01/2013; 28(1):54-61.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A secondary aortoenteric fistula (AEF) is a direct communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the aorta in a patient who has undergone major surgery on the aorta, often an aorta graft operation. We experienced a patient who had undergone graft interposition for abdominal aortic aneurysm and was admitted due to three episodes of hematemesis and following hamatochezia. Gastroscopy, colonoscopy, and radioactive iodine scan failed to identify the bleeding site in the patient. He was diagnosed with AEF by double balloon enteroscopy and recovered after surgical intervention.