[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this report we present the synthesis and characterization of Pt and Pd dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) using the method of galvanic exchange. Sixth-generation hydroxyl-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were used to prepare Cu DENs composed of 55 atoms. In the presence of either PtCl 4 2À or PdCl 4 2À , the less noble Cu DENs oxidize to Cu 2+ leaving behind an equal-sized DEN of Pt or Pd, respectively. DENs prepared by direct reduction with BH 4 À , which is the common synthetic route, and those prepared by galvanic exchange have the same composition, structure, and properties as judged by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical methods. However, the galvanic exchange synthesis is much faster (3 h vs. 96 h), and the yield of reduced DENs is significantly higher (nearly 100% in the case of galvanic exchange).
New Journal of Chemistry 01/2054; 35(35):2054-2060. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we report on the electrochemical properties of carbon electrodes coated with thin layers of Al2O3 and SnO2. These oxide films were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and range in thickness from 1 to 6 nm. Electrochemical experiments show that the thinnest oxide layers contain defects that penetrate to the underlying carbon electrode. However, oxygenation of the carbon surface prior to ALD increases the surface concentration of nucleation sites for oxide growth and suppresses the defect density. Films of Al2O3 just ∼3-4 nm in thickness are free of pinholes. Slightly thicker coatings of SnO2 are required for equivalent passivation. Both Al2O3 and SnO2 films are stable in both neutral and acidic electrolytes even after repeated voltammetric scanning. The results reported here open up the possibility of studying the effect of oxide supports on electrocatalytic reactions.
Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. 11/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the effect of convection on electrochemically active collisions between individual Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) and Hg and Au electrodes. Compared to standard electrochemical cells utilizing Hg and Au ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs) used in previous studies of electrocatalytic amplification, microelectrochemical devices offer two major advantages. First, the PtNP limit of detection (0.084 pM) is ∼8 times lower than the lowest concentration measured using UMEs. Second, convection enhances the mass transfer of PtNPs to the electrode surface, which enhances the collision frequency from ∼0.02 pM(-1) s(-1) on UMEs to ∼0.07 pM(-1) s(-1) in microelectrochemical devices. We also show that the size of PtNPs can be measured in flowing systems using data from collision experiments and then validate this finding using multiphysics simulations.
Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. 10/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we report on the development of a high-efficiency, dual channel-electrode (DCE) generation-collection system and its application for interrogating redox-active surface-adsorbed thin films. DCE systems consist of two electrodes configured on the base of a microfluidic channel. Under laminar flow conditions, a redox reaction can be driven on the upstream generator electrode, and the products carried by convection to the downstream collector electrode where the reverse redox reaction occurs. One significant outcome of this report is that simple fabrication techniques can be used to prepare DCE systems that have collection efficiencies of up to 97%. This level of efficiency makes it possible to quantitatively measure the charge associated with redox-active thin films interposed between the generator and collector electrodes. This is important, because it provides a means for interrogating species that are not in sufficiently close proximity to an electrode to enable direct electron transfer or electroactive films adsorbed to insulating surfaces. Here, the method is demonstrated by comparing results from this indirect surface interrogation method, using Fe(CN)6(3-) as the redox probe, and direct electroreduction of Au oxide thin films. These experimental results are further compared to finite-element simulations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a new type of paper analytical device that provides quantitative electrochemical output and detects concentrations as low as 767 fM. The model analyte is labeled with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which provide 250 000-fold amplification. AgNPs eliminate the need for enzymatic amplification, thereby improving device stability and response time. The use of magnetic beads to preconcentrate the AgNPs at the detection electrode further improves sensitivity. Response time is improved by incorporation of a hollow channel, which increases the flow rate in the device by a factor of 7 and facilitates the use of magnetic beads. A key reaction necessary for label detection is made possible by the presence of a slip layer, a fluidic switch that can be actuated by manually slipping a piece of paper. The design of the device is versatile and should be useful for detection of proteins, nucleic acids, and microbes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper we describe a method for three-dimensional wax patterning of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). The method is rooted in the fundamental details of wax transport in paper and provides a simple way to fabricate complex channel architectures such as hemichannels and fully enclosed channels. We show that three-dimensional μPADs can be fabricated with half as much paper by using hemichannels rather than ordinary open channels. We also provide evidence that fully enclosed channels are efficiently isolated from the exterior environment, decreasing contamination risks, simplifying the handling of the device, and slowing evaporation of solvents.
Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. 06/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we report a strategy for the design of an inexpensive paper analytical device (PAD) for quantitative detection of oligonucleotides and proteins. Detection is based on the principle of target-induced conformational switching of an aptamer linked to an electrochemical label. This simple and robust method is well matched to the equally simple and robust characteristics of the PAD platform. The demonstrated limits of detection for DNA and thrombin are 30 nM and 16 nM, respectively, and the device-to-device reproducibility is better than ±10%. The PAD has a shelf life of at least 4 weeks, involves little user intervention, and requires a sample volume of just 20 μL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report electrochemical detection of collisions between individual magnetic microbeads, present at subattomolar concentrations, and electrode surfaces. This limit of detection is 4 orders of magnitude lower than has been reported previously, and it is enabled by using a magnetic field to preconcentrate the microbeads prior to detection in a microfluidic electrochemical cell. Importantly, the frequency of collisions between the microbeads and the electrode is not compromised by the low concentration of microbeads. These findings represent an unusual case of detecting individual electrochemical events at very low analyte concentration. In addition to experiments supporting these claims, finite-element simulations provide additional insights into the nature of the interactions between flowing microbeads and their influence on electrochemical processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we report the development of a parallel electrocatalyst screening platform for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) using bipolar electrodes (BPEs). Electrocatalyst candidates are subjected to screening in a N2-purged bipolar electrochemical cell where a pair of driving electrodes produce an electric field in the electrolyte solution. The HER occurring at the BPE cathodes is electrically coupled to the electrodissolution of an array of Cr microbands present at the BPE anodes. The readout of this device is simple, where the species that dissolve the most Cr microbands are identified as the most promising electrocatalyst candidates for further evaluation. We demonstrate the utility of this technique by comparing several bi- and trimetallic systems involving Co, Fe, Ni, Mo, and W, which are compared directly with pure Pt. Of all the compositions tested, Ni8–Mo2 is demonstrated to be the most active for the HER in a neutral electrolyte solution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present article we provide a detailed analysis of fundamental electrochemical processes in a new class of paper-based analytical devices (PADs) having hollow channels (HCs). Voltammetry and amperometry were applied under flow and no flow conditions yielding reproducible electrochemical signals that can be described by classical electrochemical theory as well as finite-element simulations. The results shown here provide new and quantitative insights into the flow within HC-PADs. The interesting new result is that despite their remarkable simplicity these HC-PADs exhibit electrochemical and hydrodynamic behavior similar to that of traditional microelectrochemical devices.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 03/2014; · 10.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we report the use of microwire and mesh working electrodes in paper analytical devices fabricated by origami paper folding (oPADs). The important new result is that Au wires and carbon fibers having diameters ranging from micrometers to tens of micrometers can be incorporated into oPADs and that their electrochemical characteristics are consistent with the results of finite element simulations. These electrodes are fully compatible with both hollow channels and paper channels filled with cellulose fibers, and they are easier to incorporate than typical screen-printed carbon electrodes. The results also demonstrate that the Au electrodes can be cleaned prior to device fabrication using aggressive treatments and that they can be easily surface modified using standard thiol-based chemistry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present an introduction to the broad field of desalination by providing a brief review of modern thermal, membrane, and electrochemical technologies. However, the main focus of this article is to introduce a fundamentally new and potentially powerful electrochemical approach to desalination: electrochemically mediated desalination (EMD). EMD is a membraneless desalination method that uses a simple power supply to oxidize a small fraction of the chloride ions present in seawater. This results in the generation of a local electric field gradient, which consequently separates ions to produce partially desalted water.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients differ in their requirement for, and response to, various drug doses. A general platform that allows continuous monitoring of drug levels in the blood of rats may open the door to patient-specific dosing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bimetallic PdPt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) having sizes of about 2 nm were synthesized by a homogeneous route that involved (1) formation of a Pd core, (2) deposition of a Cu shell onto the Pd core in the presence of H2 gas, and (3) galvanic exchange of Pt for the Cu shell. Under these conditions, a Pd@Pt core@shell DEN is anticipated, but detailed characterization by in-situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and other analytical methods indicate that the metals invert to yield a Pt-rich core with primarily Pd in the shell. The experimental findings correlate well with density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations. Theory suggests that the increased disorder associated with <∼2 nm diameter nanoparticles, along with the relatively large number of edge and corner sites, drives the structural rearrangement. This type of rearrangement is not observed on larger nanoparticles or in bulk metals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the hybridization-induced fluorescence detection of DNA on an origami-based paper analytical device (oPAD). The paper substrate was patterned by wax printing and controlled heating to construct hydrophilic channels and hydrophobic barriers in a three-dimensional fashion. A competitive assay was developed where the analyte, a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and a quencher-labeled ssDNA competed for hybridization with a fluorophore-labeled ssDNA probe. Upon hybridization of the analyte with the fluorophore-labeled ssDNA, a linear response of fluorescence vs analyte concentration was observed with an extrapolated limit of detection <5 nM and a sensitivity relative standard deviation as low as 3%. The oPAD setup was also tested against OR/AND logic gates, proving to be successful in both detection systems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report that the oxygen binding energy of alloy-core@Pt nanoparticles can be linearly tuned by varying the alloy core composition. Using this tuning mechanism, we are able to predict optimal compositions for different alloy-core@Pt nanoparticles. Subsequent electrochemical measurement of ORR activities of AuPd@Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) are in a good agreement with the theoretical prediction that the peak of activity is achieved for a 28% Au / 72% Pd alloy core supporting a Pt shell. Importantly, these findings represent an unusual case of first-principles theory leading to nearly perfect agreement with experimental results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a microfluidic paper analytical device (μPAD) that relies on flow in hollow channels, rather than through a cellulose network, to transport fluids. The flow rate in hollow channels is 7 times higher than in regular paper channels and can be conveniently controlled from 0 to several mm/s by balancing capillary and pressure forces. More importantly, the pressure of a single drop of liquid (∼0.2 mbar) is sufficient to induce fast pressure-driven flow, making hollow channels suitable for point of care diagnostics. We demonstrate their utility for simple colorimetric glucose and BSA assays in which the time for liquid transport is reduced by a factor of 4 compared to normal cellulose channels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A bipolar electrode (BPE) is an electrically conductive material that promotes electrochemical reactions at its extremities (poles) even in the absence of a direct ohmic contact. More specifically, when sufficient voltage is applied to an electrolyte solution in which a BPE is immersed, the potential difference between the BPE and the solution drives oxidation and reduction reactions. Because no direct electrical connection is required to activate redox reactions, large arrays of electrodes can be controlled with just a single DC power supply or even a battery. The wireless aspect of BPEs also makes it possible to electrosynthesize and screen novel materials for a wide variety of applications. Finally, bipolar electrochemistry enables mobile electrodes, dubbed microswimmers, that are able to move freely in solution.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition 07/2013; · 11.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membraneless desalination: A simple power supply is used to apply a 3.0 V potential bias across a microelectrochemical cell comprising two microchannels spanned by a single bipolar electrode (BPE) to drive chloride oxidation and water electrolysis at the BPE poles. The resulting ion depletion zone and associated electric field gradient direct ions into a branching microchannel, consequently producing desalted water. Gnd=ground.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition 06/2013; · 11.34 Impact Factor