Niklas Hammar

Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden

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Publications (164)773.86 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is associated with early mortality. Its impact on the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) over time and long-term mortality has not been well described. We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study in 27,929 patients who underwent a first isolated CABG between 2000 and 2008 in Sweden. Acute kidney injury was divided into three categories based on the absolute increase in postoperative serum creatinine (sCr) concentration compared with the preoperative baseline: stage 1, sCr increase of 0.3 to 0.5mg/dL; stage 2, sCr increase of >0.5 to 1.0mg/dL and stage 3, sCr increase of ≥1.0mg/dL. The overall incidence of postoperative AKI was 13%, 6.3% met the criterion for stage 1, 4.3% for stage 2 and 2.3% for stage 3. During a mean follow-up of 5.0years, there were 2119 (7.6%) MIs and 4679 (17%) deaths. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for MI were 1.35 (1.15 to 1.57), 1.80 (1.53 to 2.13) and 1.63 (1.29 to 2.07), in AKI stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 1.30 (1.17 to 1.44), 1.65 (1.48 to 1.83) and 2.68 (2.37 to 3.03), respectively. Our results show that AKI after CABG is associated with an increased long-term risk of MI and death.
    International journal of cardiology 01/2014; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Scientific knowledge on disability pension (DP) after revascularization by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is scarce. The aim was to study the incidence of and risk factors for being granted DP in the 5 years following a first CABG or PCI, accounting for socio-demographic and medical factors. This is a nationwide population-based study using Swedish registers including all patients 30-63 years of age (n = 34,643, 16.4% women) who had a first CABG (n = 14,107) or PCI (n = 20,536) during 1994-2003. All were alive and without reintervention 30 days after the procedure and were not on DP or old-age pension. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) for DP were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In 5 years following revascularization, 32.4% had been granted DP and the hazard ratio (HR) was higher in women (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.48-1.62), and in CABG patients compared with PCI patients (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.30-1.40). Long-term sick leave in the year before intervention was the strongest predictor for DP following revascularization. After adjustments for socio-demographic factors and sick-leave days in the 12 months before revascularization, HR remained high in all patients with diabetes mellitus regardless of type of revascularization. DP after coronary revascularization was common, especially among women and CABG patients. Most studied medical covariates, including mental and musculoskeletal disorders, were risk factors for future DP, especially long-term sickness absence.
    European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 01/2014; · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Commercial airline crew is one of the occupational groups with the highest exposures to ionising radiation. Crew members are also exposed to other physical risk factors and subject to potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study analyses mortality in a pooled cohort of 93 771 crew members from 10 countries. The cohort was followed for a mean of 21.7 years (2.0 million person-years), during which 5508 deaths occurred. The overall mortality was strongly reduced in male cockpit (SMR 0.56) and female cabin crews (SMR 0.73). The mortality from radiation-related cancers was also reduced in male cockpit crew (SMR 0.73), but not in female or male cabin crews (SMR 1.01 and 1.00, respectively). The mortality from female breast cancer (SMR 1.06), leukaemia and brain cancer was similar to that of the general population. The mortality from malignant melanoma was elevated, and significantly so in male cockpit crew (SMR 1.57). The mortality from cardiovascular diseases was strongly reduced (SMR 0.46). On the other hand, the mortality from aircraft accidents was exceedingly high (SMR 33.9), as was that from AIDS in male cabin crew (SMR 14.0). This large study with highly complete follow-up shows a reduced overall mortality in male cockpit and female cabin crews, an increased mortality of aircraft accidents and an increased mortality in malignant skin melanoma in cockpit crew. Further analysis after longer follow-up is recommended.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 01/2014; · 3.64 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 01/2014; 12(1):159. · 6.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fructosamine is a glycemic biomarker which may be useful for indication and control of diabetes respectively.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(10):e111463. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Observational studies have indicated that high calcium intake may prevent colorectal cancer, but as for randomized trials the results are inconclusive. Meanwhile, limited data on the link between serum calcium and cancer risk is available. We investigated the relation between serum calcium and risk of different gastrointestinal cancers in a prospective study. A cohort based on 492,044 subjects with baseline information on calcium (mmol/L) and albumin (g/L) was selected from the Swedish Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse associations between standardised levels, quartiles and age/sex-specific categories of serum calcium and risk of oesophageal, stomach, colon,rectal cancer and also colorectal cancer combined, while taking into account serum albumin and other comorbidities. During 12 years of follow-up, we identified 323 incident oesophageal cancers, 782 stomach cancers, 2519 colon cancers, and 1495 rectal cancers. A positive association was found between albumin-adjusted serum calcium and risk of oesophageal [HR: 4.82 (95% CI: 2.07 -- 11.19) for high compared to normal age-specific calcium levels] and colon cancer [e.g. HR: 1.07 (95% CI: 1.00 -- 1.14) for every SD increase of calcium] as well as colorectal cancer [e.g. HR: 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.11) for every SD increase of calcium] in women. In men there were similar but weaker non-statistically significant trends. The positive relation between serum calcium, oesophageal cancer and colorectal cancer calls for further studies including calcium regulators to evaluate whether there is a true link between calcium metabolism and development of gastrointestinal cancer.
    BMC Public Health 07/2013; 13(1):663. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Both dietary and serum levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) have been linked to development of cancer in experimental studies. This is the first population-based study investigating the relation between serum Pi and risk of cancer in humans. METHODS: From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS) study, we selected all participants (> 20 years old) with baseline measurements of serum Pi, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, and creatinine (n = 397,292). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to assess serum Pi in relation to overall cancer risk. Similar analyses were performed for specific cancer sites. RESULTS: We found a higher overall cancer risk with increasing Pi levels in men ( HR: 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00-1.04) for every SD increase in Pi), and a negative association in women (HR: 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99) for every SD increase in Pi). Further analyses for specific cancer sites showed a positive link between Pi quartiles and the risk of cancer of the pancreas, lung, thyroid gland and bone in men, and cancer of the oesophagus, lung, and nonmelanoma skin cancer in women. Conversely, the risks for developing breast and endometrial cancer as well as other endocrine cancer in both men and women were lower in those with higher Pi levels. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal Pi levels are related to development of cancer. Furthermore, the inverse association between Pi levels and risk of breast, endometrial and other endocrine cancers may indicate the role of hormonal factors in the relation between Pi metabolism and cancer.
    BMC Cancer 05/2013; 13(1):257. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Pre-clinical studies have shown that iron can be carcinogenic, but few population-based studies investigated the association between markers of the iron metabolism and risk of cancer while taking into account inflammation. We assessed the link between serum iron (SI), total-iron binding capacity (TIBC), and risk of cancer by levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in a large population-based study (n = 220,642). METHODS: From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS) study, we selected all participants (>20 years old) with baseline measurements of serum SI, TIBC, and CRP. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was carried out for standardized and quartile values of SI and TIBC. Similar analyses were performed for specific cancers (pancreatic, colon, liver, respiratory, kidney, prostate, stomach, and breast cancer). To avoid reverse causation, we excluded those with follow-up <3 years. RESULTS: We found a positive association between standardized TIBC and overall cancer [HR 1.03 (95 % CI 1.01-1.05)]. No statistically significant association was found between SI and cancer risk except for postmenopausal breast cancer [HR for standardized SI 1.09 (95 % CI 1.02-1.15)]. The association between TIBC and specific cancer was only statistically significant for colon cancer [i.e., HR for standardized TIBC: 1.17 (95 % CI 1.08-1.28)]. A borderline interaction between SI and levels of CRP was observed only in stomach cancer. CONCLUSIONS: As opposed to pre-clinical findings for serum iron and cancer, this population-based epidemiological study showed an inverse relation between iron metabolism and cancer risk. Minimal role of inflammatory markers observed warrants further study focusing on developments of specific cancers.
    Cancer Causes and Control 05/2013; · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate country or region of birth-specific prevalence and gender differences of diabetes in residents in Sweden, using Swedish-born men and women as referent. METHODS: The Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) cohort was used (184,000 men and 151,453 women) aged between 20 and 80 years, with data from the CALAB laboratory, Stockholm, 1985-1996. Diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥7.0mmol/L or a hospital diagnosis of diabetes. Country of birth was obtained by linkage to Swedish Censuses 1970-1990. Standardized prevalence rate ratios (SPRR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. RESULTS: Five groups of women and one group of men had a significantly higher prevalence than Swedish-born (based on SPRR): women born in Iraq (6.0 (95% CI 1.3-28.9)), North Africa (6.9 (95% CI 3.1-15.3)), South Asia (3.1 (95% CI 1.0-10.0)), Syria (5.3 (95% CI 1.8-16.0)), Turkey (3.7 (95% CI 1.2-10.9)) and men born in other Middle Eastern countries (2.3 (95% CI 1.0-5.5)). Swedish-born men had a higher age-standardized prevalence of diabetes (3.9%) than Swedish born women (2.5%). A higher prevalence among men was also seen in other Western countries. In contrast, a higher age-standardized prevalence among women was observed in immigrants from Turkey (8.9% vs. 3.1%, p<0.001), Syria (13.1% vs. 4.0%, p=0.002), and North Africa (16.8% vs. 6.6%, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Female immigrants to Sweden from Iraq, North Africa, South Asia, Syria, and Turkey have an increased prevalence of diabetes of substantial public health concern.
    Diabetes research and clinical practice 04/2013; · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Circulatory disease mortality inequalities by country of birth (COB) have been demonstrated for some EU countries but pan-European analyses are lacking. We examine inequalities in circulatory mortality by geographical region/COB for six EU countries. METHODS: We obtained national death and population data from Denmark, England and Wales, France, the Netherlands, Scotland and Sweden. Mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were constructed to examine differences in circulatory, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease mortality by geographical region/COB in 35-74 years old men and women. RESULTS: South Asians in Denmark, England and Wales and France experienced excess circulatory disease mortality (MRRs 1.37-1.91). Similar results were seen for Eastern Europeans in these countries as well as in Sweden (MRRs 1.05-1.51), for those of Middle Eastern origin in Denmark (MRR = 1.49) and France (MRR = 1.15), and for East and West sub-Saharan Africans in England and Wales (MRRs 1.28 and 1.39) and France (MRRs 1.24 and 1.22). Low ratios were observed for East Asians in France, Scotland and Sweden (MRRs 0.64-0.50). Sex-specific analyses showed results of similar direction but different effect sizes. The pattern for IHD mortality was similar to that for circulatory disease mortality. Two- to three-fold excess cerebrovascular disease mortality was found for several foreign-born groups compared with the local-born populations in some countries. CONCLUSIONS: Circulatory disease mortality varies by geographical region/COB within six EU countries. Excess mortality was observed for some migrant populations, less for others. Reliable pan-European data are needed for monitoring and understanding mortality inequalities in Europe's multiethnic populations.
    The European Journal of Public Health 03/2013; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Impaired glucose metabolism has been linked with increased cancer risk, but the association between serum glucose and cancer risk remains unclear. We used repeated measurements of glucose and fructosamine to get more insight into the association between the glucose metabolism and risk of cancer. METHODS: We selected 11,998 persons (>20 years old) with four prospectively collected serum glucose and fructosamine measurements from the Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS) study. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess standardized log of overall mean glucose and fructosamine in relation to cancer risk. Similar analyses were performed for tertiles of glucose and fructosamine and for different types of cancer. RESULTS: A positive trend was observed between standardized log overall mean glucose and overall cancer risk (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02-1.14). Including standardized log fructosamine in the model resulted in a stronger association between glucose and cancer risk and aninverse association between fructosamine and cancer risk (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.08-1.26 and HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82-0.96, respectively). Cancer risks were highest among those in the highest tertile of glucose and lowest tertile of fructosamine. Similar findings were observed for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer while none observed for breast cancer. CONCLUSION: The contrasting effect between glucose, fructosamine, and cancer risk suggests the existence of distinct groups among those with impaired glucose metabolism, resulting in different cancer risks based on individual metabolic profiles. Further studies are needed to clarify whether glucose is a proxy of other lifestyle-related or metabolic factors.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54944. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this observational study was to quantify the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI) among diabetes patients and compare this risk to patients without diabetes. Type 2 diabetes patients and a matched sample of patients without diabetes were identified from GPRD. Patients were followed for 1-year from their study index date until the first record of a UTI or a censored event. The incidence of UTI was 46.9 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI) 45.8-48.1) among diabetes patients and 29.9 (95% CI 28.9-30.8) for patients without diabetes. Compared to the non-diabetes patients, the risk of UTI was 1.53 (95% CI 1.46-1.59) for all diabetes patients; and 2.08 (95% CI 1.93-2.24) for patients with previously diagnosed diabetes. In general practice, across gender and age, the risk of developing a UTI is higher for patients with type 2 diabetes compared to patients without diabetes.
    Journal of diabetes and its complications 08/2012; · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this population-based study was to evaluate the incidence of vaginitis (females) and balanitis (males) among a cohort of type 2 diabetes patients and compare this risk to patients without diabetes. The study population included 125,237 female patients and 146,603 males identified from GPRD. All patients were followed for 1-year from their study index date for the first record of an infection or a censored event. Among patients with diabetes the incidence of vaginitis was 21.0/1000PY (95% CI 19.8-22.1) with the risk being 1.81 (95% CI 1.64-2.00) greater that patients without diabetes. The incidence of balanitis among diabetes patients was 8.4/1000PY (95% CI 7.8-9.1) with a relative risk of 2.85 (2.39-3.39) compared to patients without diabetes. Additional analyses were performed by HbA1c level. Results from this large population-based study indicate that patients with diabetes are at an increased risk of being diagnosed with infections of the genital tract and patients with poorly controlled diabetes have higher risks.
    Journal of diabetes and its complications 07/2012; · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Observational studies have shown a positive association between intake of dairy products as well as serum levels of calcium and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We studied the association between serum calcium and PCa while also accounting for levels of albumin, a protein to which calcium is bound. A cohort based on 196,022 men with baseline information on calcium (mmol/L) and albumin (g/L) was selected from the Swedish Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk study. Age-stratified multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze associations between calcium and incident and fatal PCa risk. A total of 6,353 men were diagnosed with PCa and 731 died of PCa during mean follow-up of 12 years. A weak negative association was found between levels of calcium or albumin-corrected calcium and PCa risk (HR for quartiles of albumin-corrected calcium: 0.95 (0.89-1.02), 0.93 (0.86-1.00), and 0.91 (0.85-0.98) for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartile compared to the 1st; p for trend: 0.012). BMI did not affect these findings. No association was found between calcium levels and fatal PCa. A positive association between Ca and death was observed when censoring for PCa [HR per SD: 1.14 (1.13-1.16)]. The weak negative association between Ca and PCa risk is likely explained by the relation between Ca and death. This illustrates the need to handle competing risks when defining whether Ca is involved in PCa etiology or whether it acts as a marker of other metabolic events in the causal pathway.
    Cancer Causes and Control 06/2012; 23(8):1349-58. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a risk factor for breast and ovarian cancer; the mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Perturbed lipid metabolism often accompanies obesity; we therefore ascertained the associations between lipid components and breast and ovarian cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. A total of 234,494 women with baseline measurements of triglycerides and total cholesterol and glucose were selected from the AMORIS database.A total of 27,394 had measurements of high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein (Apo) B, and A-I. Associations between quartiles and dichotomized values of lipid components and breast and ovarian cancer risk were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models. We identified 6,105 women diagnosed with breast cancer and 808 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer. A weak trend was observed between triglycerides and breast cancer (HR, 1.01, 95% Confidence Interval, 0.94-1.09; 0.93 (0.86-1.00) 0.91 (0.84-0.99), second, third, and fourth quartiles; P = 0.01). No other associations between lipid components and risk of breast cancer or ovarian cancer showed statistical significance. A weak protective association was found between levels of triglycerides and risk of breast cancer. An analysis including information on tumour characteristics of ovarian cancer and breast cancer may provide more insight in possible links between lipid metabolism and the risk of these cancers.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 05/2012; 21(8):1381-4. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones.
    International Journal of Cancer 03/2012; 131(12):2886-97. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the prognostic importance of acute kidney injury on early mortality, postoperative stroke, and mediastinitis in patients undergoing a first isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. 7594 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with information on pre- and postoperative serum-creatinine values were included. Patients were classified using the Acute Kidney Injury Network classification. Odds ratios (OR) for mortality and postoperative complications within 60 days of surgery were calculated after adjustment for confounders separately for stage 1 and for stages 2 and 3 together. 1047 (14%) patients developed acute kidney injury. There were 132 (1.7%) deaths, 103 (1.4%) strokes and 118 (1.6%) cases of mediastinitis during follow-up. Among patients in stage 1 the adjusted odds ratio for death was 4.36 (95% confidence interval 2.83-6.71) and for stage 2 plus 3; 21.5 (12.0-38.6) compared to patients without acute kidney injury. Corresponding OR for stroke were 2.34 (1.43-3.82) and 6.52 (2.97-14.3) and for mediastinitis 2.88 (1.84-4.50) and 4.68 (2.07-10.6), respectively. Acute kidney injury following coronary artery bypass grafting is related to postoperative mortality, stroke, and mediastinitis. Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting should be assessed for presence of acute kidney injury postoperatively, in order to predict early prognosis.
    Scandinavian cardiovascular journal: SCJ 02/2012; 46(2):114-20. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management of frailty is the cornerstone of geriatric medicine, but there remains a need to identify biomarkers that can predict early death, and thereby lead to effective clinical interventions. We aimed to study the combination of C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and HDL to predict mortality. A total of 44,457 persons aged 50+ whose levels of CRP, albumin, GGT, and HDL were measured at baseline were selected from the Swedish Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) study. A mortality score, ranging from 0 to 4, was created by adding the number of markers with abnormal values according to the clinical cut-off (CRP > 10 mg/L, albumin < 35 mg/L, GGT > 36 kU/L, HDL < 1.04 mmol/L). Mortality was studied with multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. 2,245 persons died from cancer, 3,276 from circulatory disease, and 1,860 from other causes. There was a positive trend between mortality score and all-cause mortality as well as cancer and circulatory disease-specific death (e.g. HR for all-cause mortality: 1.39 (95%CI: 1.32-1.46), 2.04 (1.89-2.21), and 3.36 (2.87-3.93), for score=1, 2, and 3+, compared to score=0). Among cancer patients with no other co-morbidities (n=1,955), there was a positive trend between the score and mortality (HR: 1.24 (95%CI: 1.0.-1.49), 2.38 (95%CI: 1.76-3.22), and 5.47 (95%CI: 2.98-10.03) for score=1, 2, and 3+ compared to score=0). By combining biomarkers of different mechanisms contributing to patient frailty, we found a strong marker for mortality in persons aged 50+. Elevated risks among cancer patients with no other co-morbidities prior to biomarker assessment call for validation in other cohorts and testing of different combinations and cut-offs than those used here, in order to aid decision-making in treatment of older cancer patients.
    International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics 01/2012; 3(1):66-76.
  • International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: While the association between obesity and endometrial cancer (EC) is well established, the underlying mechanisms require further study. We assessed possible links between lipid profiles and EC risk, while also taking into account BMI, parity, and menopausal status at baseline. Using the information available from the Swedish Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) study we created a cohort of 225,432 women with baseline values for glucose, triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (TC). Two subgroups of 31,792 and 26,317 had, in addition, baseline measurements of HDL, LDL, apolipoprotein A-I and apoB and BMI, respectively. We used Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models to analyze quartiles and dichotomized values of these lipid components for a link to EC risk. During mean follow-up of 12 years (SD: 4.15), 1,144 persons developed endometrial cancer. A statistically significant association was found between TG and EC risk when using both quartiles and a clinical cut-off (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.10 (95%CI: 0.88-1.37), 1.34 (1.09-1.63), and 1.57 (1.28-1.92)) for the 2(nd), 3(rd), and 4(th) quartile, compared to the 1(st), with P-value for trend: <0.001). The association remained after exclusion of the first three years of follow-up. Also total cholesterol and TG/HDL ratio were positively associated with EC risk, but no link was found for the other lipid components studied. This detailed analysis of lipid components showed a consistent relation between TG levels and EC risk. Future research should continue to analyze the metabolic pathway and its relation to EC risk, as a pathway to further understand the relation of obesity and disease.
    International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics 01/2012; 3(2):122-33.

Publication Stats

3k Citations
773.86 Total Impact Points


  • 1991–2014
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • • Institute of Environmental Medicine - IMM
      • • Institutionen för klinisk forskning och utbildning, Södersjukhuset
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2013
    • Uppsala University
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2010–2013
    • King's College London
      • Division of Cancer Studies
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Oslo University Hospital
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 2011
    • University of Oslo
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 2000–2010
    • Karolinska University Hospital
      • Department of Thoracic Surgery
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2008
    • Norwegian Institute of Public Health
      • Division of Epidemiology
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Dental Public Health
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
  • 2004
    • Public Health Agency of Sweden
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2003
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • School of Public Health
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
  • 2002–2003
    • University of Turku
      • Department of Clinical Neurophysiology
      Turku, Western Finland, Finland
  • 1998
    • Sahlgrenska University Hospital
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden