[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: La ligature endoscopique de varices (LEV) s’est avérée être un traitement efficace des hémorragies par rupture de varices
œsophagiennes avec un faible taux de complications. En cas d’hémorragie massive de varices œsophagiennes ou gastriques, l’injection
de N-butyl(2)-cyanoacrylate est considérée comme le traitement le plus efficase aussi bien pour obtenir l’hémostase primaire
que pour obtenir une réduction du taux de récidives.
En cas d’hémorragie, les varices doivent être traitées par endoscopie en raison du risque élevé de récidive. La LEV s’est
avérée supérieure à la sclérothérapie endoscopique par injection (SEV) en ce qui concerne le taux de complications. Cependant,
le défaut majeur de la LEV est le taux élevé de récidive de varices. Pour éviter les complications du traitement et cette
récidive variqueuse, une combinaison métachrone de la LEV et de la SEV semble être une stratégie efficace. Après élimination
des grosses varices œsophagiennes par la LEV, les varices plus petites peuvent être traitées par SEV.
Le traitement endoscopique pourrait devenir le traitement préférentiel pour la prophylaxie primaire des varices à haut risque
si d’autres études viennent confirmer son bénéfice par rapport à une thérapie par béta-bloquants.
Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment modality for bleeding esophageal varices
with the lowest complication rate. In cases of massive bleeding from esophageal or gastric varices, injection of N-butyl(2)-cyanoacrylate
has been shown to be the most effective treatment in terms of maintaining primary hemostasis and decreasing rebleeding rate.
Once bleeding occurs, varices have to be treated endoscopically due to this high risk of rebleeding. EVL has been demonstrated
to be superior to endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) in terms of complication rates. However, the major drawback of
EVL is the high rate of variceal recurrence. To avoid treatment complications as well as early variceal recurrence, metachronous
combination therapy of EVL and EIS seems to be an effective strategy. After elimination of large esophageal varices by EVL,
smaller varices can be treated by EIS.
Endoscopic treatment may become the preferential treatment for primary prophylaxis of high risk varices, if further studies
can confirm a benefit as compared to β-blocker therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute perforations of the gastrointestinal tract are rare, severe complications of endoscopy that usually require surgical repair. Endoscopic repair of perforations would reduce the need for surgeries; we evaluated the efficacy and safety of endoscopic closure of acute perforations of the gastrointestinal tract by using a new clip device.
We conducted a prospective, international, multicenter study of 36 consecutive patients (15 male) with acute iatrogenic perforations (5 esophageal, 6 gastric, 12 duodenal, and 13 colonic perforation). Endoscopic repair was performed by using the Over-the-Scope-Clip according to a standardized operating procedure. Primary end point was successful closure, which was determined as endoscopic successful closure without leakage (detected by water-soluble contrast x-ray analysis), and absence of adverse events within 30 days after the procedure.
Immediate closure was endoscopically successful in 33 patients (92%). One patient developed an esophageal perforation while the cap was introduced, and in 2 patients the perforations did not close; these 3 patients were successfully treated with surgery. None of the patients had leakage of soluble contrast on the basis of contrast x-ray. One patient with a closed colonic perforation deteriorated clinically within 6 hours after the procedure. Despite surgery, the patient died within 36 hours. The remaining 32 patients had successful endoluminal closures; the overall success rate was 89% (95% confidence interval, 75%-96%). The mean endoscopic closure time was 5 minutes 44 seconds ± 4 minutes 15 seconds.
The Over-the-Scope-Clip is effective for endoluminal closure of acute iatrogenic perforations. It allows patients to avoid surgery, and 89% of patients had successful closures without adverse events.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 02/2012; 10(6):603-8. · 5.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the immediate and long-term results of endoscopic drainage and necrosectomy for symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections.
The data of 80 patients with symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections (mean diameter: 11.7 cm, range 3-20; pseudocysts: 24/80, abscess: 20/80, infected walled-off necrosis: 36/80) referred for endoscopic management from October 1997 to March 2008 were analyzed retrospectively.
Endoscopic drainage techniques included endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided aspiration (2/80), EUS-guided transenteric drainage (70/80) and non-EUS-guided drainage across a spontaneous transenteric fistula (8/80). Endoscopic necrosectomy was carried out in 49/80 (abscesses: 14/20; infected necrosis: 35/36). Procedural complications were bleeding (12/80), perforation (7/80), portal air embolism (1/80) and Ogilvie Syndrome (1/80). Initial technical success was achieved in 78/80 (97.5%) and clinical resolution of the collections was achieved endoscopically in 67/80 (83.8%), with surgery required in 13/80 (perforation: four; endoscopically inaccessible areas: two; inadequate drainage: seven). Within 6 months five patients required surgery due to recurrent fluid collections; over a mean follow up of 31 months, surgery was required in four more patients due to recurrent collections as a consequence of underlying pancreatic duct abnormalities that could not be treated endoscopically. The long-term success of endoscopic treatment was 58/80 (72.5%).
Endoscopic drainage of symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections is safe and effective, with excellent immediate and long-term results. Endoscopic necrosectomy has a risk of serious complications. The underlying pancreatic duct abnormalities must be addressed to prevent recurrence of fluid collections.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditionally, either surgical or percutaneous drainage is recommended for liver abscess. Recently, several endoscopists have reported the endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided liver abscess drainage. Herein, we report a case of tuberculous liver abscess in which endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) was useful for the diagnosis and therapy. A 78-year-old woman suffered from continuous epigastric pain and fever up. Computed tomography (CT) showed a 70 mm multilocular and multiseptate cystic lesion around the head of pancreas and caudate lobe of the liver. After confirming liver abscess by EUS-FNA, EUS-guided liver abscess drainage was carried out. Finally, a 7 Fr straight stent and a 5 Fr nasocystic catheter were inserted into the cyst. Four weeks later, we found that cultured microorganism obtained using drainage catheter was Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although he was doing well during 5 days after the procedure, CT showed the size of another abscess increased. Then, additional EUS-guided abscess drainage was carried out at the body of the stomach into the abscess of the left lobe. Two weeks later, CT showed disappearance of abscesses. Then, she discharged with the internal stent still in place.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After focal endoscopic resection (ER) of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or early cancer (EC) in Barrett's oesophagus (BO), eradication of all remaining BO reduces the recurrence risk. The aim of this study was to compare the safety of stepwise radical ER (SRER) versus focal ER followed by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for complete eradication of BO containing HGD/EC.
A multicentre randomised clinical trial was carried out in three tertiary centres. Patients with BO ≤ 5 cm containing HGD/EC were randomised to SRER or ER/RFA. Patients in the SRER group underwent piecemeal ER of 50% of BO followed by serial ER. Patients in the ER/RFA group underwent focal ER for visible lesions followed by serial RFA. Follow-up endoscopy with biopsies (four-quadrant/2 cm BO) was performed at 6 and 12 months and then annually. The main outcome measures were: stenosis rate; complications; complete histological response for neoplasia (CR-neoplasia); and complete histological response for intestinal metaplasia (CR-IM).
CR-neoplasia was achieved in 25/25 (100%) SRER and in 21/22 (96%) ER/RFA patients. CR-IM was achieved in 23 (92%) SRER and 21 (96%) ER/RFA patients. The stenosis rate was significantly higher in SRER (88%) versus ER/RFA (14%; p<0.001), resulting in more therapeutic sessions in SRER (6 vs 3; p<0.001) due to dilations. After median 24 months follow-up, one SRER patient had recurrence of EC, requiring ER.
In patients with BO ≤ 5 cm containing HGD/EC, SRER and ER/RFA achieved comparably high rates of CR-IM and CR-neoplasia. However, SRER was associated with a higher number of complications and therapeutic sessions. For these patients, a combined endoscopic approach of focal ER followed by RFA may thus be preferred over SRER. Clinical trial number NTR1337.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic resection is safe and effective to remove early neoplasia (ie,high-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia/early cancer) in Barrett's oesophagus. To prevent metachronous lesions during follow-up, the remaining Barrett's oesophagus can be removed by stepwise radical endoscopic resection (SRER). The aim was to evaluate the combined experience in four tertiary referral centres with SRER to eradicate Barrett's oesophagus with early neoplasia.
Retrospective cohort study.
Four tertiary referral centres.
169 patients (151 males, age 64 years (IQR 57-71), Barrett's oesophagus 3 cm (IQR 2-5)) with early neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus < or = 5 cm, without deep submucosal infiltration or lymph node metastases, treated by SRER between January 2000 and September 2006.
Endoscopic resection every 4-8 weeks, until complete endoscopic and histological eradication of Barrett's oesophagus and neoplasia.
According to intention-to-treat analysis complete eradication of all neoplasia and all intestinal metaplasia by the end of the treatment phase was reached in 97.6% (165/169) and 85.2% (144/169) of patients, respectively. One patient had progression of neoplasia during treatment and died of metastasised adenocarcinoma (0.6%). After median follow-up of 32 months (IQR 19-49), complete eradication of neoplasia and intestinal metaplasia was sustained in 95.3% (161/169) and 80.5% (136/169) of patients, respectively. Acute, severe complications occurred in 1.2% of patients, and 49.7% of patients developed symptomatic stenosis.
SRER of Barrett's oesophagus < or = 5 cm containing early neoplasia appears to be an effective treatment modality with a low rate of recurrent lesions during follow-up. The procedure, however, is technically demanding and is associated with oesophageal stenosis in half of the patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Criteria for endoscopic resection in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) have been expanded recently by the National Cancer Centre (NCC). This study compared long-term outcomes in patients with EGC who underwent endoscopic treatment according to guideline criteria with those treated according to expanded criteria.
Baseline and outcome data from patients undergoing curative endoscopic resection for EGC between January 1999 and December 2005 were collected from electronic medical records. Survival time hazard ratios and 95 per cent confidence intervals were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model.
Of 1485 patients who had a curative resection, 635 (42.8 per cent) underwent resection according to traditional criteria and 625 (42.1 per cent) according to expanded criteria. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the groups.
Patients who have treatment following the expanded criteria have similar long-term survival and outcomes to those treated according to guideline criteria.
British Journal of Surgery 03/2010; 97(6):868-71. · 4.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a frequently occurring clinical scenario with a potentially serious prognosis. In spite of excellent endoscopic results, the mortality rate after an insufficient endoscopic treatment is exception-ally high (12.5-36 %). It is crucial to recognise factors in which endoscopy reaches its limitations. Until now, no uniform guidelines and concepts concerning diagnosis and treatment as well as timing of surgical interventions, in particular, have been defined. The main goal of this study is to lower the morbidity and mortality rates after upper gastrointestinal bleeding, with potential risk stratification according to the literature and our own data. PATIENTS / MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a retrospectively designed study 220 patients were evaluated with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage, who were hospitalised as emergencies from 1999 to 2002. Only those patients were accepted in the study who were examined within 48 hours endoscopically by oesophagogastroduodenoscopy. In order to exclude bleeding complications of a preceding endoscopic therapy, those patients were excluded who had been investigated by endoscopy in the past than 8 days.
After endoscopic evaluation of the bleed-ing activity of 33 Forrest I a / I b bleedings 5 patients and of 52 Forrest II a / II b / II c bleedings 6 patients had to undergo surgery. The haemoglobin content of conventionally treated patients was on average 10.3 mg / dL as compared to 8.4 mg / dL for the operated patients. The conventionally treated patients received an average of 3 red cell concentrates whereas the operated patients had 11 blood transfusions. The source of haemorrhage in the operated patients was located in bulbus duodeni (n = 7), cardia and fundus (n = 2) and the corpus (n = 2).
The evaluation of our own patient data including the experiences of other authors shows that a risk stratification is possible and meaningful. The indication for surgery thereby -depends on different factors: the comorbidity of the patient, the haemodynamic in- / stability, the number of necessary blood transfusions and the localisation of the bleeding source.
Zentralblatt für Chirurgie 02/2010; 135(1):65-9. · 0.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage has emerged as the leading treatment modality for symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided endoscopic drainage is less invasive than surgery and avoids local complications related to percutaneous drainage. In addition, unlike non-EUS guided endoscopic drainage, EUS-guided drainage is able to drain non-bulging fluid collections and may reduce the risk of procedure-related bleeding. Excellent treatment success rates exceeding 90% have been reported for pancreatic pseudocysts and abscesses. In the context of infected pancreatic necrosis, adjunctive endoscopic necrosectomy is required for effective treatment. With such an aggressive approach, the treatment success rate may reach 81%-92%. The potential complications of concern for EUS-guided drainage are severe bleeding and perforation. To minimize risk, only fluid collections with a mature wall and within 1 cm of the gastrointestinal lumen should undergo endoscopic drainage. Any coagulopathy, if present, should be corrected. Patients with pseudocysts undergoing drainage should also receive prophylactic antibiotics in order to prevent secondary infection of a sterile collection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditionally abdominal abscesses have been treated with either surgical or radiologically guided percutaneous drainage. Surgical drainage procedures may be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and serious complications may also arise from percutaneous drainage. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of well-demarcated abdominal abscesses, with adjunctive endoscopic debridement in the presence of solid necrotic debris, has been shown to be feasible and safe. This multicenter review summarizes the current status of the EUS-guided approach, describes the available and emerging techniques, and highlights the indications, limitations, and safety issues.