[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fission and fusion of mitochondrial tubules are the major processes regulating mitochondrial morphology. However, the physiological significance of mitochondrial shape change is poorly understood. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cells requires mitochondrial ATP production which evokes Ca(2+) influx through plasma membrane depolarization, triggering insulin vesicle exocytosis. Therefore, GSIS reflects mitochondrial function and can be used for evaluating functional changes associated with morphological alterations of mitochondria. Using the insulin-secreting cell line INS-1E, we found that glucose stimulation induced rapid mitochondrial shortening and recovery. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission through expression of the dominant-negative mutant DLP1-K38A eliminated this dynamic mitochondrial shape change and, importantly, blocked GSIS. We found that abolishing mitochondrial morphology change in glucose stimulation increased the mitochondrial inner membrane proton leak, and thus significantly diminished the mitochondrial ATP producing capacity in response to glucose stimulation. These results demonstrate that dynamic change of mitochondrial morphology is a previously unrecognized component for metabolism-secretion coupling of pancreatic β-cells by participating in efficient ATP production in response to elevated glucose levels.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e60810. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle responds to exercise by activation of signalling pathways that co-ordinate gene expression to sustain muscle performance. MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2)-dependent transcriptional activation of MHC (myosin heavy chain) genes promotes the transformation from fast-twitch into slow-twitch fibres, with MEF2 activity being tightly regulated by interaction with class IIa HDACs (histone deacetylases). PKD (protein kinase D) is known to directly phosphorylate skeletal muscle class IIa HDACs, mediating their nuclear export and thus derepression of MEF2. In the present study, we report the generation of transgenic mice with inducible conditional expression of a dominant-negative PKD1kd (kinase-dead PKD1) protein in skeletal muscle to assess the role of PKD in muscle function. In control mice, long-term voluntary running experiments resulted in a switch from type IIb+IId/x to type IIa plantaris muscle fibres as measured by indirect immunofluorescence of MHCs isoforms. In mice expressing PKD1kd, this fibre type switch was significantly impaired. These mice exhibited altered muscle fibre composition and decreased running performance compared with control mice. Our findings thus indicate that PKD activity is essential for exercise-induced MEF2-dependent skeletal muscle remodelling in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vascular endothelium plays a fundamental role in the health and disease of the cardiovascular system. The molecular mechanisms regulating endothelial homeostasis, however, remain incompletely understood. CCN3, a member of the CCN (Cyr61, Ctgf, Nov) family of cell growth and differentiation regulators, has been shown to play an important role in numerous cell types. The function of CCN3 in endothelial cells has yet to be elucidated. Immunohistochemical analysis of CCN3 expression in mouse tissues revealed robust immunoreactivity in the endothelium of large arteries, small resistance vessels, and veins. We found that CCN3 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) is transcriptionally induced by laminar shear stress (LSS) and HMG CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins). Promoter analyses identified the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) as a direct regulator of CCN3 expression. In contrast to LSS, proinflammatory cytokines reduced CCN3 expression. Adenoviral overexpression of CCN3 in HUVEC markedly inhibited the cytokine-mediated induction of vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Consistent with this observation, CCN3 significantly reduced monocyte adhesion. Conversely, CCN3 knockdown in HUVECs resulted in enhancement of cytokine-induced VCAM-1 expression. Concordant effects were observed on monocyte adhesion. Gain and loss-of-function mechanistic studies demonstrated that CCN3 negatively regulates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) activity by reducing its translocation into the nucleus and subsequent binding to the VCAM-1 promoter, suggesting that CCN3's anti-inflammatory effects occur secondary to inhibition of NF-κB nuclear accumulation. This study identifies CCN3 as a novel regulator of endothelial proinflammatory activation.
Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling 10/2010; 4(3):141-53.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluid shear stress generated by steady laminar blood flow protects vessels from atherosclerosis. Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are fluid shear stress-responsive genes and key mediators in flow anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic actions. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying flow induction of KLF2 and eNOS remain largely unknown. Here, we show a novel role of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in flow-mediated KLF2 and eNOS expression. We found for the first time that fluid shear stress stimulated HDAC5 phosphorylation and nuclear export in endothelial cells through a calcium/calmodulin-dependent pathway. Consequently, flow induced the dissociation of HDAC5 and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) and enhanced MEF2 transcriptional activity, which leads to expression of KLF2 and eNOS. Adenoviral overexpression of a HDAC5 phosphorylation-defective mutant (Ser259/Ser498 were replaced by Ala259/Ala498, HDAC5-S/A), which shows resistance to flow-induced nuclear export, suppressed flow-mediated MEF2 transcriptional activity and expression of KLF2 and eNOS. Importantly, HDAC5-S/A attenuated the flow-inhibitory effect on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Taken together, our results reveal that phosphorylation-dependent derepression of HDAC5 mediates flow-induced KLF2 and eNOS expression as well as flow anti-inflammation, and suggest that HDAC5 could be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), a tyrosine kinase receptor, is activated by VEGF and fluid shear stress (FSS), and its downstream signaling is important in the regulation of endothelial functions, such as cell migration, endothelium-dependent relaxation, and angiogenesis. Cigarette smoke (CS) is known to cause oxidative/nitrosative stress, leading to modifications of tyrosine kinase receptors and impaired downstream signaling. We hypothesized that CS-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress impairs VEGF- and FSS-mediated VEGFR2 activation, leading to endothelial dysfunction. Human lung microvascular endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with different concentrations of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to investigate the VEGF- or FSS-mediated VEGFR2 phosphorylation and its downstream signaling involved in endothelial function. CSE treatment impaired both VEGF- and FSS-mediated VEGFR2 phosphorylation, resulting in impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation by Akt. CS-derived reactive oxygen/nitrogen species react with VEGFR2, rendering VEGFR2 inactive for its downstream signaling. Pretreatment with nitric oxide scavenger (PTIO), reactive oxygen species scavengers (combination of SOD with catalase), and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, significantly attenuated the CSE-induced impairment of VEGF-mediated Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. These findings suggest that CSE-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress impairs VEGF- and FSS-mediated endothelial cell function and has important implications in the pathogenesis of CS-induced pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone acetylation/deacetylation plays an important role in the control of gene expression, tissue growth, and development. In particular, histone deacetylases 7 (HDAC7), a member of class IIa HDACs, is crucial in maintaining vascular integrity. However, whether HDAC7 is involved in the processes of vascular endothelial signaling and angiogenesis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of HDAC7 in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and angiogenesis.
We show for the first time that VEGF stimulated phosphorylation of HDAC7 at the sites of Ser178, Ser344, and Ser479 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which leads to the cytoplasmic accumulation of HDAC7. Using pharmacological inhibitors, siRNA, and adenoviruses carrying dominant-negative mutants, we found that phospholipase Cgamma/protein kinase C/protein kinase D1 (PKD1)-dependent signal pathway mediated HDAC7 phosphorylation and cytoplasmic accumulation by VEGF. Infection of ECs with adenoviruses encoding a mutant of HDAC7 specifically deficient in PKD1-dependent phosphorylation inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenic gene expression, including matrix metalloproteinases MT1-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and MMP10. Moreover, HDAC7 and its targeting genes were involved in VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration, tube formation, and microvessel sprouting.
Our results demonstrate that VEGF stimulates PKD1-dependent HDAC7 phosphorylation and cytoplasmic accumulation in endothelial cells modulating gene expression and angiogenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and activates the downstream signaling pathway resulting in endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and survival. Cigarette smoking is associated with abnormal vascular and endothelial function, leading to airspace enlargement. Herein, we investigated the mechanism of cigarette smoke (CS) -induced endothelial dysfunction by studying the VEGF-VEGFR-2 signaling in mouse lung and human endothelial cells. CS exposure caused oxidative stress, as shown by increased levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-adducts in mouse lung and reactive oxygen species generation in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-Ls). Inhibition of VEGFR-2 by a specific kinase inhibitor (NVP-AAD777) enhanced the CS-induced oxidative stress, causing augmented inflammatory cell influx and proinflammatory mediators release in mouse lung. The levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylated (p) -eNOS in the lungs of mice exposed to CS and/or treated with VEGFR-2 inhibitor were decreased. CS down-regulated VEGFR-2 expression, eNOS levels, and VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 phosphorylation in HMVEC-Ls, resulting in impaired VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Overall, these data show that inhibition of VEGFR-2 augmented CS-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses leading to endothelial dysfunction. This explains the mechanism of endothelial dysfunction in smokers and has implications in understanding the pathogenesis of pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases.
The FASEB Journal 08/2008; 22(7):2297-310. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress, generated by excessive reactive oxygen species, promotes cardiovascular disease. Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is a 20-kDa chaperone protein secreted from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in response to reactive oxygen species that stimulates VSMC proliferation and inflammatory cell migration in vitro; however, the role CyPA plays in vascular function in vivo remains unknown.
We tested the hypothesis that CyPA contributes to vascular remodeling by analyzing the response to complete carotid ligation in CyPA knockout mice, wild-type mice, and mice that overexpress CyPA in VSMC (VSMC-Tg). After carotid ligation, CyPA expression in vessels of wild-type mice increased dramatically and was significantly greater in VSMC-Tg mice. Reactive oxygen species-induced secretion of CyPA from mouse VSMCs correlated significantly with intracellular CyPA expression. Intimal and medial hyperplasia correlated significantly with CyPA expression after 2 weeks of carotid ligation, with marked decreases in CyPA knockout mice and increases in VSMC-Tg mice. Inflammatory cell migration into the intima was significantly reduced in CyPA knockout mice and increased in VSMC-Tg mice. Additionally, VSMC proliferation assessed by Ki67(+) cells was significantly less in CyPA knockout mice and was increased in VSMC-Tg mice. The importance of CyPA for intimal and medial thickening was shown by strong correlations between CyPA expression and the number of both inflammatory cells and proliferating VSMCs in vivo and in vitro.
In response to low flow, CyPA plays a crucial role in VSMC migration and proliferation, as well as inflammatory cell accumulation, thereby regulating flow-mediated vascular remodeling and intima formation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for normal and pathological angiogenesis. However, the signaling pathways linked to gene regulation in VEGF-induced angiogenesis are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate a critical role of protein kinase D (PKD) and histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in VEGF-induced gene expression and angiogenesis. We found that VEGF stimulated HDAC5 phosphorylation and nuclear export in endothelial cells through a VEGF receptor 2-phospholipase Cgamma-protein kinase C-PKD-dependent pathway. We further showed that the PKD-HDAC5 pathway mediated myocyte enhancer factor-2 transcriptional activation and a specific subset of gene expression in response to VEGF, including NR4A1, an orphan nuclear receptor involved in angiogenesis. Specifically, inhibition of PKD by overexpression of the PKD kinase-negative mutant prevents VEGF-induced HDAC5 phosphorylation and nuclear export as well as NR4A1 induction. Moreover, a mutant of HDAC5 specifically deficient in PKD-dependent phosphorylation inhibited VEGF-mediated NR4A1 expression, endothelial cell migration, and in vitro angiogenesis. These findings suggest that the PKD-HDAC5 pathway plays an important role in VEGF regulation of gene transcription and angiogenesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2008; 283(21):14590-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome accelerates the atherosclerotic process, and the earliest event of which is endothelial dysfunction. Ghrelin, a newly discovered gastric peptide, improves endothelial function and inhibits proatherogenic changes. In particular, low ghrelin concentration has been associated with several features of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, insulin resistance, and high blood pressure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ghrelin vascular actions remain largely unclear. Here, we showed that ghrelin activated endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) and in intact vessels. Specifically, ghrelin rapidly induced phosphorylation of eNOS on an activation site and production of NO in human umbilical vein ECs and bovine aortic ECs. The eNOS phosphorylation was also observed in mouse aortas ex vivo perfused with ghrelin and in aortic tissues isolated from mice injected with ghrelin. Mechanistically, ghrelin stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt activation in cultured ECs and intact vessels. Inhibiting AMPK and Akt with their pharmacological inhibitors, small interference RNA and adenoviruses carried dominant-negative mutants, markedly attenuated ghrelin-induced eNOS activation, and NO production. Furthermore, ghrelin receptor/Gq protein/calcium-dependent pathway mediates activation of AMPK, Akt, and eNOS, and calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase is a potential convergent point to regulate Akt and AMPK activation in ghrelin signaling. Importantly, eNOS activation is critical for ghrelin inhibition of vascular inflammation. Together, both in vitro and in vivo data demonstrate a new role of ghrelin signaling for eNOS activation, and highlight the therapeutic potential for ghrelin to correct endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerotic vascular diseases and metabolic syndrome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mediator of angiogenesis and vascular permeability, in which c-Src tyrosine kinase plays an essential role. However, the mechanisms by which VEGF stimulates c-Src activation have remained unclear. Here, we demonstrate that vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) plays a critical role in regulating c-Src activation in response to VEGF. In vascular endothelial cells, VE-cadherin was basally associated with c-Src and Csk (C-terminal Src kinase), a negative regulator of Src activation. VEGF stimulated Csk release from VE-cadherin by recruiting the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 to VE-cadherin signaling complex, leading to an increase in c-Src activation. Silencing VE-cadherin with small interference RNA significantly reduced VEGF-stimulated c-Src activation. Disrupting the association of VE-cadherin and Csk through the reconstitution of Csk binding-defective mutant of VE-cadherin also diminished Src activation. Moreover, inhibiting SHP2 by small interference RNA and adenovirus-mediated expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of SHP2 attenuated c-Src activation by blocking the disassociation of Csk from VE-cadherin. Furthermore, VE-cadherin and SHP2 differentially regulates VEGF downstream signaling. The inhibition of c-Src, VE-cadherin, and SHP2 diminished VEGF-mediated activation of Akt and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase. In contrast, inhibiting VE-cadherin and SHP2 enhanced ERK1/2 activation in response to VEGF. These findings reveal a novel role for VE-cadherin in modulating c-Src activation in VEGF signaling, thus providing new insights into the importance of VE-cadherin in VEGF signaling and vascular function.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2008; 283(11):7261-70. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (Ang II) induces the phenotypic modulation and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that histone deacetylases 5 (HDAC5) and its signal pathway play a role in Ang II-induced VSMC hypertrophy.
VSMCs were isolated from the thoracic aortas of male Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with Ang II. We found that Ang II rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of HDAC5 at Serine259/498 residues in a time- and dose- dependent manner. Ang II receptor-1, protein kinase C, and protein kinase D1 (PKD1) mediated HDAC5 phosphorylation. Furthermore, we observed that Ang II stimulated HDAC5 nuclear export, which was dependent on its PKD1-dependent phosphorylation. Consequently, both inhibiting PKD1 and HDAC5 Serine259/498 to Alanine mutant significantly attenuated Ang II-induced myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) transcriptional activity and protein synthesis in VSMCs.
These findings demonstrate for the first time that PKD1-dependent HDAC5 phosphorylation and nuclear export mediates Ang II-induced MEF2 activation and VSMC hypertrophy, and suggest that PKD1 and HDAC5 may emerge as potential targets for the treatment of pathological vascular hypertrophy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in part by promoting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth. Previously we demonstrated that cyclophilin A (CyPA) is a secreted oxidative stress-induced factor (SOXF) that promotes inflammation, VSMC growth, and endothelial cell apoptosis. However, the mechanisms that regulate CyPA secretion are unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that ROS-induced CyPA secretion from VSMC requires a highly regulated process of vesicle transport, docking, and fusion at the plasma membrane. Conditioned medium and plasma membrane sheets were prepared by exposing VSMC to 1 micromol/L LY83583, which generates intracellular superoxide. A vesicular transport mechanism was confirmed by colocalization at the plasma membrane with vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP). CyPA transport to the plasma membrane and secretion were significantly increased by LY83583. Reduction of VAMP-2 expression by small interfering RNA inhibited LY83583-induced CyPA secretion. Pretreatment with 3 micromol/L cytochalasin D, an actin depolymerizing agent, abrogated CyPA secretion. Infection with dominant-negative RhoA and Cdc42 adenovirus inhibited CyPA secretion by 72% and 63%, respectively, whereas dominant-negative Rac1 had a small effect (11%). Pretreatment with the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 (3 to 30 micromol/L) and myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin (1 to 10 micromol/L) inhibited CyPA secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Simvastatin (3 to 30 micromol/L) also dose-dependently inhibited LY83583-induced CyPA secretion likely via decreased isoprenylation of small GTPases. Our findings define a novel VSMC vesicular secretory pathway for CyPA that involves actin remodeling and myosin II activation via RhoA-, Cdc42-, and Rho kinase-dependent signaling events.
Circulation Research 04/2006; 98(6):811-7. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for many angiogenic processes both in normal conditions and in pathological conditions. However, the signaling pathways involved in VEGF-induced angiogenesis are not well defined. Protein kinase D (PKD), a newly described serine/threonine protein kinase, has been implicated in many signal transduction pathways and in cell proliferation. We hypothesized that PKD would mediate VEGF signaling and function in endothelial cells. Here we found that VEGF rapidly and strongly stimulated PKD phosphorylation and activation in endothelial cells via VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). The pharmacological inhibitors for phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) and protein kinase C (PKC) significantly inhibited VEGF-induced PKD activation, suggesting the involvement of the PLCgamma/PKC pathway. In particular, PKCalpha was critical for VEGF-induced PKD activation since both overexpression of adenovirus PKCalpha dominant negative mutant and reduction of PKCalpha expression by small interfering RNA markedly inhibited VEGF-induced PKD activation. Importantly, we found that small interfering RNA knockdown of PKD and PKCalpha expression significantly attenuated ERK activation and DNA synthesis in endothelial cells by VEGF. Taken together, our results demonstrated for the first time that VEGF activates PKD via the VEGFR2/PLCgamma/PKCalpha pathway and revealed a critical role of PKD in VEGF-induced ERK signaling and endothelial cell proliferation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2005; 280(39):33262-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood flow modulates endothelial cell (EC) functions through specific signaling events. Previous data show that flow stimulates SHP2 translocation to cell membranes and binding to phosphotyrosine proteins. Flow-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation depends on SHP2 phosphatase activity and SHP2 binding to phospho-PECAM1 (platelet endothelial adhesion molecule 1), suggesting that SHP2 forms a signaling module with PECAM1. We hypothesized that flow induces assembly of the multi-protein complexes with SHP2 that are required for downstream signaling. ECs were exposed to flow for 10 min, and endogenous SHP2 was immunoprecipitated. SHP2-associated proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. Tie2 and several known SHP2-binding proteins were identified in flow-induced SHP2 complexes. Flow significantly increased tyrosine phosphorylation of both Tie2 and PECAM1 and their association with SHP2. To evaluate their functional roles, ECs were treated with Tie2 or PECAM1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Tie2 and PECAM1 expression decreased >80% after siRNA treatment, and flow-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase was significantly inhibited by Tie2 and PECAM1 siRNA. Tie2 phosphorylation by flow was significantly inhibited by PECAM1 siRNA treatment. These results establish Tie2 transactivation via PECAM1 as an early event in flow-mediated mechanotransduction and suggest an important role for a PECAM1-SHP2-Tie2 pathway in flow-mediated signal transduction.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2005; 280(33):29620-4. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluid shear stress generated by blood flow modulates endothelial cell function via specific intracellular signaling events. We showed previously that flow activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) via Src kinase-dependent transactivation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). The scaffold protein Gab1 plays an important role in receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated signal transduction. We found here that laminar flow (shear stress = 12 dynes/cm2) rapidly stimulated Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation in both bovine aortic endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which correlated with activation of Akt and eNOS. Gab1 phosphorylation as well as activation of Akt and eNOS by flow was inhibited by the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 (4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine) and VEGFR2 kinase inhibitors SU1498 and VTI, suggesting that flow-mediated Gab1 phosphorylation is Src kinase-dependent and VEGFR2-dependent. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Gab1 by flow was functionally important, because flow stimulated the association of Gab1 with the PI3K subunit p85 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, transfection of a Gab1 mutant lacking p85 binding sites inhibited flow-induced activation of Akt and eNOS. Finally, knockdown of endogenous Gab1 by small interference RNA abrogated flow activation of Akt and eNOS. These data demonstrate a critical role of Gab1 in flow-stimulated PI3K/Akt/eNOS signal pathway in endothelial cells.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2005; 280(13):12305-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluid shear stress generated by blood flowing over the endothelium is a major determinant of arterial tone, vascular remodeling, and atherogenesis. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays an essential role in regulation of vascular function and structure by blood flow. Although cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitory ligand of cyclophilin A, is a widely used immunosuppressive drug, it causes arterial hypertension in part by impairing eNOS-dependent vasodilation. Here we show that CsA inhibits fluid shear stress-mediated eNOS activation in endothelial cells via decreasing cholesterol content in caveolae. Exposure of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells to 1 mum CsA for 1 h significantly inhibited NO production and eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1179 induced by flow (shear stress=dynes/cm2). The effect of CsA was not related to inhibition of two known eNOS kinases, protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase A, because CsA did not affect Akt or protein kinase A activation. In rabbit aorta perfused ex vivo, CsA also significantly inhibited flow-induced eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1179 but had no effect on Akt measured by phosphorylation at Ser-473. However, CsA treatment decreased cholesterol content in caveolae and displaced eNOS from caveolae, which may be caused by CsA disrupting the association of caveolin-1 and cyclophilin A. The magnitude of the cholesterol depleting effect was similar to that of beta-cyclodextrin, a cholesterol-binding molecule, and beta-cyclodextrin had a similar inhibitory effect on flow-mediated eNOS activation. Treating bovine aortic endothelial cells for 24 h with 30 mug/ml cholesterol blocked the CsA effect and restored eNOS phosphorylation in response to flow. These data suggest that decreasing cholesterol content in caveolae by CsA is a potentially important pathogenic mechanism for CsA-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2004; 279(47):48794-800. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and its endogenous antagonist IL-18 binding protein were measured in 84 patients before and after coronary angioplasty. Patients who had high levels of troponin I immediately before angioplasty were considered to have experienced a "recent" myocardial infarction. Concentrations of IL-18 (355 vs 316 pg/ml) and ratio of IL-18 to IL-18 binding protein (107 vs 69) were significantly higher among patients who had recent myocardial infarction than among those who did not, indicating a relation between unopposed IL-18 activity and recent myocardial infarction.
The American Journal of Cardiology 11/2004; 94(10):1285-7. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Axl is a receptor tyrosine kinase originally identified as a transforming gene product in human myeloid leukemia cells. Previously, we showed that Axl expression correlated with neointima formation in balloon-injured rat carotid, and that Axl expression was highly regulated by angiotensin II. In the present study we tested the mechanisms by which Axl regulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth focusing on its ability to inhibit apoptosis. Treatment of cultured rat aortic VSMC for 24 h with 0% serum resulted in 19.8 +/- 1.4% apoptotic cells. Treatment of VSMC with 100 ng/ml Gas6 (the putative ligand for Axl) decreased apoptosis to 8.9 +/- 0.7% (P = 0.002, N = 17) as compared to a decrease with 10% serum to 3.0 +/- 0.2% (P = 0.001, N = 17). The ability of Gas6 to prevent apoptosis required both Gas6 binding to Axl and Axl kinase activity since treatment with a soluble, competitive Axl extracellular domain protein or transfection of a kinase inactive mutant (Axl-K567R) completely prevented the anti-apoptotic effect. Prevention of apoptosis by Gas6-Axl required activation of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) as shown by treatment with LY294002 or transfection of an Axl deletion mutant that does not bind PI3K (Axl- triangle up PI3K). There was no significant role for ERK1/2 in the anti-apoptotic effects of Gas6-Axl since ERK1/2 activity was maintained in cells transfected with Axl- triangle up PI3K and Axl-K567R. These findings establish the Gas6-Axl-PI3K-Akt pathway as an anti-apoptotic mechanism for VSMC that may be important in the response to vascular injury.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 11/2004; 37(4):881-7. · 5.15 Impact Factor