Elena Matos

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (79)359.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region, and calendar time, and to explain the association in terms of behavioural risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2·50; 95%CI 2·02- 3·09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviours; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and non-drinkers (OR = 1·61; 95%CI 1·13 - 2·31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviours: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America, and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low vs high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioural risk factors for these cancers, and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries, and country income inequality levels. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus 45 (HPV45) is a member of the HPV18-related alpha-7 species and accounts for approximately 5% of all cervical cancer cases worldwide. This study evaluated the genetic diversity of HPV45 and the association of HPV45 variants with the risk of cervical cancer by sequencing the entire E6 and E7 open reading frames of 300 HPV45-positive cervical samples from 36 countries. A total of 43 HPV45 sequence variants were identified that formed 5 phylogenetic sublineages, A1, A2, A3, B1, and B2, the distribution of which varied by geographical region. Among 192 cases of cervical cancer and 101 controls, the B2 sublineage was significantly overrepresented in cervical cancer, both overall and in Africa and Europe separately. We show that the sequence analysis of E6 and E7 allows the classification of HPV45 variants and that the risk of cervical cancer may differ by HPV45 variant sublineage. IMPORTANCE: This work describes the largest study to date of human papillomavirus 45 (HPV45)-positive cervical samples and provides a comprehensive reference for phylogenetic classification for use in epidemiological studies of the carcinogenicity of HPV45 genetic variants, particularly as our findings suggest that the B2 sublineage of HPV45 is associated with a higher risk of cervical cancer.
    Journal of Virology 04/2014; 88(8):4514-4521. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancers has increased over the last 20 years which parallels increased use of marijuana among individuals born after 1950. A pooled analysis was conducted comprising individual-level data from nine case-control studies from the United States and Latin America in the INHANCE consortium. Self-reported information on marijuana smoking, demographic, and behavioral factors was obtained from 1,921 oropharyngeal cases, 356 oral tongue cases, and 7,639 controls. Compared with never marijuana smokers, ever marijuana smokers had an elevated risk of oropharyngeal [adjusted OR (aOR), 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.47] and a reduced risk of oral tongue cancer (aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29, 0.75). The risk of oropharyngeal cancer remained elevated among never tobacco and alcohol users. The risk of oral tongue cancer was reduced among never users of tobacco and alcohol. Sensitivity analysis adjusting for potential confounding by HPV exposure attenuated the association of marijuana use with oropharyngeal cancer (aOR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.71-1.25), but had no effect on the oral tongue cancer association. These results suggest that the association of marijuana use with head and neck carcinoma may differ by tumor site. The associations of marijuana use with oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancer are consistent with both possible pro- and anticarcinogenic effects of cannabinoids. Additional work is needed to rule out various sources of bias, including residual confounding by HPV infection and misclassification of marijuana exposure. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 1-12. ©2013 AACR.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 12/2013; · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between adult height and cancer incidence. The only study conducted among women on mouth and pharynx cancer risk, however, reported an inverse association. This study aims to investigate the association between height and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) within a large international consortium of HNC. We analyzed pooled individual-level data from 24 case-control studies participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated separately for men and women for associations between height and HNC risk. Educational level, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption were included in all regression models. Stratified analyses by HNC subsites were performed. This project included 17,666 cases and 28,198 controls. We found an inverse association between height and HNC (adjusted OR per 10 cm height = 0.91, 95 % CI 0.86-0.95 for men; adjusted OR = 0.86, 95 % CI 0.79-0.93 for women). In men, the estimated OR did vary by educational level, smoking status, geographic area, and control source. No differences by subsites were detected. Adult height is inversely associated with HNC risk. As height can be considered a marker of childhood illness and low energy intake, the inverse association is consistent with prior studies showing that HNC occur more frequently among deprived individuals. Further studies designed to elucidate the mechanism of such association would be warranted.
    European Journal of Epidemiology 11/2013; · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cigar and pipe smoking are considered risk factors for head and neck cancers, but the magnitude of effect estimates for these products has been imprecisely estimated. By using pooled data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium (comprising 13,935 cases and 18,691 controls in 19 studies from 1981 to 2007), we applied hierarchical logistic regression to more precisely estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking separately, compared with reference groups of those who had never smoked each single product. Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were stratified by ever cigarette smoking. We also considered effect estimates of smoking a single product exclusively versus never having smoked any product (reference group). Among never cigarette smokers, the odds ratio for ever cigar smoking was 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93, 3.34), and the odds ratio for ever pipe smoking was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.81). These odds ratios increased with increasing frequency and duration of smoking (Ptrend ≤ 0.0001). Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were not elevated among ever cigarette smokers. Head and neck cancer risk was elevated for those who reported exclusive cigar smoking (odds ratio = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.58, 4.73) or exclusive pipe smoking (odds ratio = 3.71, 95% CI: 2.59, 5.33). These results suggest that cigar and pipe smoking are independently associated with increased risk of head and neck cancers.
    American journal of epidemiology 06/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) are common forms of malignancy associated with tobacco and alcohol exposures, although human papillomavirus and nutritional deficiency are also important risk factors. While somatically acquired DNA methylation changes have been associated with UADT cancers, what triggers these events and precise epigenetic targets are poorly understood. In this study, we applied quantitative profiling of DNA methylation states in a panel of cancer-associated genes to a case-control study of UADT cancers. Our analyses revealed a high frequency of aberrant hypermethylation of several genes, including MYOD1, CHRNA3 and MTHFR in UADT tumors, whereas CDKN2A was moderately hypermethylated. Among differentially methylated genes, we identified a new gene (the nicotinic acetycholine receptor gene) as target of aberrant hypermethylation in UADT cancers, suggesting that epigenetic deregulation of nicotinic acetycholine receptors in non-neuronal tissues may promote the development of UADT cancers. Importantly, we found that sex and age is strongly associated with the methylation states, whereas tobacco smoking and alcohol intake may also influence the methylation levels in specific genes. This study identifies aberrant DNA methylation patterns in UADT cancers and suggests a potential mechanism by which environmental factors may deregulate key cellular genes involved in tumor suppression and contribute to UADT cancers.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 03/2012; 7(3):270-7. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the potential role of vitamin or mineral supplementation on the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), we analyzed individual-level pooled data from 12 case–control studies (7,002 HNC cases and 8,383 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. There were a total of 2,028 oral cavity cancer, 2,465 pharyngeal cancer, 874 unspecified oral/pharynx cancer, 1,329 laryngeal cancer and 306 overlapping HNC cases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self reported ever use of any vitamins, multivitamins, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and calcium, beta-carotene, iron, selenium and zinc supplements were assessed. We further examined frequency, duration and cumulative exposure of each vitamin or mineral when possible and stratified by smoking and drinking status. All ORs were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, study center, education level, pack-years of smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking and fruit/vegetable intake. A decreased risk of HNC was observed with ever use of vitamin C (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59–0.96) and with ever use of calcium supplement (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.42–0.97). The inverse association with HNC risk was also observed for 10 or more years of vitamin C use (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.54–0.97) and more than 365 tablets of cumulative calcium intake (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.16–0.83), but linear trends were not observed for the frequency or duration of any supplement intake. We did not observe any strong associations between vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of HNC.
    International Journal of Cancer 01/2012; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the association between diet and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk using data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. The INHANCE pooled data included 22 case-control studies with 14,520 cases and 22,737 controls. Center-specific quartiles among the controls were used for food groups, and frequencies per week were used for single food items. A dietary pattern score combining high fruit and vegetable intake and low red meat intake was created. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the dietary items on the risk of HNC were estimated with a two-stage random-effects logistic regression model. An inverse association was observed for higher-frequency intake of fruit (4th vs. 1st quartile OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.43-0.62, p (trend) < 0.01) and vegetables (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.90, p (trend) = 0.01). Intake of red meat (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.13-1.74, p (trend) = 0.13) and processed meat (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.14-1.65, p (trend) < 0.01) was positively associated with HNC risk. Higher dietary pattern scores, reflecting high fruit/vegetable and low red meat intake, were associated with reduced HNC risk (per score increment OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.84-0.97).
    Cancer Causes and Control 01/2012; 23(1):69-88. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-risk α mucosal types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers, whereas β cutaneous HPV types (e.g. HPV8) have been implicated in non-melanoma skin cancer. Although antibodies against the capsid protein L1 of HPV are considered as markers of cumulative exposure, not all infected persons seroconvert. To identify common genetic variants that influence HPV seroconversion, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study. Genome-wide genotyping of 316 015 single nucleotide polymorphisms was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 BeadChip in 4811 subjects from a central European case-control study of lung, head and neck and kidney cancer that had serology data available on 13 HPV types. Only one association met genome-wide significance criteria, namely that between HPV8 seropositivity and rs9357152 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-1.50 for the minor allele G; P=1.2 × 10(-10)], a common genetic variant (minor allele frequency=0.33) located within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II region at 6p21.32. This association was subsequently replicated in an independent set of 2344 subjects from a Latin American case-control study of head and neck cancer (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.18-1.56, P=2.2 × 10(-5)), yielding P=1.3 × 10(-14) in the combined analysis (P-heterogeneity=0.87). No heterogeneity was noted by cancer status (controls/lung cancer cases/head and neck cancer cases/kidney cancer cases). This study provides a proof of principle that genetic variation plays a role in antibody reactivity to HPV infection.
    Human Molecular Genetics 09/2011; 20(23):4714-23. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Greater tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption and lower body mass index (BMI) increase odds ratios (OR) for oral cavity, oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers; however, there are no comprehensive sex-specific comparisons of ORs for these factors. We analyzed 2,441 oral cavity (925 women and 1,516 men), 2,297 oropharynx (564 women and 1,733 men), 508 hypopharynx (96 women and 412 men), and 1,740 larynx (237 women and 1,503 men) cases from the INHANCE consortium of 15 head and neck cancer case-control studies. Controls numbered from 7,604 to 13,829 subjects, depending on analysis. Analyses fitted linear-exponential excess ORs models. ORs were increased in underweight (< 18.5 BMI) relative to normal weight (18.5-24.9) and reduced in overweight and obese categories (≥ 25 BMI) for all sites and were homogeneous by sex. ORs by smoking and drinking in women compared with men were significantly greater for oropharyngeal cancer (p < 0.01 for both factors), suggestive for hypopharyngeal cancer (p = 0.05 and p = 0.06, respectively), but homogeneous for oral cavity (p = 0.56 and p = 0.64) and laryngeal (p = 0.18 and p = 0.72) cancers. The extent that OR modifications of smoking and drinking by sex for oropharyngeal and, possibly, hypopharyngeal cancers represent true associations, or derive from unmeasured confounders or unobserved sex-related disease subtypes (e.g., human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal cancer) remains to be clarified.
    Cancer Causes and Control 09/2011; 22(9):1217-31. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The DOK1 gene is a putative tumour suppressor gene located on the human chromosome 2p13 which is frequently rearranged in leukaemia and other human tumours. We previously reported that the DOK1 gene can be mutated and its expression down-regulated in human malignancies. However, the mechanism underlying DOK1 silencing remains largely unknown. We show here that unscheduled silencing of DOK1 expression through aberrant hypermethylation is a frequent event in a variety of human malignancies. DOK1 was found to be silenced in nine head and neck cancer (HNC) cell lines studied and DOK1 CpG hypermethylation correlated with loss of gene expression in these cells. DOK1 expression could be restored via demethylating treatment using 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine. In addition, transduction of cancer cell lines with DOK1 impaired their proliferation, consistent with the critical role of epigenetic silencing of DOK1 in the development and maintenance of malignant cells. We further observed that DOK1 hypermethylation occurs frequently in a variety of primary human neoplasm including solid tumours (93% in HNC, 81% in lung cancer) and haematopoietic malignancy (64% in Burkitt's lymphoma). Control blood samples and exfoliated mouth epithelial cells from healthy individuals showed a low level of DOK1 methylation, suggesting that DOK1 hypermethylation is a tumour specific event. Finally, an inverse correlation was observed between the level of DOK1 gene methylation and its expression in tumour and adjacent non tumour tissues. Thus, hypermethylation of DOK1 is a potentially critical event in human carcinogenesis, and may be a potential cancer biomarker and an attractive target for epigenetic-based therapy.
    International Journal of Cancer 07/2011; 130(11):2484-94. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT; including oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and oesophagus) have high incidence rates all over the world, and they are especially frequent in some parts of Latin America. However, the data on the role of the major risk factors in these areas are still limited. We have evaluated the role of alcohol and tobacco consumption, based on 2,252 upper aerodigestive squamous-cell carcinoma cases and 1,707 controls from seven centres in Brazil, Argentina, and Cuba. We show that alcohol drinkers have a risk of UADT cancers that is up to five times higher than that of never-drinkers. A very strong effect of aperitifs and spirits as compared to other alcohol types was observed, with the ORs reaching 12.76 (CI 5.37-30.32) for oesophagus. Tobacco smokers were up to six times more likely to develop aerodigestive cancers than never-smokers, with the ORs reaching 11.14 (7.72-16.08) among current smokers for hypopharynx and larynx cancer. There was a trend for a decrease in risk after quitting alcohol drinking or tobacco smoking for all sites. The interactive effect of alcohol and tobacco was more than multiplicative. In this study, 65% of all UADT cases were attributable to a combined effect of alcohol and tobacco use. In this largest study on UADT cancer in Latin America, we have shown for the first time that a prevailing majority of UADT cancer cases is due to a combined effect of alcohol and tobacco use and could be prevented by quitting the use of either of these two agents.
    Cancer Causes and Control 07/2011; 22(7):1037-46. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies support an important role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in a subgroup of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). We have evaluated the HPV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) prevalence as well as the association between serological response to HPV infection and HNSCC in two distinct populations from Central Europe (CE) and Latin America (LA). Cases (n = 2214) and controls (n = 3319) were recruited from 1998 to 2003, using a similar protocol including questionnaire and blood sample collection. Tumour DNA from 196 fresh tissue biopsies was analysed for multiple HPV types followed by an HPV type-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol towards the E7 gene from HPV 16. Using multiplex serology, serum samples were analysed for antibodies to 17 HPV types. Statistical analysis included the estimation of adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). HPV16 E7 DNA prevalence among cases was 3.1% (6/196), including 4.4% in the oropharynx (3/68), 3.8% in the hypopharynx/larynx (3/78) and 0% among 50 cases of oral cavity carcinomas. Positivity for both HPV16 E6 and E7 antibodies was associated with a very high risk of oropharyngeal cancer (OR = 179, 95% CI 35.8-899) and hypopharyngeal/laryngeal cancer (OR = 14.9, 95% CI 2.92-76.1). A very low prevalence of HPV DNA and serum antibodies was observed among cases in both CE and LA. The proportion of head and neck cancer caused by HPV may vary substantially between different geographical regions and studies that are designed to evaluate the impact of HPV vaccination on HNSCC need to consider this heterogeneity.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 03/2011; 40(2):489-502. · 6.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT: oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, esophagus) have high incidence rates all over the world and they are especially frequent in some parts of Latin America. In this study, we have evaluated the role of the consumption of maté, a hot herb-based beverage, based on 1168 UADT squamous-cell carcinoma cases and 1,026 frequency-matched controls enrolled from four centers in Brazil and Argentina. The effect of maté drinking on the risk of head-and-neck cancers was borderline significant. A significant effect was observed only for cancer of the esophagus (OR 3.81 (95% CI 1.75-8.30)). While duration of maté drinking was associated with the risk of all UADT cancers, the association with cumulative maté consumption was restricted to esophageal cancer (p-value of linear trend 0.006). The analyses of temperature at which maté was drunk were not conclusive. The increased risk associated with maté drinking was more evident in never-smokers and never-alcohol drinkers than in other individuals. Our study strengthens the evidence of an association between maté drinking and esophageal cancer; the hypothesis of an association with other UADT cancers remains to be clarified.
    Cancer Causes and Control 11/2010; 21(11):1799-806. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few human papillomavirus (HPV) seroprevalence studies have been carried out in women from low-resource countries. Seroprevalence of antibodies against HPV16 and HPV18 was assessed in 7,074 women ≥15 years of age (median 44 years) from eight world areas. Serum antibodies against HPV16 and HPV18 were tested for using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HPV DNA was assessed using a general primer GP5+/6+-mediated PCR. HPV16 and HPV18 seroprevalence both ranged from <1% (Hanoi, Vietnam) to >or=25% (Nigeria). Of women who were HPV16 or HPV18 DNA-positive, seropositivity for the same type was 39.8% and 23.2%, respectively. Seropositivity for either type was directly associated with markers of sexual behavior. HPV16 and/or 18 (HPV16/18)-seropositive women had an increased risk of having cytologic abnormalities only if they were also HPV DNA-positive. A high international correlation was found between HPV16/18 seroprevalence and overall HPV DNA prevalence (r = 0.81; P = 0.022). However, HPV16/18 seroprevalence was substantially higher than the corresponding DNA prevalence in all study areas (although to different extents) and, contrary to DNA, tended to increase from young to middle age, and then decline or remain fairly constant. In all study areas, the vast majority of the information on the burden of exposure to HPV16/18 derived from serology. The correlation between HPV DNA and HPV serology was not very good at an individual woman level, but high at a population level. HPV serology is a poor marker of current infection or related lesions, but it can contribute, together with DNA, in evaluating the variations in the burden of HPV infection worldwide.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 09/2010; 19(9):2379-88. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Head and neck cancer (HNC) risk is elevated among lean people and reduced among overweight or obese people in some studies; however, it is unknown whether these associations differ for certain subgroups or are influenced by residual confounding from the effects of alcohol and tobacco use or by other sources of biases. We pooled data from 17 case-control studies including 12 716 cases and the 17 438 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between body mass index (BMI) at different ages and HNC risk, adjusted for age, sex, centre, race, education, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Adjusted ORs (95% CIs) were elevated for people with BMI at reference (date of diagnosis for cases and date of selection for controls) < or =18.5 kg/m(2) (2.13, 1.75-2.58) and reduced for BMI >25.0-30.0 kg/m(2) (0.52, 0.44-0.60) and BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) (0.43, 0.33-0.57), compared with BMI >18.5-25.0 kg/m(2). These associations did not differ by age, sex, tumour site or control source. Although the increased risk among people with BMI < or =18.5 kg/m(2) was not modified by tobacco smoking or alcohol drinking, the inverse association for people with BMI > 25 kg/m(2) was present only in smokers and drinkers. In our large pooled analysis, leanness was associated with increased HNC risk regardless of smoking and drinking status, although reverse causality cannot be excluded. The reduced risk among overweight or obese people may indicate body size is a modifier of the risk associated with smoking and drinking. Further clarification may be provided by analyses of prospective cohort and mechanistic studies.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 08/2010; 39(4):1091-102. · 6.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Odds ratios for head and neck cancer increase with greater cigarette and alcohol use and lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height(2) (m(2))). Using data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium, the authors conducted a formal analysis of BMI as a modifier of smoking- and alcohol-related effects. Analysis of never and current smokers included 6,333 cases, while analysis of never drinkers and consumers of < or =10 drinks/day included 8,452 cases. There were 8,000 or more controls, depending on the analysis. Odds ratios for all sites increased with lower BMI, greater smoking, and greater drinking. In polytomous regression, odds ratios for BMI (P = 0.65), smoking (P = 0.52), and drinking (P = 0.73) were homogeneous for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers. Odds ratios for BMI and drinking were greater for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (P < 0.01), while smoking odds ratios were greater for laryngeal cancer (P < 0.01). Lower BMI enhanced smoking- and drinking-related odds ratios for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (P < 0.01), while BMI did not modify smoking and drinking odds ratios for laryngeal cancer. The increased odds ratios for all sites with low BMI may suggest related carcinogenic mechanisms; however, BMI modification of smoking and drinking odds ratios for cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx but not larynx cancer suggests additional factors specific to oral cavity/pharynx cancer.
    American journal of epidemiology 06/2010; 171(12):1250-61. · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sexual contact may be the means by which head and neck cancer patients are exposed to human papillomavirus (HPV). We undertook a pooled analysis of four population-based and four hospital-based case-control studies from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, with participants from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, India, Italy, Spain, Poland, Puerto Rico, Russia and the USA. The study included 5642 head and neck cancer cases and 6069 controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) of associations between cancer and specific sexual behaviours, including practice of oral sex, number of lifetime sexual partners and oral sex partners, age at sexual debut, a history of same-sex contact and a history of oral-anal contact. Findings were stratified by sex and disease subsite. Cancer of the oropharynx was associated with having a history of six or more lifetime sexual partners [OR = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01, 1.54] and four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.42, 3.58). Cancer of the tonsil was associated with four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32, 8.53), and, among men, with ever having oral sex (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.09, 2.33) and with an earlier age at sexual debut (OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.37, 5.05). Cancer of the base of the tongue was associated with ever having oral sex among women (OR = 4.32, 95% CI 1.06, 17.6), having two sexual partners in comparison with only one (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.19, 3.46) and, among men, with a history of same-sex sexual contact (OR = 8.89, 95% CI 2.14, 36.8). Sexual behaviours are associated with cancer risk at the head and neck cancer subsites that have previously been associated with HPV infection.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 12/2009; 39(1):166-81. · 6.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract [(UADT): oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and oesophagus] have high incidence rates in some parts of South America. Alterations in the TP53 gene are common in these cancers. In our study, we have estimated the prevalence and patterns of TP53 mutations (exons 4-10) in 236 UADT tumours from South America in relation to lifestyle risk factors, such as tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Moreover, we have conducted a pilot study of EGFR mutations (exons 18-21) in 45 tumours from the same population. TP53 mutation prevalence was high: 59% of tumours were found to carry mutant TP53. We found an association between TP53 mutations and tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. The mutation rate increased from 38% in never-smokers to 66% in current smokers (P-value for trend = 0.09). G:C>T:A transversions were found only in smokers (15%). Alcohol drinkers carried more G:C>A:T transitions (P = 0.08). Non-exposed individuals were more probable to carry G:C>A:T transitions at CpG sites (P = 0.01 for never-smokers and P < 0.001 for never-drinkers). EGFR mutations were found in 4% of cases. Inactivation of TP53 by mutations is a crucial molecular event in the UADT carcinogenesis and it is closely related to exposure to lifestyle risk factors. EGFR mutations do not appear to be a common event in UADT carcinogenesis in this population.
    Carcinogenesis 12/2009; 31(6):1054-9. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quitting tobacco or alcohol use has been reported to reduce the head and neck cancer risk in previous studies. However, it is unclear how many years must pass following cessation of these habits before the risk is reduced, and whether the risk ultimately declines to the level of never smokers or never drinkers. We pooled individual-level data from case-control studies in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Data were available from 13 studies on drinking cessation (9167 cases and 12 593 controls), and from 17 studies on smoking cessation (12 040 cases and 16 884 controls). We estimated the effect of quitting smoking and drinking on the risk of head and neck cancer and its subsites, by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using logistic regression models. Quitting tobacco smoking for 1-4 years resulted in a head and neck cancer risk reduction [OR 0.70, confidence interval (CI) 0.61-0.81 compared with current smoking], with the risk reduction due to smoking cessation after > or =20 years (OR 0.23, CI 0.18-0.31), reaching the level of never smokers. For alcohol use, a beneficial effect on the risk of head and neck cancer was only observed after > or =20 years of quitting (OR 0.60, CI 0.40-0.89 compared with current drinking), reaching the level of never drinkers. Our results support that cessation of tobacco smoking and cessation of alcohol drinking protect against the development of head and neck cancer.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 10/2009; 39(1):182-96. · 6.98 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
359.57 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2012
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998–2012
    • University of Buenos Aires
      • • Institute of Oncology Ángel H. Roffo
      • • Institute of Ecology, Genetics and Evolution of Buenos Aires
      • • Research Methodology Section
      Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina
  • 2009–2011
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
      Bethesda, MD, United States
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2010
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2008
    • Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1994–2008
    • International Agency for Research on Cancer
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 1995
    • University of Southern California
      Los Angeles, California, United States