[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium parvum is a parasitic protozoa increasingly appreciated as a cause of intestinal malabsorptive syndrome leading to malnutrition and/or growth failure. Because a major mechanism for apical peptide absorption by small intestine is via the proton-coupled transporter PepT1, we investigated the expression and functionality of this transporter in our model of acute cryptosporidiosis. Four-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were inoculated by gavage with 5 x 10(5) oocysts of C. parvum and killed at Day 12 (peak of the infection) or Day 21 (spontaneous clearance of the parasite). PepT1 expression and functionality were quantified in the distal small intestine, preferential site of C. parvum implantation, and in the proximal small intestine, free of parasite, using Western blot and Ussing chambers, respectively. No difference in total PepT1 protein expression or in glycyl-sarcosine fluxes was observed in C. parvum-infected rats compared with controls either on Day 12 or on Day 21, both in the proximal and in the distal small intestine. However, a significant decrease of apical membrane protein expression of PepT1 was observed in C. parvum-infected enterocytes compared with controls. This maintained dipeptide transport observed despite villous atrophy and decreased expression of the protein at the brush-border membrane strongly suggest a transient upregulation of PepT1 activity, probably related to gamma-interferon regulation.
Experimental Biology and Medicine 04/2007; 232(3):454-60. · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fecal analysis includes qualitative and quantitative studies which allows quantification and labelling of numerous pathophysiologic phenomenona. Malabsorption and over-absorption of water and electrolytes give rise to six types of watery diarrheas, and two types of constipations; malabsorption of nutriments and maldigestion of food, give rise to two types of fatty and nitrogenous diarrheas with metabolic consequences. Fecal analysis often discriminates organic from non-organic diseases and brings informations on increase or decrease of caloric losses, to the nutritionist. Microscopic observations which requires a high degree of competence and experience, allows the recognition of malabsorption/maldigestion phenomenona, of fortuitous presence of parasites and a good interpretation of a fecal file.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fecal analysis includes qualitative and quantitative studies which allows quantification and labelling of numerous pathophysiologic phenomenona.
Malabsorption and over-absorption of water and electrolytes give rise to six types of watery diarrheas, and two types of constipations; malabsorption of nutriments and maldigestion of food, give rise to two types of fatty and nitrogenous diarrheas with metabolic consequences.
Fecal analysis often discriminates organic from non-organic diseases and brings informations on increase or decrease of caloric losses, to the nutritionist. Microscopic observations which requieres a high degree of competence and experience, allows the recognition of malabsorption/maldigestion phenomenona, of fortuitous presence of parasites and a good interpretation of a fecal file.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quality control in medical laboratories was defined in guidelines for good execution of laboratory analyses issued by the French health authorities in 1994. Application of these guidelines is difficult in coprology because the sample is a complex heterogeneous matrix which varies with disease, surgery, food intake, and treatment. In addition, commercial quality control kits are not available for stool biochemical analyses and a national quality control program has not been established. We thus developed our own fecal quality control technique using pooling lyophylized stool samples. Manual or partially automated methods are used in coprology, leading to a long pre-analysis phase which is not always taken into account in quality control. This implies the need for complementary tools to insure the quality of coprology analyses. For example, semi-quantitative microscopic lipid analysis can be used as an internal standard for a given specimen. Quality assurance also involves a post-analytical phase where results obtained for a given specimen are compared with other available data and interpreted in light of the patient‘s clinical and therapeutic status. This quality assurance strategy enables accurate reliable results useful for long-term patient management.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fecal occult blood testing is the most widely prescribed screening test for colorectal cancer. Recent development of immunological tests has increased specificity. Fecal DNA analysis opens up a new field for early detection of this widespread neoplasia. Inflammatory bowel disease is another important area where the development of fecal markers provides an interesting alternative to the gold standard but costly and invasive endoscopic investigations with histological analysis of biopsy specimens. Fecal TNFα and calprotectin can now be proposed to distinguish organic from non-organic intestinal disease, so select candidates for further investigations, and to assess disease activity. Measurement of fecal elastase provides real progress in screening for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in patients with malabsorption syndrome.
The development of non-invasive fecal markers is thus of increasing interest, providing data about the entire gastrointestinal tract useful for screening and individual patient management.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to assess the impact of Cryptosporidium parvum on host intestinal physiology, we investigated absorption of the two principal amino acids in dam's milk (leucine, glutamate), using Ussing chambers and RT-PCR analyses. Experiments were performed in both heavily (ileum) and mildly (duodenum) infected segments of the small intestine at the peak of infection [day 8 post-infection (PI)] and after spontaneous clearance of the parasite (day 17 PI). At day 8 PI, amino acid fluxes across the mucosa were decreased throughout the small intestine (P<0.01) and EAAT3 mRNA expression was reduced ( from -49% to -28%). At day 17 PI, leucine and glutamate fluxes were normalized but the decrease in EAAT3 mRNA levels persisted (from -31% to -46%). Our results demonstrate that cryptosporidiosis induces major amino acid malabsorption involving the entire small intestine which is not counterbalanced by any up-regulation, even after spontaneous clearance of the parasite.
Parasitology Research 10/2003; 91(3):197-203. DOI:10.1007/s00436-003-0956-9 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium parvuminfection induces amino acid malnutrition leading to growth retardation in children. Owing to the nutritional efficiency of peptides compared to free amino acids and the resistance of the di-tripeptide transporter PepT1 to mucosal injury, we analyzed the intestinal expression of PepT1 during experimental acute cryptosporidiosis in suckling rats from day 4 to day 50. PepT1 mRNA levels were increased at the peak of infection (day 10) all along the small intestine and normalized after spontaneous clearance of the parasite (day 21). Immunolocalization of PepT1 showed that its expression was maintained in the brush border membrane of enterocytes in infected rats from day 4 to day 50 all along the small intestine. Our results suggest a transcriptional up-regulation during acute cryptosporidiosis in response to both C. parvum-induced malnutrition and parasite implantation. As no treatment is available, a semi-elemental diet should be considered part of the treatment of cryptosporidiosis.
Parasitology Research 04/2003; 89(5):364-70. DOI:10.1007/s00436-002-0776-3 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The amount of faecal pancreatic enzyme elastase 1 was significantly lower in 42 preterm newborns than in 12 full term babies at day 2 (89 (3-539) v 354 (52-600) microg/g, p<0.0007) and day 5 (164 (3-600) v 600 (158-600) microg/g, p<0.05) and correlated positively with total nutrient intake during the first week of life in preterm infants. This should probably be taken into account during early feeding.
Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition 05/2002; 86(3):F198-9. DOI:10.1136/fn.86.3.F198 · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study. we explored the nutritional consequences of cryptosporidiosis. In order to ascertain the direct responsibility of C. parvum for impairment of staturoponderal development observed during the infection in neonatal animals, we investigated the absorption of two major components of the total amino acids in dam's milk (leucine and glutamate) across the ileal mucosa. The infection resulted in significant (47% and 34%, respectively) reductions in leucine and glutamate fluxes (P<0.01). Moreover, the leucine aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase activities were reduced in the infected ileal mucosa. Interestingly, the reduction in weight gain, which began at day 6 post-infection (PI), persisted until day 20 PI, although no cryptosporidia were detected in the ileal mucosa after day 12 PI. We thus provide evidence that the malabsorption of amino acids during cryptosporidiosis contributes to impairing the development of neonatal animals, with consequences that persist beyond eradication of the parasite.
Parasitology Research 11/2001; 87(11):891-6. DOI:10.1007/s004360100441 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidiosis is an important cause of diarrhea associated with growth retardation in children and severe malnutrition in immunocompromised patients. The pathophysiology is poorly understood. In the suckling rat model, we show that C. parvum infection impairs net electrogenic transport across the ileal mucosa without involvement of prostaglandins, as well as trans- and paracellular permeability and leucine and glutamate absorption. These results provide evidence for the development of an intestinal malabsorptive syndrome during cryptosporidiosis. Unspecific process such as villous atrophy and inflammatory cytokines secretion should be regarded as possible mediators of this syndrome. However, specific mechanisms have to be considered since C. parvum induces a rearrangement of the host enterocyte cytoskeleton which might impaired intracellular trafficking thus reducing the membrane expression of nutrient transporters. Infection and malnutrition are known to be tightly associated, making each other worse. As no specific efficient therapy exists, cryptosporidiosis-induced malnutrition must be taken into account when establishing therapeutic scheme.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biochemical and metabolic peculiarities of some parasites involved in their interactions with their hosts are reviewed according to (1) carbohydrate metabolism comprising glycolysis, Pasteur effect, CO2 fixation and electron transport system; (2) amino acid and protein metabolism ; (3) purine and pyrimidine nucleotides metabolism. These peculiarities are becoming targets for treatment without affecting the host.
Le Journal médical libanais. The Lebanese medical journal 01/2001; 49(4):210-27.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Na(+)-glucose transport and transepithelial permeability were investigated during symptomatic acute cryptosporidiosis in newborn rats. The infection resulted in a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the ileal short-circuit current and a nonsignificant fall in the transepithelial potential difference and conductance. In glucose-stimulated conditions, the rise in ileal short-circuit current and transepithelial permeability were significantly lower in Cryptosporidium parvum-infected rats than in controls (delta Isc = 3.24 +/- 1.21 microA.cm-2 vs delta Isc = 5.09 +/- 2.23 microA.cm-2 in infected and control animals, respectively; P < 0.001; delta PD = -0.35 +/- 0.13 mV vs delta PD = -0.44 +/- 0.14 mV for infected and control animals, respectively; P < 0.01). Electrical parameters were not affected by addition of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin in either Cryptosporidium-infected newborn rats or controls. Horseradish peroxidase and mannitol flux studies demonstrated a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in transepithelial molecular permeability in infected enterocyte rats, HRP flux = 380, range 68-5570 ng.cm-2, and mannitol flux = 1.06, range, 0.34-1.44%.cm-2.min-1, compared with controls rats, HRP flux = 4446 range, 1121-124,363 ng.cm-2, and mannitol flux = 1.99, range, 0.57-5.09%.cm-2.min-1; P < 0.05. These effects could originate from C. parvum-induced alteration of intracellular trafficking of pinocytosis vesicles and therefore account for the decrease in permeability to solute and macromolecules, together with impaired transcellular nutrient transport, in suckling rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infants with atopic eczema exhibit a specific fecal protein pattern after oral challenge with cow's milk, characterized by an increase in both eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha. The aim of our study was to determine the pattern of these proteins in allergic infants with intestinal manifestations. TNFalpha, ECP and immunoglobulin E (IgE) were measured in stools from 13 infants with intestinal symptoms and 10 healthy infants. The allergic infants underwent two stool collections, one before a cow's milk challenge and the other after the challenge, either at the onset of clinical manifestations (n=6) or 15 days after the challenge if no clinical manifestations occurred (n=7). Baseline TNFalpha, ECP and IgE levels were low in all infants. The concentration of TNFalpha increased after the challenge in infants positive to challenge (p<0.05) but not in those negative to challenge. ECP and IgE levels remained low after the challenge in all the allergic infants. These data confirm that fecal TNFalpha and ECP levels indicate various reaction types of food allergy and that different immunologic disturbances lead to atopic eczema or intestinal symptoms during food allergy. Fecal protein pattern can thus be a useful tool in diagnosing food allergy in infants with intestinal manifestations.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 02/1999; 37(1):29-32. DOI:10.1515/CCLM.1999.004 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the effect of the protease inhibitor indinavir on body weight and body composition of subjects with HIV-related wasting.
Prospective measurement of body weight in patients who had wasting and were treated with indinavir. A subgroup of 16 representative patients also underwent a metabolic study that included measurements of body composition (skinfolds and bioelectrical impedance) and food intake. Seven from this subgroup who did not have chronic diarrhoea also underwent indirect calorimetry for measurement of resting energy expenditure; the nine patients with wasting and chronic diarrhoea had measurements of faecal losses and intestinal permeability using the lactulose-mannitol test.
A tertiary care university hospital.
Two hundred and fourteen HIV-infected patients with wasting (less than 95% of usual body weight) had their body weight measured at day 0; 186 patients had a second body weight measurement within the first 100 days of treatment, and 160 patients were weighed a third time, at a median of 176 days.
Body weight increased significantly (P < 0.0001) during treatment, whatever the degree of weight loss at baseline. After a median of 176 days on treatment, body weight had increased in 119 out of the 160 patients followed (74.4%; mean weight gain, 6.3+/-SD 3.8 kg; range, 1-18 kg), had not changed in 13 (8.1%) and had fallen in 28 (17.5%; mean weight loss, 4.2+/-3.0 kg; range, 1-12 kg), relative to baseline. Overall, 119 out of the 214 patients (55.6%) from the initial population gained weight. Fat mass, fat-free mass and body cell mass increased significantly in the 16 patients who underwent metabolic studies, together with energy, protein and lipid intake. In the patients with chronic diarrhoea, intestinal permeability improved but there was no change in intestinal losses. In patients who had wasting but not chronic diarrhoea, resting energy expenditure did not change significantly. Body weight changes correlated with changes in the CD4+ cell count (r = 0.882; P = 0.00001) and, to a lesser extent, with changes in the viral load (r = -0.466; P = 0.047).
Indinavir significantly improved the nutritional status of these patients with HIV-related wasting.
AIDS 11/1998; 12(14):1777-84. DOI:10.1097/00002030-199814000-00009 · 5.55 Impact Factor