[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy of a second-line regimen of oxaliplatin and folinic acid-modulated fluorouracil in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who have experienced progression while receiving gemcitabine monotherapy.
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 06/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outcome of AML patients older than 60 years has remained poor due to unfavorable disease characteristics and patient-related factors. The randomized AMLSG 06-04 protocol was designed based on in vitro synergistic effects of valproic acid (VPA) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with chemotherapy. Between 2004 and 2006, 186 patients were randomized to receive 2 induction cycles with idarubicin, cytarabine and ATRA with VPA (VPA) or without (STANDARD). In all patients consolidation therapy was intended. Complete remission rates after induction tended to be lower in VPA compared to STANDARD (40% vs. 52%; p=0.14) due to a higher early death rate (26% vs. 14%; p=0.06). The main toxicities attributed to VPA were delayed hematologic recovery and grade 3/4 infections observed predominantly during the second induction cycle. After restricting VPA to the first induction cycle and reducing the dose of idarubicin, these toxicities dropped to rates observed in STANDARD. After a median follow-up time of 84 months, event-free and overall survival were not different between the two arms (p=0.95 and p=0.57, respectively). However, relapse-free-survival was significantly superior in VPA compared to STANDARD (24.4% vs. 6.4% at 5 years, p=0.02). Explorative subset analyses revealed that AML with mutated NPM1 may particularly benefit from VPA. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00151255.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated the frequency and prognostic impact of DNMT3A mutations (DNMT3A(mut)) in 1,770 younger adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the context of other genetic alterations and the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) classification. DNMT3A(mut) were found in 20.9% of AMLs and were associated with higher age (p<0.0001), higher white blood cell counts (p<0.0001), cytogenetically-normal AML (CN-AML; p<0.0001), as well as with NPM1 mutations (p<0.0001), FLT3 internal tandem duplications (p<0.0001) and IDH1/2 mutations (p<0.0001). In univariable and multivariable analyses, DNMT3A(mut) did not impact event-free, relapse-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS), neither in the whole cohort nor in CN-AML; a negative prognostic effect was only found in the ELN unfavorable CN-AML subset (OS, p=0.011). In addition, R882 mutations versus non-R882 mutations showed opposed clinical effects, unfavorable for R882 on RFS (all: HR 1.29, p=0.026; CN-AML: HR 1.38, p=0.018), and favorable for non-R882 on OS (all: HR 0.77; p=0.057; CN-AML: HR 0.73; p=0.083). In our statistically highly powered study with minimized selection bias, DNMT3A(mut) represents a frequent genetic lesion in younger adults with AML, but has no significant impact on survival endpoints; only moderate effects on outcome were found dependent on molecular subgroup and DNMT3A(mut) type.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rituximab plus chemotherapy, most often CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone), is the first-line standard of care for patients with advanced indolent lymphoma, and for elderly patients with mantle-cell lymphoma. Bendamustine plus rituximab is effective for relapsed or refractory disease. We compared bendamustine plus rituximab with CHOP plus rituximab (R-CHOP) as first-line treatment for patients with indolent and mantle-cell lymphomas. METHODS: We did a prospective, multicentre, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial at 81 centres in Germany between Sept 1, 2003, and Aug 31, 2008. Patients aged 18 years or older with a WHO performance status of 2 or less were eligible if they had newly diagnosed stage III or IV indolent or mantle-cell lymphoma. Patients were stratified by histological lymphoma subtype, then randomly assigned according to a prespecified randomisation list to receive either intravenous bendamustine (90 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 2 of a 4-week cycle) or CHOP (cycles every 3 weeks of cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m(2), doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2), and vincristine 1·4 mg/m(2) on day 1, and prednisone 100 mg/day for 5 days) for a maximum of six cycles. Patients in both groups received rituximab 375 mg/m(2) on day 1 of each cycle. Patients and treating physicians were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, with a non-inferiority margin of 10%. Analysis was per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00991211, and the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices of Germany, BfArM 4021335. FINDINGS: 274 patients were assigned to bendamustine plus rituximab (261 assessed) and 275 to R-CHOP (253 assessed). At median follow-up of 45 months (IQR 25-57), median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the bendamustine plus rituximab group than in the R-CHOP group (69·5 months [26·1 to not yet reached] vs 31·2 months [15·2-65·7]; hazard ratio 0·58, 95% CI 0·44-0·74; p<0·0001). Bendamustine plus rituximab was better tolerated than R-CHOP, with lower rates of alopecia (0 patients vs 245 (100%) of 245 patients who recieved ≥3 cycles; p<0·0001), haematological toxicity (77 [30%] vs 173 [68%]; p<0·0001), infections (96 [37%] vs 127 [50%]); p=0·0025), peripheral neuropathy (18 [7%] vs 73 [29%]; p<0·0001), and stomatitis (16 [6%] vs 47 [19%]; p<0·0001). Erythematous skin reactions were more common in patients in the bendamustine plus rituximab group than in those in the R-CHOP group (42 [16%] vs 23 [9%]; p=0·024). INTERPRETATION: In patients with previously untreated indolent lymphoma, bendamustine plus rituximab can be considered as a preferred first-line treatment approach to R-CHOP because of increased progression-free survival and fewer toxic effects. FUNDING: Roche Pharma AG, Ribosepharm/Mundipharma GmbH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE Identifying true therapeutic progress in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) requires a comparison of treatment strategies and results on the basis of uniform patient selection. To foster comparability across five clinical studies, we introduced a common standard arm combined with a general upfront randomization and performed prospective analyses with adjustment for differences in prognostic baseline characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS Whereas the studies' own regimens differed in chemotherapies, risk adaption, and guidelines for allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, the standard arm contained uniform cytarabine- and anthracycline-based standard-dose remission induction and high-dose consolidation courses. Results Of 2,995 evaluable patients aged 16 to 60 years, 290 patients were randomly assigned to the common standard arm. Seventy percent of the 290 achieved complete remissions (62% with complete recovery, 8% with incomplete recovery; 95% CI, 65% to 76%). Five-year survival probabilities were 44.3% (95% CI, 37.7% to 50.7%) for overall survival, 44.8% (95% CI, 37.0% to 52.2%) for relapse-free survival, and 31.5% (95% CI, 25.7% to 37.4%) for event-free survival. Neither the unadjusted survival probabilities of the Kaplan-Meier method nor their adjustment for prognostic variables in multiple Cox regression models led to statistically significant different results in the three survival end points when the outcomes of each study were compared with the standard arm. CONCLUSION A strictly prospective comparison of different treatment strategies in patients with AML did not show clinically relevant outcome differences when compared through a common standard treatment arm. The results provide a representative basis for further therapeutic approaches.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2012; 30(29):3604-10. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment of acute myeloid leukemia of older, medically non-fit patients still poses a highly unmet clinical need, and only few large, prospective studies have been performed in this setting. Given the established activity of hypomethylating agents such as 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia with 20-30% bone marrow blasts, we investigated whether this drug is also active in patients with more than 30% blasts.
To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of decitabine in patients over 60 years old with untreated acute myeloid leukemia ineligible for induction chemotherapy, 227 patients (median age, 72 years), many with comorbidities, adverse cytogenetics and/or preceding myelodysplastic syndrome were treated with this hypomethylating agent. During the initial decitabine treatment (135 mg/m(2) total dose infused intravenously over 72 hours every 6 weeks), a median of two cycles was administered (range, 1-4). All-trans retinoic acid was administered to 100 patients during course 2. Fifty-two patients who completed four cycles of treatment subsequently received a median of five maintenance courses (range, 1-19) with a lower dose of decitabine (20 mg/m(2)) infused over 1 hour on 3 consecutive days every 4-6 weeks.
The complete and partial remission rate was 26%, 95% CI (20%, 32%), and an antileukemic effect was noted in 26% of patients. Response rates did not differ between patients with or without adverse cytogenetics; patients with monosomal karyotypes also responded. The median overall survival from the start of decitabine treatment was 5.5 months (range, 0-57.5+) and the 1-year survival rate was 28%, 95%CI (22%,34%). Toxicities were predominantly hematologic.
Decitabine is well tolerated by older, medically non-fit patients with acute myeloid leukemia; myelosuppression is the major toxicity. The response rate and overall survival were not adversely influenced by poor-risk cytogenetics or myelodysplastic syndrome. Because of these encouraging results, randomized studies evaluating single-agent decitabine versus conventional treatment are warranted. The study is registered with the German Clinical Trials Registry, number DRKS00000069.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the prevalence and prognostic importance of mutations in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), a mitochondrial encoded transmembrane component of the electron transport chain respiratory Complex I, 452 AML patients were examined for ND4 mutations by direct sequencing. The prognostic impact of ND4 mutations was evaluated in the context of other clinical prognostic markers and genetic risk factors. In all, 29 of 452 patients (6.4%) had either somatic (n=12) or germline (n=17) ND4 mutations predicted to affect translation. Somatic mutations were more likely to be heteroplasmic (P<0.001), to occur in predicted transmembrane domains (P<0.001) and were predicted to have damaging effects upon translation (P<0.001). Patients with somatically acquired ND4 mutations had significantly longer relapse-free survival (P=0.017) and overall survival (OS) (P=0.021) than ND4(wildtype) patients. Multivariate analysis also demonstrated a tendency for increased survival in patients with somatic ND4 mutations (RFS: hazard ratio (HR) 0.25, confidence interval (CI) 0.06-1.01, P=0.052; OS: HR 0.29, CI 0.74-1.20, P=0.089). Somatic ND4(mutated) patients had a higher prevalence of concomitant DNMT3A mutations (P=0.023) and a higher percentage of the NPM1/FLT3-ITD low-risk genotype (P=0.021). Germline affected cases showed higher BAALC (P=0.036) and MLL5 (P=0.051) expression levels. Further studies are warranted to validate the favorable prognostic influence of acquired ND4 mutations in AML.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 08/2011; 26(2):289-95. · 10.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the incidence and prognostic impact of mutations in DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
A total of 489 patients with AML were examined for mutations in DNMT3A by direct sequencing. The prognostic impact of DNMT3A mutations was evaluated in the context of other clinical prognostic markers and genetic risk factors (cytogenetic risk group; mutations in NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, IDH1, IDH2, MLL1, NRAS, WT1, and WT1 SNPrs16754; expression levels of BAALC, ERG, EVI1, MLL5, MN1, and WT1).
DNMT3A mutations were found in 87 (17.8%) of 489 patients with AML who were younger than 60 years of age. Patients with DNMT3A mutations were older, had higher WBC and platelet counts, more often had a normal karyotype and mutations in NPM1, FLT3, and IDH1 genes, and had higher MLL5 expression levels as compared with patients with wild-type DNMT3A. Mutations in DNMT3A independently predicted a shorter overall survival (OS; hazard ratio [HR], 1.59; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.21; P = .005) by multivariate analysis, but were not associated with relapse-free survival (RFS) or complete remission (CR) rate when the entire patient cohort was considered. In cytogenetically normal (CN) AML, 27.2% harbored DNMT3A mutations that independently predicted shorter OS (HR = 2.46; 95% CI, 1.58 to 3.83; P < .001) and lower CR rate (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.84; P = .015), but not RFS (P = .32). Within patients with CN-AML, DNMT3A mutations had an unfavorable effect on OS, RFS, and CR rate in NPM1/FLT3-ITD high-risk but not in low-risk patients.
DNMT3A mutations are frequent in younger patients with AML and are associated with an unfavorable prognosis.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2011; 29(21):2889-96. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To integrate available clinical and molecular information for cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) patients into one risk score, 275 CN-AML patients from multicenter treatment trials AML SHG Hannover 0199 and 0295 and 131 patients from HOVON/SAKK protocols as external controls were evaluated for mutations/polymorphisms in NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, MLL, NRAS, IDH1/2, and WT1. Transcript levels were quantified for BAALC, ERG, EVI1, ID1, MN1, PRAME, and WT1. Integrative prognostic risk score (IPRS) was modeled in 181 patients based on age, white blood cell count, mutation status of NPM1, FLT3-ITD, CEBPA, single nucleotide polymorphism rs16754, and expression levels of BAALC, ERG, MN1, and WT1 to represent low, intermediate, and high risk of death. Complete remission (P = .005), relapse-free survival (RFS, P < .001), and overall survival (OS, P < .001) were significantly different for the 3 risk groups. In 2 independent validation cohorts of 94 and 131 patients, the IPRS predicted different OS (P < .001) and RFS (P < .001). High-risk patients with related donors had longer OS (P = .016) and RFS (P = .026) compared with patients without related donors. In contrast, intermediate-risk group patients with related donors had shorter OS (P = .003) and RFS (P = .05). Donor availability had no impact on outcome of patients in the low-risk group. Thus, the IPRS may improve consolidation treatment stratification in CN-AML patients. Study registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00209833.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the prognostic importance of mixed lineage leukemia 5 (MLL5) expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
MLL5 transcript levels from 509 patients with AML who were treated in multicenter trials AML SHG 0199 and AML SHG 0295 and 48 healthy volunteers were analyzed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in the context of other molecular markers (NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, IDH1/IDH2, NRAS, KIT, MN1, BAALC, ERG, and WT1).
Patients with high (n = 127) compared with low (n = 382) MLL5 expression had a higher complete response rate in multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.08 to 3.24; P = .026). In multivariate analysis, high MLL5 expression was a favorable prognostic marker for overall survival (OS; hazard ratio [HR], 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.89; P = .007) and relapse-free survival (RFS; HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.01; P = .057). Patient characteristics, cytogenetic aberrations, and gene mutations were similarly distributed between patients with high and low MLL5 expression except for a higher platelet count in those with high MLL5 expression. MLL5 expression independently predicted prognosis in cytogenetically normal AML patients (n = 268; OS: HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.33 to 086; P = .011; RFS: HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.99; P = .05) and in patients with core-binding factor leukemias (n = 81; OS: HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.91; P = .04; RFS: HR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.77; P = .02). The prognostic importance of high MLL5 expression was independently validated in 167 patients treated in the AMLSG 07/04 trial (OS: HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.92; P = .023; RFS: HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.96; P = .033).
High MLL5 expression levels are associated with a favorable outcome and may improve risk and treatment stratification in AML.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2011; 29(6):682-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several genetic aberrations with prognostic impact in first-line therapy have been described in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and normal karyotype. However, little is known about the influence of these aberrations on outcome after relapse. This study aimed to identify clinical and molecular risk factors for patients with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype.
We analyzed 94 patients with acute myeloid leukemia and normal karyotype after first relapse for clinical and molecular risk factors for survival. All patients had received first-line treatment and follow-up within two prospective, multicenter trials. Leukemic blasts were analyzed at diagnosis for genetic aberrations in the FLT3, NPM1, CEBPA, WT1, IDH1 and IDH2 genes by polymerase chain reaction and/or direct sequencing.
A second complete remission was achieved in 52% of patients who received re-induction therapy. The presence of an FLT3-internal tandem duplication, duration of first complete remission less than 6 months and age above the median of 47 years were associated with a significantly lower rate of second complete remission. The median survival after relapse was 11 months and the 6-year survival rate was 28%. In multivariate analysis, FLT3-internal tandem duplication and age above the median were the only independent negative prognostic factors for survival. The 6-year survival rate of patients with none of these factors was 56%, whereas it was significantly inferior in patients with one or both of these factors (15% and 6%, respectively). This was also true for patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation after relapse.
FLT3-internal tandem duplication and age are the major prognostic factors in patients with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia with a normal karyotype. Patients with at least one of these risk factors have a dismal outcome and might be considered for investigational treatment approaches after relapse. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00209833).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene 2 (IDH2) have recently been found in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as well as in patients with leukemic transformation of myeloproliferative neoplasms. We analyzed 272 adult patients with cytogenetically normal AML (CN-AML) for the presence of IDH2 mutations in codons R140 and R172. IDH2 mutations of amino acid 140 or 172 could be identified in 12.1% of CN-AML patients, with the majority of mutations (90%) occurring at position R140. The incidence of IDH2 mutations in AML patients with aberrant karyotypes (n = 130) was significantly lower (3.8%, P = .006). IDH2 mutations were mutually exclusive with mutations in IDH1. IDH2 mutation status alone or in combination with IDH1 mutations had no impact on response to therapy, overall survival, and relapse-free survival in patients with CN-AML. In conclusion, IDH2 mutations are frequently found in CN-AML, but in our analysis these mutations did not influence treatment outcome. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00209833.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the prognostic impact of IDH1 R132 mutations and a known single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the same exon of the IDH1 gene in patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) in the context of other prognostic markers.
IDH1 exon four was directly sequenced in 275 CN-AML patients from two subsequent AML multicenter treatment trials and 120 healthy volunteers. Moreover, mutations in NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, and WT1 were analyzed, and mRNA expression of IDH1 was quantified.
IDH1 R132 mutations were found in 10.9% of CN-AML patients. IDH1 SNP rs11554137 was found in 12% of CN-AML patients and 11.7% of healthy volunteers. IDH1 R132 mutations had no impact on prognosis. In contrast, IDH1 SNP rs11554137 was an adverse prognostic factor for overall survival in univariate and multivariate analysis. Other significant factors were age, NPM1/FLT3 mutational status, WT1 SNP rs16754, and platelet count. The impact of IDH1 SNP rs11554137 was most pronounced in the NPM1/FLT3 high-risk patients (either NPM1 wild-type or FLT3-internal tandem duplication positive). Patients with IDH1 SNP rs11554137 had a higher expression of IDH1 mRNA than patients with two wild-type alleles.
IDH1 SNP rs11554137 but not IDH1 R132 mutations are associated with an inferior outcome in CN-AML.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2010; 28(14):2356-64. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the prognostic impact of a known single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the mutational hotspot of WT1 in patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) in the context of other prognostic markers.
WT1 exons 7 and 9 from 249 CN-AML patients from multicenter treatment trials AML-SHG Hannover 0199 (Clinical Trials Identifier NCT00209833) and 0295, and 50 healthy volunteers were analyzed by direct sequencing. NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, and MLL were assessed for mutations and WT1 expression was quantified.
The minor allele of SNP rs16754 (WT1(AG/GG)) was found in 25.7% of CN-AML patients' blasts and germline DNA and in 36% of healthy volunteers. Patient characteristics, frequencies of mutations, or WT1 expression levels were similarly distributed between patients homozygous for the major allele compared with patients heterozygous or homozygous for the minor allele. SNP rs16754 status was an independent predictor of relapse-free survival (RFS; hazard ratio [HR], 0.49; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.81; P = .005) and overall survival (OS; HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.74; P = .002) in multivariate analysis. The favorable effect of SNP rs16754 was stronger in NPM1/FLT3-ITD (internal tandem duplication of the FLT3 gene) high-risk patients compared with NPM1/FLT3-ITD low-risk patients. Favorable prognosis could not be identified by any other known low-risk marker in half the patients with at least one minor allele (13% of all patients). No difference for complete remission rate, RFS, or OS was found between patients with or without acquired WT1 mutations.
WT1 SNP rs16754 may be a novel independent favorable-risk marker in CN-AML patients that might improve risk and treatment stratification.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2010; 28(4):578-85. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify risk factors for induction success and overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) and to evaluate the impact of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (alloSCT) in adult patients up to 60 years old with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and reciprocal translocations involving chromosome band 11q23 [t(11q23)].
An individual patient data-based meta-analysis was performed on 180 adult patients with AML and t(11q23). These patients were identified by cytogenetics and/or molecular techniques and treated within eight prospective multicenter trials of the German AML Intergroup. The median follow-up time was 53 months.
Complete remission rate was 71%. Favorable factors for induction success were the presence of a t(9;11), t(11q23) as a sole aberration, and de novo leukemia. OS rate at 4 years was 29%. Translocations other than t(9;11), platelets less than the median, secondary leukemia, and peripheral blasts greater than the median were adverse risk factors for OS. RFS rate at 4 years was 29%. The presence of a t(6;11) and peripheral blasts greater than the median had a negative impact on RFS. Three risk groups for OS and RFS could be defined by the combination of these factors with 4-year OS rates of 50%, 28%, and 5% and 4-year RFS rates of 37%, 26%, and 5%. An alloSCT from matched related or unrelated donors in first complete remission was beneficial, especially in t(6;11)-negative patients.
Risk stratification of AML patients with reciprocal translocations of chromosome band 11q23 is feasible based on the translocation partner and clinical parameters.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2009; 27(18):3000-6. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations occur in several genes in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells: the nucleophosmin gene (NPM1), the fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 gene (FLT3), the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha gene (CEPBA), the myeloid-lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia gene (MLL), and the neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS). We evaluated the associations of these mutations with clinical outcomes in patients.
We compared the mutational status of the NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, MLL, and NRAS genes in leukemia cells with the clinical outcome in 872 adults younger than 60 years of age with cytogenetically normal AML. Patients had been entered into one of four trials of therapy for AML. In each study, patients with an HLA-matched related donor were assigned to undergo stem-cell transplantation.
A total of 53% of patients had NPM1 mutations, 31% had FLT3 internal tandem duplications (ITDs), 11% had FLT3 tyrosine kinase-domain mutations, 13% had CEBPA mutations, 7% had MLL partial tandem duplications (PTDs), and 13% had NRAS mutations. The overall complete-remission rate was 77%. The genotype of mutant NPM1 without FLT3-ITD, the mutant CEBPA genotype, and younger age were each significantly associated with complete remission. Of the 663 patients who received postremission therapy, 150 underwent hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation from an HLA-matched related donor. Significant associations were found between the risk of relapse or the risk of death during complete remission and the leukemia genotype of mutant NPM1 without FLT3-ITD (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.61), the mutant CEBPA genotype (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.75), and the MLL-PTD genotype (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.43), as well as receipt of a transplant from an HLA-matched related donor (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.82). The benefit of the transplant was limited to the subgroup of patients with the prognostically adverse genotype FLT3-ITD or the genotype consisting of wild-type NPM1 and CEBPA without FLT3-ITD.
Genotypes defined by the mutational status of NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, and MLL are associated with the outcome of treatment for patients with cytogenetically normal AML.
New England Journal of Medicine 06/2008; 358(18):1909-18. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trisomy 8 (+8) is among the commonest genetic aberrations seen in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the prognostic significance of this aberration and the best consolidation strategy for patients with it are still not resolved. Additional prognostic indicators are needed to further classify these patients and determine their appropriate management.
Individual patient data-based meta-analysis was performed on 131 patients (median age 50 (18-60) years) with +8 as a sole aberration or +8 with one additional aberration treated between 1993 and 2002 in eight prospective German AML treatment trials. All patients received state-of-the-art treatment including high-dose cytarabine with the option for autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
In total, the 131 patients had a 3-year overall survival (OS) of 29% and a 3-year relapse-free survival (RFS) of 32%. Independent prognostic factors contributing to shorter OS were age > or = 45 years, extramedullary disease, and a percentage of +8 positive metaphases >/=80%. Combining these three prognostic variables established a hierarchical model for OS. The 3-year OS was 13% for the high-risk group, 36% for the intermediate-risk group, and 55% for the low-risk group (p<0.0001). Age <45 years and allogeneic HSCT (as treated) were independent prognostic factors for longer RFS. Additional cytogenetic aberrations other than t(8;21), inv(16), t(16;16), t(15;17) or 11q23 had no influence on treatment outcome.
We provide a new prognostic model for risk stratification of AML patients with +8. The data indicate that allogeneic HSCT may prolong RFS compared to that achieved with other strategies of post-remission therapy.