J.M. Raaijmakers

Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, Gelderland, Netherlands

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Publications (186)451.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Lipopeptides (LP) are structurally diverse compounds with potent surfactant and broad-spectrum antibiotic activities. In Pseudomonas and other bacterial genera, LP biosynthesis is governed by large multimodular nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). To date, relatively little is known about the regulatory genetic network of LP biosynthesis. This study provides evidence that the chaperone ClpA, together with the serine protease ClpP, regulates the biosynthesis of the LP massetolide in Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101. Whole-genome transcriptome analyses of clpA and clpP mutants showed their involvement in the transcription of the NRPS genes massABC and the transcriptional regulator massAR. In addition, transcription of genes associated with cell wall and membrane biogenesis, energy production and conversion, amino acid transport and metabolism, and pilus assembly were altered by mutations in clpA and clpP. Proteome analysis allowed the identification of additional cellular changes associated to clpA and clpP mutations. The expression of proteins of the citrate cycle and the heat shock proteins DnaK and DnaJ were particularly affected. Combined with previous findings, these results suggest that the ClpAP complex regulates massetolide biosynthesis via the pathway-specific, LuxR-type regulator MassAR, the heat shock proteins DnaK and DnaJ, and proteins of the TCA cycle. Combining transcriptome and proteome analyses provided new insights into the regulation of LP biosynthesis in P. fluorescens and led to the identification of specific missing links in the regulatory pathways.
    BMC Microbiology 12/2015; 15(1):367. DOI:10.1186/s12866-015-0367-y · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The plant microbiome represents an enormous untapped resource for discovering novel genes and bioactive compounds. Previously, we isolated Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52 from the rhizosphere of sugar beet plants grown in a soil suppressive to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and showed that its antifungal activity is, in part, attributed to the production of the chlorinated 9-amino-acid lipopeptide thanamycin (Mendes et al., 2011). To get more insight into its biosynthetic repertoire, the genome of Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52 was sequenced and subjected to in silico, mutational and functional analyses. The sequencing revealed a genome size of 6.3 Mb and 5579 predicted ORFs. Phylogenetic analysis placed strain SH-C52 within the Pseudomonas corrugata clade. In silico analysis for secondary metabolites revealed a total of six non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene clusters, including the two previously described NRPS clusters for thanamycin and the 2-amino acid antibacterial lipopeptide brabantamide. Here we show that thanamycin also has activity against an array of other fungi and that brabantamide A exhibits anti-oomycete activity and affects phospholipases of the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Most notably, mass spectrometry led to the discovery of a third lipopeptide, designated thanapeptin, with a 22-amino-acid peptide moiety. Seven structural variants of thanapeptin were found with varying degrees of activity against P. infestans. Of the remaining four NRPS clusters, one was predicted to encode for yet another and unknown lipopeptide with a predicted peptide moiety of 8-amino acids. Collectively, these results show an enormous metabolic potential for Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52, with at least three structurally diverse lipopeptides, each with a different antimicrobial activity spectrum.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 07/2015; 6:693. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00693 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    Juan E Pérez-Jaramillo · Rodrigo Mendes · Jos M Raaijmakers
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    ABSTRACT: The rhizosphere microbiome is pivotal for plant health and growth, providing defence against pests and diseases, facilitating nutrient acquisition and helping plants to withstand abiotic stresses. Plants can actively recruit members of the soil microbial community for positive feedbacks, but the underlying mechanisms and plant traits that drive microbiome assembly and functions are largely unknown. Domestication of plant species has substantially contributed to human civilization, but also caused a strong decrease in the genetic diversity of modern crop cultivars that may have affected the ability of plants to establish beneficial associations with rhizosphere microbes. Here, we review how plants shape the rhizosphere microbiome and how domestication may have impacted rhizosphere microbiome assembly and functions via habitat expansion and via changes in crop management practices, root exudation, root architecture, and plant litter quality. We also propose a "back to the roots" framework that comprises the exploration of the microbiome of indigenous plants and their native habitats for the identification of plant and microbial traits with the ultimate goal to reinstate beneficial associations that may have been undermined during plant domestication.
    Plant Molecular Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11103-015-0337-7 · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas spp. are prolific producers of natural products from many structural classes. Here we show that the soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 is capable of producing trace levels of the triazine natural product toxoflavin (1) under microaerobic conditions. We evaluated toxoflavin production by derivatives of Pf-5 having deletions in specific biosynthesis genes, which led us to propose a new biosynthetic pathway for toxoflavin that shares the first two steps with riboflavin biosynthesis. We also report that toxM, which is not present in the well-characterized cluster of Burkholderia glumae, encodes a monooxygenase that degrades toxoflavin. The toxoflavin degradation product of ToxM is identical to that of TflA, the toxoflavin lyase from Paenibacillus polymyxa. Toxoflavin production by P. protegens causes inhibition of several plant-pathogenic bacteria, and introduction of toxM into the toxoflavin-sensitive strain P. syringae DC3000 results in resistance to toxoflavin. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    ChemBioChem 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/cbic.201500247 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    Emilie Chapelle · Rodrigo Mendes · Peter A Hm Bakker · Jos M Raaijmakers
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    ABSTRACT: The rhizosphere is the infection court where soil-borne pathogens establish a parasitic relationship with the plant. To infect root tissue, pathogens have to compete with members of the rhizosphere microbiome for available nutrients and microsites. In disease-suppressive soils, pathogens are strongly restricted in growth by the activities of specific rhizosphere microorganisms. Here, we sequenced metagenomic DNA and RNA of the rhizosphere microbiome of sugar beet seedlings grown in a soil suppressive to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. rRNA-based analyses showed that Oxalobacteraceae, Burkholderiaceae, Sphingobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere upon fungal invasion. Metatranscriptomics revealed that stress-related genes (ppGpp metabolism and oxidative stress) were upregulated in these bacterial families. We postulate that the invading pathogenic fungus induces, directly or via the plant, stress responses in the rhizobacterial community that lead to shifts in microbiome composition and to activation of antagonistic traits that restrict pathogen infection.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 29 May 2015; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.82.
    The ISME Journal 05/2015; DOI:10.1038/ismej.2015.82 · 9.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microorganisms are important factors in shaping our environment. One key characteristic that has been neglected for a long time is the ability of microorganisms to release chemically diverse volatile compounds. At present, it is clear that the blend of volatiles released by microorganisms can be very complex and often includes many unknown compounds for which the chemical structures remain to be elucidated. The biggest challenge now is to unravel the biological and ecological functions of these microbial volatiles. There is increasing evidence that microbial volatiles can act as infochemicals in interactions among microbes and between microbes and their eukaryotic hosts. Here, we review and discuss recent advances in understanding the natural roles of volatiles in microbe-microbe interactions. Specific emphasis will be given to the antimicrobial activities of microbial volatiles and their effects on bacterial quorum sensing, motility, gene expression and antibiotic resistance.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 29 May 2015; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.42.
    The ISME Journal 05/2015; DOI:10.1038/ismej.2015.42 · 9.27 Impact Factor
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    Yong-Soon Park · Swarnalee Dutta · Mina Ann · Jos M. Raaijmakers · Kyungseok Park
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    ABSTRACT: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play key roles in modulating plant growth and induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens. Despite their significance, the physiological functions of the specific VOCs produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 (Pf.SS101) have not been precisely elucidated. The effects of Pf.SS101 and its VOCs on augmentation of plant growth promotion were investigated in vitro and in planta. Significant growth promotion was observed in plants exposed Pf.SS101 under both conditions, suggesting its VOCs play a key role in promoting plant growth. Solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and a gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) system were used to characterize the VOCs emitted by Pf.SS101 and 11 different compounds were detected in samples inoculated this bacterium, including 13-Tetradecadien-1-ol, 2-butanone and 2-Methyl-n-1-tridecene. Application of these compounds resulted in enhanced plant growth. This study suggests that Pf.SS101 promotes the growth of plants via the release of VOCs including 13-Tetradecadien-1-ol, 2-butanone and 2-Methyl-n-1-tridecene, thus increasing understanding of the role of VOCs in plant-bacterial inter-communication. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2015; 461(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.04.039 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endophytic Pseudomonas poae strain RE*1-1-14 was originally isolated from internal root tissue of sugar beet plants and shown to suppress growth of the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani both in vitro and in the field. To identify genes involved in its biocontrol activity, RE*1-1-14 random mutagenesis and sequencing led to the identification of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster predicted to encode a lipopeptide (LP) with a 10-amino acid peptide moiety. The two unlinked gene clusters consisted of three NRPS genes, designated poaA (cluster 1), and poaB and poaC (cluster 2), spanning approximately 33.7 kb. In silico analysis followed by chemical analyses revealed that the encoded LP designated poaeamide, is a structurally new member of the orfamide family. Poaeamide inhibited mycelial growth of R. solani and different oomycetes including Phytophthora capsici, Ph. infestans, and Pythium ultimum. The novel LP was shown to be essential for swarming motility of strain RE*1-1-14 and had an impact on root colonization of sugar beet seedlings The poaeamide-deficient mutant colonized the rhizosphere and upper plant cortex at higher densities and with more scattered colonization patterns than the wildtype. Collectively these results indicate that P. poae RE*1-1-14 produces a structurally new LP that is relevant for its antagonistic activity against soil-borne plant pathogens and for colonization of sugar beet roots.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 03/2015; DOI:10.1094/MPMI-12-14-0406-R · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • Rodrigo Mendes · Jos M Raaijmakers
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    ABSTRACT: The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology is the official Journal of the International Society for Microbial Ecology, publishing high-quality, original research papers, short communications, commentary articles and reviews in the rapidly expanding and diverse discipline of microbial ecology.
    The ISME Journal 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/ismej.2015.7 · 9.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protozoan predation of bacteria can significantly affect soil microbial community composition and ecosystem functioning. Bacteria possess diverse defense strategies to resist or evade protozoan predation. For soil-dwelling Pseudomonas species, several secondary metabolites were proposed to provide protection against different protozoan genera. By combining whole-genome transcriptome analyses with (live) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), we observed multiple changes in the molecular and chemical dialogues between Pseudomonas fluorescens and the protist Naegleria americana. Lipopeptide (LP) biosynthesis was induced in Pseudomonas upon protozoan grazing and LP accumulation transitioned from homogeneous distributions across bacterial colonies to site-specific accumulation at the bacteria-protist interface. Also putrescine biosynthesis was upregulated in P. fluorescens upon predation. We demonstrated that putrescine induces protozoan trophozoite encystment and adversely affects cyst viability. This multifaceted study provides new insights in common and strain-specific responses in bacteria-protozoa interactions, including responses that contribute to bacterial survival in highly competitive soil and rhizosphere environments.
    Scientific Reports 01/2015; 5:12837. DOI:10.1038/srep12837 · 5.58 Impact Factor
  • Jos M. Raaijmakers
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    ABSTRACT: The rhizosphere provides a home to numerous (micro)organisms that in turn may affect plant growth, development, and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. How plants shape the rhizosphere microbiome has been subject of many past and present studies with the ultimate goal to identify plant genetic traits that select and support beneficial microorganisms. Novel ‘omics technologies have provided more in-depth knowledge of the diversity and functioning of the rhizosphere microbiome and significant advances are being made to uncover mechanisms, genes and metabolites involved in the multitrophic interactions in the rhizosphere. To better understand this intriguing complexity, both reductionists’ and systems ecology approaches are needed to identify the biotic and abiotic factors involved in microbiome assembly. Here, different strategies are discussed to re-shape the rhizosphere microbiome in favour of microbial consortia that promote root development and plant growth, and that prevent the proliferation of pests and diseases.
    Principles of Plant-Microbe Interactions, 01/2015: pages 411-417; , ISBN: 978-3-319-08574-6
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    ABSTRACT: The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 inhibits growth of oomycete and fungal pathogens, and induces resistance in plants against pathogens and insects. To unravel regulatory pathways of secondary metabolite production in SS101, we conducted a genome-wide search for sRNAs and performed transcriptomic analyses to identify genes associated with the Rsm (repressor of secondary metabolites) regulon. In silico analysis led to the identification of 16 putative sRNAs in the SS101 genome. In frame deletion of the sRNAs rsmY and rsmZ showed that the Rsm system regulates the biosynthesis of the lipopeptide massetolide A and involves the two repressor proteins RsmA and RsmE, with the LuxR-type transcriptional regulator MassAR as their most likely target. Transcriptome analyses of the rsmYZ mutant further revealed that genes associated with iron acquisition, motility and chemotaxis were significantly upregulated, whereas genes of the type VI secretion system were downregulated. Comparative transcriptomic analyses showed that most, but not all, of the genes controlled by RsmY/RsmZ are also controlled by the GacS/GacA two-component system. We conclude that the Rsm regulon of P. fluorescens SS101 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipopeptide biosynthesis and controls the expression of other genes involved in motility, competition and survival in the plant rhizosphere. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.
    Microbial Biotechnology 12/2014; 8(2). DOI:10.1111/1751-7915.12190 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Certain bacterial species produce antimicrobial compounds only in the presence of a competing species. However little is known on the frequency of interaction-mediated induction of antibiotic compound production in natural communities of soil bacteria. Here we developed a high-throughput method to screen for the production of antimicrobial activity by monocultures and pair-wise combinations of 146 phylogenetically different bacteria isolated from similar soil habitats. Growth responses of two human pathogenic model organisms, Escherichia coli WA321 and Staphylococcus aureus 533R4, were used to monitor antimicrobial activity. From all isolates, 33% showed antimicrobial activity only in monoculture and 42% showed activity only when tested in interactions. More bacterial isolates were active against S. aureus than against E. coli. The frequency of interaction-mediated induction of antimicrobial activity was 6% (154 interactions out of 2798) indicating that only a limited set of species combinations showed such activity. The screening revealed also interaction-mediated suppression of antimicrobial activity for 22% of all combinations tested. Whereas all patterns of antimicrobial activity (non-induced production, induced production and suppression) were seen for various bacterial classes, interaction-mediated induction of antimicrobial activity was more frequent for combinations of Flavobacteria and alpha- Proteobacteria. The results of our study give a first indication on the frequency of interference competitive interactions in natural soil bacterial communities which may forms a basis for selection of bacterial groups that are promising for the discovery of novel, cryptic antibiotics.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 10/2014; 5(567). DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00567t · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • Xu Cheng · Menno van der Voort · Jos M. Raaijmakers
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    ABSTRACT: In Pseudomonas species, production of secondary metabolites and exoenzymes is regulated by the GacS/GacA two-component regulatory system. In P. fluorescens SBW25, mutations in the Gac-system cause major transcriptional changes and abolished production of the lipopeptide viscosin and of an exoprotease. In contrast to many other Pseudomonas species and strains, inactivation of the Gac-system in strain SBW25 significantly enhanced its antimicrobial activities against oomycete, fungal and bacterial pathogens. Here, random plasposon mutagenesis of the gacS mutant led to the identification of seven mutants with reduced or loss of antimicrobial activity. In four mutants, the plasposon insertion was located in genes of the pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) biosynthesis pathway. Genetic complementation, ectopic expression, activity bioassays and RP-HPLC analyses revealed that a gacS mutation in SBW25 leads to enhanced expression of pqq genes, resulting in an increase in gluconic and 2-ketogluconic acid production, which in turn acidified the extracellular medium to levels that inhibit growth of other microorganisms. We also showed that PQQ-mediated acidification comes with a growth penalty for the gacS mutant in the stationary phase. In conclusion, PQQ-mediated acidification compensates for the loss of several antimicrobial traits in P. fluorescens SBW25 and may help gac mutants to withstand competitors.
    Environmental Microbiology Reports 10/2014; 7(1). DOI:10.1111/1758-2229.12231 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. Here, we sampled nests of the endangered sea turtle species Eretmochelys imbricata that were infected with the fungal pathogen Fusarium falciforme. Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities associated with the shells of the sea turtle eggs revealed approximately 16,664 operational taxonomic units, with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as the most dominant phyla. Subsequent isolation of Actinobacteria from the eggshells led to the identification of several genera (Streptomyces, Amycolaptosis, Micromomospora Plantactinospora and Solwaraspora) that inhibit hyphal growth of the pathogen F. falciforme. These bacterial genera constitute a first set of microbial indicators to evaluate the potential role of microbiota in conservation of endangered sea turtle species.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95206. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095206 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Among oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs have an immature adaptive immune system and depend on nonspecific innate defences to ward off pathogens. Here, meta-taxonomic analyses revealed that Atlantic salmon eggs are home to diverse fungal, oomycete and bacterial communities. Although virulent Saprolegnia isolates were found in all salmon egg samples, a low incidence of Saprolegniosis was strongly correlated with a high richness and abundance of specific commensal Actinobacteria, with the genus Frondihabitans (Microbacteriaceae) effectively inhibiting attachment of Saprolegniato salmon eggs. These results highlight that fundamental insights into microbial landscapes of fish eggs may provide new sustainable means to mitigate emerging diseases.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 27 March 2014; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.44.
    The ISME Journal 03/2014; 8(10). DOI:10.1038/ismej.2014.44 · 9.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The antifungal activity of bacteria from the genus Collimonas has been well documented, but the chemistry and gene functions that underlie this phenotype are still poorly understood. Screening of a random plasposon insertion library of Collimonas fungivorans Ter331 for loss-of-function mutants revealed the importance of gene cluster K, which is annotated to code for the biosynthesis of a secondary metabolite and which features genes for fatty acid desaturases and polyketide synthases. Mutants in gene cluster K had lost the ability to inhibit hyphal growth of the fungus Aspergillus niger and were no longer able to produce and secrete several metabolites that after extraction and partial purification from wildtype strain Ter331 were shown to share a putative ene-triyne moiety. Some but not all of these metabolites were able to inhibit growth of A. niger, indicating functional variation within this group of Collimonas-produced polyyne-like 'collimomycins'. PCR analysis of isolates representing different Collimonas species indicated that the possession of cluster K genes correlated positively with antifungal ability, further strengthening the notion that this cluster is involved in collimomycin production. We discuss our findings in the context of other bacterially produced polyynes and the potential use of collimomycins for the control of harmful fungi.
    Environmental Microbiology 03/2014; 16(5). DOI:10.1111/1462-2920.12440 · 6.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The antimetabolite mangotoxin is a key factor in virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains which cause apical necrosis of mango trees. Previous studies showed that mangotoxin biosynthesis is governed by the mbo operon. Random mutagenesis led to the identification of two other gene clusters that affect mangotoxin biosynthesis. These are the gacS/gacA genes and mgo operon which harbors the four genes mgoBCAD. The current study shows that disruption of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene mgoA resulted in loss of mangotoxin production and reduced virulence on tomato leaves. Transcriptional analyses by qPCR and promoter reporter fusions revealed that mbo expression is regulated by both gacS/gacA and mgo genes. Also, expression of the mgo operon was shown to be regulated by gacS/gacA. Heterologous expression under the native promoter of the mbo operon resulted in mangotoxin production in non-producing P. syringae strains, but not in other Pseudomonas species. Also introduction of the mbo and mgo operons in nonproducing P. protegens Pf-5 did not confer mangotoxin production but did enhance transcription of the mbo promoter. From the data obtained in this study, we conclude that both mbo and mgo operons are under the control of the gacS/gacA two-component system and that the MgoA product acts as a positive regulator of mangotoxin biosynthesis.
    BMC Microbiology 02/2014; 14(1):46. DOI:10.1186/1471-2180-14-46 · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • Chunxu Song · Kumar Aundy · Judith van de Mortel · Jos M. Raaijmakers
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 produces the cyclic lipopeptide massetolide with diverse functions in antimicrobial activity, motility and biofilm formation. To understand how massetolide biosynthesis is genetically regulated in SS101, approximately 8,000 random plasposon mutants were screened for reduced or loss of massetolide production. Out of a total of 58 putative mutants, 45 had a mutation in one of the three massetolide biosynthesis genes massA, massB or massC. For 5 mutants, the insertions were located in the known regulatory genes gacS, gacA, and clpP. For the remaining 8 mutants, insertions were located in clpA, encoding the ClpP chaperone, in phgdh, encoding D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, in the heat shock protein encoding dnaK, or in the transmembrane regulatory gene prtR. Genetic, chemical and phenotypic analyses showed that phgdh, dnaK and prtR are indeed involved in the regulation of massetolide biosynthesis, most likely by transcriptional repression of the LuxR-type regulator genes massAR and massBCR. In addition to their role in massetolide biosynthesis, dnaK and prtR were found to affect siderophore and extracellular protease(s) production, respectively. The identification of new regulatory genes substantially extended insights into the signal transduction pathways of lipopeptide biosynthesis in P. fluorescens and into regulation of other traits that may contribute to its life-style in the rhizosphere. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 02/2014; 356(2). DOI:10.1111/1574-6968.12404 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Within the framework of our genome-based program to discover new antibiotic lipopeptides from Pseudomonads, brabantamides A-C were isolated from plant-associated Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52. Brabantamides A-C displayed moderate to high in vitro activities against Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Their shared structure is unique in that they contain a 5,5-bicyclic carbamate scaffold. Here, the biosynthesis of brabantamide A (SB-253514) was studied by a combination of bioinformatics, feeding experiments with isotopically labelled precursors and in vivo and in vitro functional analysis of enzymes encoded in the biosynthetic pathway. The studies resulted in the deduction of all biosynthetic building blocks of brabantamide A and revealed an unusual feature of this metabolite: its biosynthesis occurs via an initially formed linear di-lipopeptide that is subsequently rearranged by a novel FAD-dependent Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase.
    ChemBioChem 01/2014; 15(2). DOI:10.1002/cbic.201300527 · 3.06 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
451.16 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW)
      Wageningen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2002–2015
    • Wageningen University
      • Department of Phytopathology
      Wageningen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2009
    • Sonoma State University
      • Department of Biology
      Ронърт Парк, California, United States
  • 2007
    • University of São Paulo
      • Departamento de Genética (LGN) (ESALQ)
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2003
    • University of Burgundy
      Dijon, Bourgogne, France
  • 1997–2001
    • Washington State University
      • Department of Plant Pathology
      Pullman, WA, United States
  • 1994–1995
    • Utrecht University
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands