[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute portal and splenic vein thrombosis (APSVT) after hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HBP) surgery is a rare but serious complication and a treatment strategy has not been well established. To assess the safety and efficacy of anticoagulation therapy for treating APSVT after HBP surgery.
We performed a retrospective case-control study of 82 patients who were diagnosed with APSVT within 4 weeks after HBP surgery from October 2002 to November 2012 at a single institute. We assigned patients to the anticoagulation group (n = 32) or nonanticoagulation group (n = 50) and compared patient characteristics, complications, and the recanalization rate of APSVT between these two groups.
APSVT was diagnosed a mean of 8.6 ± 4.8 days after HBP surgery. Patients' characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. There were no bleeding complications related to anticoagulation therapy. The 1-year cumulative recanalization rate of anticoagulation group and nonanticoagulation group were 71.4% and 34.1%, respectively, which is statistically significant (log-rank test, P = 0.0001). In Cox regression model for multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with the recanalization rate of APSVT after HBP surgery were anticoagulation therapy (P = 0.003; hazard ration [HR], 2.364; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.341-4.168), the absence of a vein reconstruction procedure (P = 0.027; HR, 2.557; 95% CI, 1.111-5.885), and operation type (liver resection rather than pancreatic resection; P = 0.005, HR, 2.350; 95% CI, 1.286-4.296).
Anticoagulation therapy appears to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with APSVT after HBP surgery. Further prospective studies of larger patient populations are necessary to confirm our findings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare outcomes from radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and hepatectomy for treatment of colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM).
From January 2000 to December 2009, 408 patients underwent curative intent treatment for CRLM. We excluded patients using the criteria: size of CRLM > 3 cm, number of CRLM ≥ 5, percutaneous RFA, follow-up period < 12 mo, double primary cancer, or treatment with both RFA and hepatectomy. We matched 51 patients who underwent RFA with 102 patients who underwent hepatectomy by propensity scores.
The median follow-up period was 45 mo (range, 12 mo to 158 mo). Hepatic recurrence was more frequent in the RFA than the hepatectomy group (P = 0.021) although extrahepatic recurrence curves were similar (P = 0.716). Survival curves of hepatectomy group were better than that of RFA for multiple, large (> 2 cm) CRLM (P = 0.034). However, survival curves were similar for single or small (≤ 2 cm) CRLM (P = 0.714, P = 0.740).
Hepatectomy is better than RFA for the treatment of CRLM. However, RFA might be suitable for selected patients with single, small (≤ 2 cm) CRLM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the survival outcomes of secondary hepatectomy for recurrent colorectal liver metastases (CRLM).
From October 1994 to December 2009, patients with CRLM who underwent surgical treatment with curative intent were investigated. Patients were divided into two groups: patients who underwent primary hepatectomy (Group 1) and those who underwent secondary hepatectomy for recurrent CRLM (Group 2).
Survival and prognostic factors were analyzed. A total of 461 patients were included: 406 patients in Group 1 and 55 patients in Group 2. After a median 39-mo (range, 3-195 mo) follow-up, there was a significant difference between Groups 1 and 2 in terms of disease-free survival (P = 0.029) although there was no significant difference in overall survival (P = 0.206). Secondary hepatectomy was less effective in patients with multiple recurrent CRLM than primary hepatectomy for initial CRLM (P = 0.008). Multiple CRLM and radiofrequency ablation therapy were poor prognostic factors of secondary hepatectomy in multivariate Cox regression analysis (P = 0.006, P = 0.004, respectively).
Secondary hepatectomy for single recurrent CRLM is as effective as primary surgical treatment for single recurrent CRLM. However, secondary hepatectomy for multiple recurrent CRLM is less effective than that for single recurrent CRLM.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2015; 21(7):2124-30. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i7.2124 · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radical cholecystectomy is recommended for T2 gallbladder cancer. However, it is unclear whether hepatic resection is essential for peritoneal-side gallbladder cancer.
From January 2000 to December 2011, we identified T2 gallbladder cancer patients who had undergone curative intent surgery. A peritoneal-side tumor was defined when the epicenter of the tumor was located within the free peritoneal-side gallbladder mucosa. Hepatic-side gallbladder cancer was defined when the epicenter of the tumor was located within the gallbladder bed or neck.
A total of 157 patients with T2 gallbladder cancer were included; 33 peritoneal-side and 124 hepatic-side tumors. In total, 122 patients underwent hepatic resection, whereas the remaining 35 patients did not. After a median follow-up period of 40 (range 5-170) months, the survival of the peritoneal-side group was better than that of the hepatic-side group (p = 0.002). In a multivariate analysis, tumor location, lymph node metastasis, hepatic resection, lymphatic invasion, and perineural invasion were significant prognostic factors (p = 0.045, p < 0.001, p = 0.003, p = 0.046, and p = 0.027, respectively). For the peritoneal-side group, there was no recurrence or death after cholecystectomy without hepatic resection. However, hepatic resection was an important factor associated with overall survival in patients with hepatic-side gallbladder cancer (p = 0.007).
In T2 gallbladder cancer patients, hepatic resection is recommended when there is tumor invasion of the gallbladder bed or neck. However, it is not always necessary in selected patients with peritoneal-side gallbladder cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information on the clinicopathologic characteristics of invasive carcinomas arising from mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) is limited, because in many early studies they were lumped and analyzed together with noninvasive MCNs. Even more importantly, many of the largest prior studies did not require ovarian-type stroma (OTS) for diagnosis. We analyzed 178 MCNs, all strictly defined by the presence of OTS, 98% of which occurred in perimenopausal women (mean age, 47 y) and arose in the distal pancreas. Twenty-nine (16%) patients had associated invasive carcinoma, and all were female with a mean age of 53. Invasion was far more common in tumors with grossly visible intracystic papillary nodule formation ≥1.0 cm (79.3% vs. 8.7%, P=0.000) as well as in larger tumors (mean cyst size: 9.4 vs. 5.4 cm, P=0.006); only 4/29 (14%) invasive carcinomas occurred in tumors that were <5 cm; however, none were <3 cm. Increased serum CA19-9 level (>37 U/L) was also more common in the invasive tumors (64% vs. 23%, P=0.011). Most invasive carcinomas (79%) were of tubular type, and the remainder (5 cases) were mostly undifferentiated carcinoma (2, with osteoclast-like giant cells), except for 1 with papillary features. Interestingly, there were no colloid carcinomas; 2 patients had nodal metastasis at the time of diagnosis, and both died of disease at 10 and 35 months, respectively. While noninvasive MCNs had an excellent prognosis (100% at 5 y), tumors with invasion often had an aggressive clinical course with 3- and 5-year survival rates of 44% and 26%, respectively (P=0.000). The pT2 (>2 cm) invasive tumors had a worse prognosis than pT1 (≤2 cm) tumors (P=0.000), albeit 3 patients with T1a (<0.5 cm) disease also died of disease. In conclusion, invasive carcinomas are seen in 16% of MCNs and are mostly of tubular (pancreatobiliary) type; colloid carcinoma is not seen in MCNs. Serum CA19-9 is often higher in invasive carcinomas, and invasion is typically seen in OTS-depleted areas with lower progesterone receptor expression. Invasion is not seen in small tumors (<3 cm) and those lacking intracystic papillary (mural) nodules of ≥1 cm, thus making the current branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm management protocols also applicable to MCNs.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology 12/2014; 39(2). DOI:10.1097/PAS.0000000000000357 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastatic cancer of pancreas is rarely resectable. Pancreaticoduodenectomy carries high risks of morbidities and mortalities that it is rarely performed for metastatic cancer. In this study, the clinical features and outcomes of metastatic cancer of pancreas after pancreaticoduodenectomy were reviewed and analyzed.
We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent pancreaticoduodectomy from January 2000 to December 2012 in Samsung Medical Center. A total of 1045 patients were enrolled in this study. Inclusion criteria were patients who had metachronous lesions with tumors histologically confirmed as metastatic cancer. However, patients with tumors directly invaded pancreas head, bile duct, and duodenum were excluded from this study. Finally, a total of 12 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy due to metastatic cancer were used in this study. Clinicopathologic features and perioperative data of these 12 patients were retrospectively reviewed.
The 12 patients included 6 females and 6 males who had metastatic lesions at pancreas head, duodenum 2nd-3rd portion, and distal common bile duct. The mean age of patients was 62.7 years old at the time of pancreaticoduodenectomy. The interval between the time of the first operation for primary cancer and pancreaticoduodenectomy was 67.7 months. The mean survival time after pancreaticoduodectomy was 38.6 months (range, 12 to 119 months). There was no fatal complication after the surgery.
Pancreaticoduodenectomy is becoming a safer procedure with less complication compared to the past. Patients with recurrent metastatic cancer should be considered for metastectomy if tumors are resectable. Pancreaticoduodenectomy should be considered as one main treatment for patients with recurrent metastatic cancer to offer a chance of long-term survival in selected patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Most previous studies that have investigated single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) are case series with limited sample sizes. We have reviewed the outcome of 500 consecutive cases of SILC performed by a single surgeon at our center. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to October 2012, a single surgeon performed 1250 laparoscopic cholecystectomies for various gallbladder (GB) diseases. SILC was chosen as the surgical modality unless there was evidence of acute cholecystitis or GB empyema, the patient had a prior history of upper abdominal surgery, endoscopic sphincterotomy, or had comorbidities with an ASA score of III or higher. The clinicopathologic features and perioperative data of patients were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The mean age and BMI of included patients were 42.7 years and 23.6 kg/m2, respectively. The mean operating time was 52 min. Patients stayed in the hospital for an average of 1.3 days postoperatively. In 55 patients, an additional 2 mm trocar was inserted for retraction of the GB. One patient was converted to an open cholecystectomy because of Mirizzi syndrome. There were no observed complications including incisional hernias in this patient population. Conclusions: SILC is a safe, effective procedure for cholecystectomy that may be considered the main surgical strategy in select patients.
International Journal of Surgery 10/2014; 12(12). DOI:10.1016/j.ijsu.2014.09.009 · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
This study addressed the feasibility and effect of surgical treatment of metachronous periampullary carcinoma after resection of the primary extrahepatic bile duct cancer. The performance of this secondary curative surgery is not well-documented.
We reviewed, retrospectively, the medical records of 10 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for secondary periampullary cancer following extrahepatic bileduct cancer resection from 1995 to 2011.
The mean age of the 10 patients at the second operation was 61 years (range, 45-70 years). The primary cancers were 7 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 2 middle common bile duct cancers, and one cystic duct cancer. The secondary cancers were 8 distal common bile duct cancers and 2 carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater. The second operations were 6 Whipple procedures and 4 pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomies. The mean interval between primary treatment and metachronous periampullary cancer was 20.6 months (range, 3.4-36.6 months). The distal resection margin after primary resection was positive for high grade dysplasia in one patient. Metachronous tumor was confirmed by periampullary pathology in all cases. Four of the 10 patients had delayed gastric emptying (n = 2) or pancreatic fistula (n = 2) after reoperation. There were no perioperative deaths. Median survival after PD was 44.6 months (range, 8.5-120.5 months).
Based on the postoperative survival rate, PD may provide an acceptable protocol for resection in patients with metachronous periampullary cancer after resection of the extrahepatic bile duct cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance and predictive performance of volume-based parameter of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in biliary tract cancer (BTC). Of the 268 patients who were enrolled onto phase III gemcitabine/oxaliplatin (GEMOX) versus GEMOX/erlotinib trial, a total of 48 patients had pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT available for analysis. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis for the primary tumor were measured. The prognostic significance of these parameters and clinicopathological variables was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A cutoff of 98.8 ml for the MTVliver was the best discriminative value for predicting overall survival (>9 months). Multivariate analyses with adjustments for age, performance status, and disease status showed that only MTVliver was an independent prognostic factor associated with overall survival (HR 2.149, 95 % CI 1.124-4.109, P = 0.021). SUVmax did not show any correlation with overall survival. For patients in the high-MTVMBP group, overall survival was longer in the chemotherapy plus erlotinib group than in the chemotherapy-alone group [median 8.3 months (5.5-11.1) vs. 4.0 months (0.0-8.0); P = 0.048]. MTV may be considered as a significant independent metabolic prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with BTC and predictive marker for the selection of patients for the addition of erlotinib to first-line chemotherapy.
Medical Oncology 07/2014; 31(7):23. DOI:10.1007/s12032-014-0023-7 · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Although laparoscopic colorectal resection and laparoscopic liver resection have been accepted as effective alternatives to conventional open procedures, there are only a few reports on the clinical availability of simultaneous performance of these two procedures. We report our collective experience of patients with colorectal cancers treated with totally laparoscopic colorectal and liver resection, in comparison with those treated with an open approach. Patients and Methods: This study is a retrospective, case-match review of prospectively collected data. Between May 2008 and December 2012, 24 patients with primary colorectal cancer and associated hepatic lesions underwent simultaneous laparoscopic colorectal and liver resection (laparoscopic group). They were matched with patients who underwent an open procedure (open group; n=24 out of 232) based on the types of surgery. Patient demographics, operative details, tumor-related parameters, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Results: Demographic features and pathologic outcomes were similar in both groups. The median duration of operation was significantly longer in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (290 versus 244 minutes; P=.008), and the median estimated blood loss was larger (325 versus 250 mL; difference not significant, P=.35). However, the time to starting a soft blended diet (3.0 versus 4.5 days; P<.001) and postoperative stay (8.0 versus 10.5 days; P=.001) in the laparoscopic group were both significantly shorter than in the open group. The postoperative complication rate was lower in the laparoscopic group (17% versus 42%; difference not significant, P=.06). The minor complication rate was significantly lower in the laparoscopic group (4% versus 33%; P=.02). Conclusions: A totally laparoscopic approach might provide short-term benefits associated with enhanced postoperative recovery despite a longer procedure time and larger blood loss. It can be a reasonable option for simultaneous colorectal and hepatic resection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to clarify the post-operative prognosis of pancreatic head cancer with pathologic portal vein (PV) or superior mesenteric vein (SMV) invasion.
From May 1995 to December 2009, preoperative, intra-operative and post-operative data from 276 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were reviewed retrospectively. The long-term prognosis was compared between patients with a pathologic PV-SMV invasion and those without invasion.
Fourty-six patients (16.7%) underwent PV-SMV resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pathologic PV-SMV invasion was observed in 30 (65.2%). Post-operative severe morbidity (grade 3 or 4) was similar for patients with and without PV-SMV resection (8.7% with versus 7.0% without P = 0.754). The mortality rate was 2.2% with PV-SMV resection and 0.9% without PV-SMV resection (P = 0.423). Survival of PV-SMV resection and no resection group had no significant difference (median survival, 16 versus 12 months; P = 0.086). No significant difference in overall survival was seen between patients with and without pathologic PV-SMV invasion (median survival, 13 versus 16 months; P = 0.663). Tumour differentiation, R status, tumour size and type of operation were revealed as independent prognostic factors.
34.8% of patients who underwent PV-SMV resection had no pathologic invasion. And PV-SMV resection did not increase the rate of severe complications and mortality. Furthermore, the prognosis for patients with pathologic PV-SMV invasion may be nearly the same as patients with no invasion. So, PV-SMV resection with reconstruction should be considered in pancreatic head cancer patients with suspected PV-SMV invasion.
ANZ Journal of Surgery 02/2014; 85(4). DOI:10.1111/ans.12502 · 1.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The veins from the lower rectum drain into the systemic venous system, while those from other parts of the colon drain into the portal venous system. The aim of this study was to investigate recurrence pattern and survival according to the anatomical differences in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM).
From October 1994 to December 2009, synchronous CRLM patients who underwent surgery were identified from our prospectively collected database. The patients were excluded if there had been extrahepatic metastases. The patients were divided into two groups according to the location of the primary colorectal cancer: lower rectal cancer (group 1) and upper rectal or colon cancer (group 2). The recurrence patterns and survival were investigated.
A total of 316 patients were included: 53 patients in group 1 and 263 patients in group 2. After a median follow-up of 37 months, the extrahepatic recurrence curve of group 1 was superior to that of group 2 (P < 0.001), although there was no difference between the hepatic recurrence curves (P = 0.93). The disease-free and overall survival curves of group 1 were inferior to those of group 2 (P = 0.004) (P < 0.001). Lower rectal cancer was a significant risk factor for extrahepatic recurrence in Cox proportional hazard model analysis (hazard ratio = 1.7, P = 0.04).
The extrahepatic recurrence rate is high in lower rectal cancer patients after surgical treatment for synchronous CRLM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Role of impaired suppression of glucagon secretion in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer-associated diabetes has been suggested. We examined the correlation between glucagon/insulin ratio (G/I) after glucose challenge and hemoglobin A1C (A1C) in subjects with and without pancreatic cancer. Data were gathered from a preoperative screening 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in patients who would eventually undergo pancreatic resection. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted using the following covariates: age, body mass index, hemoglobin, glucose and insulin levels at the corresponding time points, indices of insulin resistance, duration of diabetes, insulinogenic index, and use of glucose-lowering drugs. In subject group with pancreatic cancer (n = 45), but not in subject group without pancreatic cancer (n = 101), participants with A1C ≥6.5 % had significantly higher glucagon levels, lower insulin levels, and higher G/I ratios after the glucose challenge than those of the subjects with A1C <5.7 %. In the multiple linear regression analysis, there was an independent correlation between post-challenge G/I ratio and A1C in both groups. Some of the patients without pancreatic cancer had inappropriately elevated G/I ratios despite A1C <6.5 %. These patients were characterized by lower insulinogenic indices (p = 0.004) and less insulin resistance (p = 0.008). In conclusion, post-challenge G/I ratio independently correlated with A1C in patients with pancreatic cancer. Although significant, the degree of correlation was weakened in the subjects without pancreatic cancer because some had lower insulin secretory reserve compensated by less insulin resistance, resulting in inappropriately elevated G/I ratios relative to A1C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To improve the characterization of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) and mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver (MCN-L).
A retrospective review of pathology archives (1999-2011) in our three institutions identified cases of IPNB (n=138) and MCN-L (n=54). The relative frequency of IPNB to MCN-L was 5.7:1 at Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, which was significantly higher than those at University of Washington Medical Center in Seattle (1:3.0) and King's College Hospital in London (1:6.3). This difference was mainly because of the considerably larger number of patients with IPNB in Seoul (n=131) than in Seattle and London (n=7). Western patients with IPNB were all non-Asian in ancestry. IPNB differed from pancreatic intraductal papillary neoplasm in its higher histological grade, more advanced stage of an associated invasive cancer, and worse prognosis. In contrast, MCN-L showed significantly lower histological grade than its pancreatic counterpart (p=0.022). Unlike in pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm, malignant transformation was very rare in MCN-L (10% vs. 2%).
This study demonstrated demographic difference of IPNB and MCN-L among regions. IPNB and MCN-L differ from their pancreatic counterparts in the risk of malignant transformation and patients' prognosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Undifferentiated carcinoma (UC) of the gallbladder (GB) is a rare malignant neoplasm and there have only been sparse case reports without precise description. We analyzed eight cases of UC of GB and compared with gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) in the aspects of clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis.
We found eight UC cases out of 238 surgically resected GBCs. Patients with stage-matched GBC were selected (1:4) for comparative analysis of the clinicopathologic features and survival of UC.
Histologically, UC cases were composed of four sarcomatoid, two pleomorphic, one small cell, and one osteoclast-like giant cell types. There was no difference between UC and ordinary GBC in clinicopathologic parameters, except for tumor size. It was significantly larger in UC (median; 5.0 cm, ranging 1.3-10.0 cm) compared to GBC (median; 3.0 cm, ranging 1.5-9.0 cm, P = 0.01). UC presented frequent intraluminal polypoid mass (87.5%: 7/8). UC showed significantly poor overall survival rate (37.5%, 37.5% and 18.8% at 1, 3, and 5 years), than GBC (84.4%, 65.6% and 52.1%, respectively) (P = 0.005). Pathologic findings of UC were an independent prognostic factor for poor survival in GBC (HR 7.242, 95% confidence interval: 1.799-29.147).
Undifferentiated carcinoma of the gallbladder was a rare highly malignant neoplasm and frequently presented a large intraluminal polypoid tumor. It showed a significantly larger tumor size and poorer survival than GBC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prospectively evaluate the survival benefit of dissection of the nerve plexus and lymphadenectomy in patients with pancreatic head cancer.
Despite randomized controlled trials on the extent of surgery in pancreatic cancer, attempts have been made to perform more extended resections.
A total of 244 patients were enrolled; of these, 200 were randomized to undergo standard resection or extended resection, with the latter including the dissection of additional lymph nodes and the right half of the nerve plexus around the superior mesenteric artery and celiac axis. We evaluated 167 patients from 7 centers who fulfilled all of the required criteria.
Operation time was longer and estimated blood loss was higher in the extended resection group than in the standard resection group, but the R0 resection rate was comparable. The mean number of lymph nodes retrieved per patient was higher in the extended resection group than in the standard resection group (33.7 vs 17.3; P < 0.001). The morbidity rate was slightly higher in the extended resection group than in the standard resection group. Two patients in the extended resection group died in hospital. Median survival after R0 resection was similar in the extended resection and standard resection groups (18.0 vs 19.0 months; P = 0.239) regardless of lymph node metastasis. Adjuvant chemoradiation had a positive impact on overall survival.
This study suggests that extended lymphadenectomy with dissection of the nerve plexus does not provide a significant survival benefit compared with standard resection in pancreatic head cancer. Standard resection can be performed safely and efficiently, without negatively affecting oncologic efficacy or long-term survival, when compared with extended pancreaticoduodenal resection. (NCT00679913)?
Annals of surgery 12/2013; 259(4). DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000000384 · 7.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prognostic factors for distal bile duct cancer are contentious. This study was conducted to analyze the prognostic factors of distal bile duct cancer after surgery with the aim of identifying those associated with diminished survival.
Two hundred forty-one patients who underwent pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) or Whipple procedure in our tertiary hospital from February 1995 to June 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were pathologically proven to have distal bile duct adenocarcinoma. Postoperative complications, survival, and well-known prognostic factors after resection for distal bile duct cancer were investigated.
Preoperative elevated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) level (P = 0.006), positive resection margin (P < 0.001), advanced T stage (P = 0.043), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002) were significantly independent worse prognostic indicators by multivariate analysis of resectable distal bile duct cancer.
R0 resection is the most important so that frozen sections should be utilized aggressively during each operation. For the distal bile duct cancer with elevated preoperative CA 19-9 level or advanced stage, further study on postoperative adjuvant treatment may be warranted.
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society 11/2013; 85(5):212-218. DOI:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.5.212 · 0.62 Impact Factor