[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Congenital heart defects (CHD) is the most common cause of death from a congenital structure abnormality in newborns and is often associated with fetal loss. There are many types of CHD. Human genetic studies have identified genes that are responsible for the inheritance of a particular type of CHD and for some types of CHD previously thought to be sporadic. However, occasionally different members of the same family might have anatomically distinct defects --- for instance, one member with atrial septal defect, one with tetralogy of Fallot, and one with ventricular septal defect. Our objective is to identify susceptibility loci for CHD in families affected by distinct defects. The occurrence of these apparently discordant clinical phenotypes within one family might hint at a genetic framework common to most types of CHD. RESULTS: We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis using MOD score analysis in families with diverse CHD. Significant linkage was obtained in two regions, at chromosome 15 (15q26.3, Pempirical = 0.0004) and at chromosome 18 (18q21.2, Pempirical = 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: In these two novel regions four candidate genes are located: SELS, SNRPA1, and PCSK6 on 15q26.3, and TCF4 on 18q21.2. The new loci reported here have not previously been described in connection with CHD. Although further studies in other cohorts are needed to confirm these findings, the results presented here together with recent insight into how the heart normally develops will improve the understanding of CHD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haploinsufficiency of TBX1, encoding a T-box transcription factor, is largely responsible for the physical malformations in velo-cardio-facial /DiGeorge/22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) patients. Cardiovascular malformations in these patients are highly variable, raising the question as to whether DNA variations in the TBX1 locus on the remaining allele of 22q11.2 could be responsible. To test this, a large sample size is needed. The TBX1 gene was sequenced in 360 consecutive 22q11DS patients. Rare and common variations were identified. We did not detect enrichment in rare SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) number in those with or without a congenital heart defect. One exception was that there was increased number of very rare SNPs between those with normal heart anatomy compared to those with right-sided aortic arch or persistent truncus arteriosus, suggesting potentially protective roles in the SNPs for these phenotype-enrichment groups. Nine common SNPs (minor allele frequency, MAF > 0.05) were chosen and used to genotype the entire cohort of 1,022 22q11DS subjects. We did not find a correlation between common SNPs or haplotypes and cardiovascular phenotype. This work demonstrates that common DNA variations in TBX1 do not explain variable cardiovascular expression in 22q11DS patients, implicating existence of modifiers in other genes on 22q11.2 or elsewhere in the genome.
Human Mutation 07/2011; 32(11):1278-89. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the clinical and molecular characteristics of 12 Spanish families with multiple members affected with Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) or Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD), who present the SHOX (short stature homeobox gene) mutation p.A170P (c.508G>C) in heterozygosity or homozygosity, respectively. In all studied families, the A170P mutation co-segregated with the fully penetrant phenotype of mesomelic limb shortening and Madelung deformity. A shared haplotype around SHOX was observed by microsatellite analysis, confirming the presence of a common ancestor, probably of Gypsy origin, as 11 of the families were of this ethnic group. Mutation screening in 359 Eastern-European Gypsies failed to identify any carriers. For the first time, we have shown SHOX expression in the human growth plate of a 22-week LMD fetus, homozygous for the A170P mutation. Although the mutant SHOX protein was expressed in all zones of the growth plate, the chondrocyte columns in the proliferative zone were disorganized with the chondrocytes occurring in smaller columnal clusters. We have also identified a novel mutation at the same residue, c. 509C>A (p.A170D), in two unrelated Spanish LWD families, which similar to A170P mutation impedes nuclear localization of SHOX. In conclusion, we have identified A170P as the first frequent SHOX mutation in Gypsy LWD and LMD individuals.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 06/2011; 19(12):1218-25. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperdiploid multiple myeloma (HMM) is being characterized by the presence of several trisomies and a low incidence of immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangements. It has not well defined what specific steps are associated with disease progression. We present two patients that showed some primary trisomies rearranged as a step of cytogenetic and clinical progression. This prompted us to review cytogenetic results from all patients referred to our hospital to assess the importance of this phenomenon in HMM.
We carried out conventional cytogenetics in all patients. In four cases we also performed spectral karyotype (SKY) and arm-specific chromosome painting (ASP).
We demonstrate that in two patients some primary trisomies became along the disease course structurally altered and this coincided with clinical progression. We observed this phenomenon in more than 60% of HMM cases diagnosed at our laboratory.
We propose structural rearrangements of trisomies as a biological marker of progression in HMM.
Anticancer research 05/2011; 31(5):1599-602. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature and the Madelung deformity of the forearm. SHOX mutations and pseudoautosomal region 1 deletions encompassing SHOX or its enhancers have been identified in approximately 60% of LWD and approximately 15% of idiopathic short stature (ISS) individuals. Recently SHOX duplications have been described in LWD/ISS but also in individuals with other clinical manifestations, thus questioning their pathogenicity.
The objective of the study was to investigate the pathogenicity of SHOX duplications in LWD and ISS.
Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification is routinely used in our unit to analyze for SHOX/pseudoautosomal region 1 copy number changes in LWD/ISS referrals. Quantitative PCR, microsatellite marker, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis were undertaken to confirm all identified duplications.
During the routine analysis of 122 LWD and 613 ISS referrals, a total of four complete and 10 partial SHOX duplications or multiple copy number (n > 3) as well as one duplication of the SHOX 5' flanking region were identified in nine LWD and six ISS cases. Partial SHOX duplications appeared to have a more deleterious effect on skeletal dysplasia and height gain than complete SHOX duplications. Importantly, no increase in SHOX copy number was identified in 340 individuals with normal stature or 104 overgrowth referrals.
MLPA analysis of SHOX/PAR1 led to the identification of partial and complete SHOX duplications or multiple copies associated with LWD or ISS, suggesting that they may represent an additional class of mutations implicated in the molecular etiology of these clinical entities.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 02/2011; 96(2):E404-12. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microdeletion of the chromosome 22q11.2 region is the most common genetic aberration among patients with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) but a subset of subjects do not show alterations of this chromosome region.
We analyzed 18 patients with VCFS-like features by comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) array and performed a face-to-face slide hybridization with two different arrays: a whole genome and a chromosome 22-specific BAC array. Putative rearrangements were confirmed by FISH and MLPA assays.
One patient carried a combination of rearrangements on 1q21.1, consisting in a microduplication of 212 kb and a close microdeletion of 1.15 Mb, previously reported in patients with variable phenotypes, including mental retardation, congenital heart defects (CHD) and schizophrenia. While 326 control samples were negative for both 1q21.1 rearrangements, one of 73 patients carried the same 212-kb microduplication, reciprocal to TAR microdeletion syndrome. Also, we detected four copy number variants (CNVs) inherited from one parent (a 744-kb duplication on 10q11.22; a 160 kb duplication and deletion on 22q11.21 in two cases; and a gain of 140 kb on 22q13.2), not present in control subjects, raising the potential role of these CNVs in the VCFS-like phenotype.
Our results confirmed aCGH as a successful strategy in order to characterize additional submicroscopic aberrations in patients with VCF-like features that fail to show alterations in 22q11.2 region. We report a 212-kb microduplication on 1q21.1, detected in two patients, which may contribute to CHD.
BMC Medical Genetics 01/2009; 10:144. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Screening for 22q11.2 deletions has not an easy approach due to the wide variability of their associated phenotype. Many clinical features overlap with those of other known syndromes and reported loci. Patients referred to exclude a 22q11.2 deletion are usually tested with a locus-specific FISH probe, with 10% positive cases depending on the selection criteria, but patients testing negative for FISH at 22q11.2 may have other chromosomal aberrations in routine cytogenetic analysis. We tested 819 patients suspected of having a 22q11.2 deletion. Eighty-eight patients (10.7%) were positive for 22q11.2 deletion, whereas 30 patients (3.7%) showed other chromosomal abnormalities involving deletions and duplications, derivative chromosomes, marker chromosomes, apparently balanced and unbalanced translocations and sex chromosome aneuploidies. Of these alterations, 28 did not involve region 22q11 and most had not been associated with 22q11.2 deletion phenotype before. We discuss the similarity of DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome with other known clinical entities and suggest correlations between the new loci and the observed clinical features. The frequency of unrelated chromosomal anomalies reported in this study and in other previous reports highlights the importance of conventional cytogenetic analysis as an initial genome-wide screening tool in all referred patients, and provides useful data to optimize diagnostic and screening protocols according to the most frequent chromosomal findings.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 06/2008; 146A(9):1134-41. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Duplication of the long arm of chromosome 1 (1q) has been detected accompanied with other chromosome abnormalities in Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS). However, as a sole karyotypic change, it is rarely observed. We present here two patients affected of a MDS that showed a dup(1)(q21q32) as a sole cytogenetic change in their bone marrow cells. Complementary methodologies confirmed the duplication of chromosome 1q and, did not show additional cryptic chromosome abnormalities. One patient acquired a secondary trisomy 8 and the other one progressed toward an acute leukemia with no additional cytogenetic alterations.
Leukemia Research 02/2008; 32(1):159-61. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are an important cause of human disease. Most mtDNA mutations are found in heteroplasmy, in which the proportion of mutant vs. wild-type species is believed to explain some of the observed high phenotypic heterogeneity. However, homoplasmic mutations also observe phenotypic heterogeneity, which may be in part due to undetected low levels of heteroplasmy. In the present report, we have developed two assays, using DHPLC and Pyrosequencing (Biotage AB, Uppsala, Sweden), for reliably and accurately detecting low-level mtDNA heteroplasmy. Using these assays we have identified a three-generation family segregating two mtDNA mutations in heteroplasmy: the deafness-related m.1555A>G mutation in the 12S rRNA gene (MTRNR1) and a new variant (m.15287T>C) in the cytochrome b gene (MTCYB). Both heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations are transmitted through generations in a random manner, thus showing differences in mutation load between siblings within the family. In addition, the developed assays were also used to screen a group of deaf subjects of unknown etiology for the presence of heteroplasmy for both mtDNA variants. Two additional heteroplasmic m.1555A>G samples, previously considered as homoplasmic, and two deaf subjects carrying m.15287T>C variant were identified, thus confirming the high specificity and reliability of the approach. The development of assays for reliably detecting low-level heteroplasmy, together with the study of heteroplasmic mtDNA transmission, are essential steps for a better knowledge and clinical management of mtDNA diseases.
Human Mutation 02/2008; 29(2):248-57. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A screen for TBX1 gene mutations identified two mutations in patients with some features compatible with the 22q11.2-deletion syndrome but with no deletions. One is a de novo missense mutation and the other is a 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) C>T change that affects a nucleotide with a remarkable trans-species conservation. Computer modelling shows that the 5'UTR change is likely to affect the mRNA structure and in vitro translation experiments demonstrate that it produces a twofold increase in translation efficiency. Recently, duplications in the 22q11.2 region were reported in patients referred for fragile-X determination because of cognitive and behavioural problems. Because the 5'UTR nucleotide change may be a functional equivalent of a duplication of the TBX1 gene, we decided to screen 200 patients who had been referred for fragile-X determination and 400 healthy control individuals. As a result, we found the 5'UTR mutation to be present in three patients with mental retardation or behavioural problems and absent in control individuals of the same ethnic background. This observation suggests that it may be reasonable to screen for such mutation among patients with unspecific cognitive deficits and we provide an easy and quick way to do it with an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) approach. To our knowledge, this is the first human mutation showing that TBX1 is a candidate causing mental retardation associated with the 22q11.2 duplication syndrome.
European Journal of HumanGenetics 07/2007; 15(6):658-63. · 4.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed 1,954 Spanish cystic fibrosis (CF) alleles in order to define the molecular spectrum of mutations in the CFTR gene in Spanish CF patients. Commercial panels showed a limited detection power, leading to the identification of only 76% of alleles. Two scanning techniques, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and single strand conformation polymorphism/hetroduplex (SSCP/HD), were carried out to detect CFTR sequence changes. In addition, intragenic markers IVS8CA, IVS8-6(T)n and IVS17bTA were also analyzed. Twelve mutations showed frequencies above 1%, p.F508del being the most frequent mutation (51%). We found that eighteen mutations need to be studied to achieve a detection level of 80%. Fifty-one mutations (42%) were observed once. In total, 121 disease-causing mutations were identified, accounting for 96% (1,877 out of 1,954) of CF alleles. Specific geographic distributions for the most common mutations, p.F508del, p.G542X, c.1811 + 1.6kbA > G and c.1609delCA, were confirmed. Furthermore, two other relatively common mutations (p.V232D and c.2789 + 5G > A) showed uneven geographic distributions. This updated information on the spectrum of CF mutations in Spain will be useful for improving genetic testing, as well as to facilitate counselling in people of Spanish ancestry. In addition, this study contributes to defining the molecular spectrum of CF in Europe, and corroborates the high molecular mutation heterogeneity of Mediterranean populations.
Annals of Human Genetics 03/2007; 71(Pt 2):194-201. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is the most frequent genomic disorder with an estimated frequency of 1/4000 live births. The majority of patients (90%) have the same deletion of 3 Mb (Typically Deleted Region, TDR) that results from aberrant recombination at meiosis between region specific low-copy repeats (LCRs).
As a first step towards the characterization of recombination rates and breakpoints within the 22q11.2 region we have constructed a high resolution recombination breakpoint map based on pedigree analysis and a population-based historical recombination map based on LD analysis.
Our pedigree map allows the location of recombination breakpoints with a high resolution (potential recombination hotspots), and this approach has led to the identification of 5 breakpoint segments of 50 kb or less (8.6 kb the smallest), that coincide with historical hotspots. It has been suggested that aberrant recombination leading to deletion (and duplication) is caused by low rates of Allelic Homologous Recombination (AHR) within the affected region. However, recombination rate estimates for 22q11.2 region show that neither average recombination rates in the 22q11.2 region or within LCR22-2 (the LCR implicated in most deletions and duplications), are significantly below chromosome 22 averages. Furthermore, LCR22-2, the repeat most frequently implicated in rearrangements, is also the LCR22 with the highest levels of AHR. In addition, we find recombination events in the 22q11.2 region to cluster within families. Within this context, the same chromosome recombines twice in one family; first by AHR and in the next generation by NAHR resulting in an individual affected with the del22q11.2 syndrome.
We show in the context of a first high resolution pedigree map of the 22q11.2 region that NAHR within LCR22 leading to duplications and deletions cannot be explained exclusively under a hypothesis of low AHR rates. In addition, we find that AHR recombination events cluster within families. If normal and aberrant recombination are mechanistically related, the fact that LCR22s undergo frequent AHR and that we find familial differences in recombination rates within the 22q11.2 region would have obvious health-related implications.
BMC Medical Genetics 01/2007; 8:14. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of the three vessels and trachea view, described by Yagel in 2001, allows diagnosis of aortic arch malformations, which can help to guide fetal chromosome study and identify patients who will benefit from lifelong follow-up.Right-sided aortic arch anomalies belong to a group of infrequent malformations. Few cases of prenatal forms have been described in the literature. Nevertheless, it is not infrequent to find these anomalies as the cause of respiratory or digestive disease (refractory to treatment) in adult patients and even as severe vascular processes with high morbidity and mortality.The position of the great vessels in relation to the trachea at the level of the superior mediastinum in fetal study allows a relatively simple diagnosis, especially when the diagnostic possibilities are considered.
Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología. 11/2005; 48(11).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. It is caused by the increase in length of a stretch of CGG triplet repeats within the FMR1 gene. A full mutation (> 200 repeats) leads to methylation of the CpG island and silencing of the FMR1 gene. We present here two sisters that are compound heterozygotes for a full mutation and a 53 repeat intermediate allele, one of them showing mental retardation and clinical features of an affected male (speech delay, hyperactivity, large ears, prominent jaw, gaze aversion), while the other is borderline normal (mild delay). Southern blot and FMRP expression analysis showed that the sister with mental retardation had the normal FMR1 gene totally methylated and no detectable protein, while her sister had 70% of her cells with the normal FMR1 gene unmethylated and normal FMRP levels. We found that the observed phenotypic differences between both sisters who are cytogenetically normal, are caused by extreme skewed X-chromosome inactivation. Analysis of the extended family showed that most of the other female family members that carry a pre-mutation or a full mutation showed some degree of skewing in their X-chromosome inactivation. The presence of several family members with skewed X inactivation and the direction and degree of skewing is inconsistent with a mere selection during development, and suggests a genetic origin for this phenomenon.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 10/2003; 122A(2):108-14. · 2.30 Impact Factor