[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligomers are intermediates of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide fibrillogenic pathway and are putative pathogenic culprits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we report the biotechnological generation and biochemical characterization of an oligomer-specific antibody fragment, KW1. KW1 not only discriminates between oligomers and other Aβ conformations, such as fibrils or disaggregated peptide; it also differentiates between different types of Aβ oligomers, such as those formed by Aβ (1-40) and Aβ (1-42) peptide. This high selectivity of binding contrasts sharply with many other conformational antibodies that interact with a large number of structurally analogous but sequentially different antigens. X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and peptide array measurements imply that KW1 recognizes oligomers through a hydrophobic and significantly aromatic surface motif that includes Aβ residues 18-20. KW1-positive oligomers occur in human AD brain samples and induce synaptic dysfunctions in living brain tissues. Bivalent KW1 potently neutralizes this effect and interferes with Aβ assembly. By altering a specific step of the fibrillogenic cascade, it prevents the formation of mature Aβ fibrils and induces the accumulation of nonfibrillar aggregates. Our data illuminate significant mechanistic differences in oligomeric and fibril recognition and suggest the considerable potential of KW1 in future studies to detect or inhibit specific types of Aβ conformers.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2012; 109(31):12503-8. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1206433109 · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A sequence derived from the epithelial receptor tyrosine kinase Ros (pY2267) represents a high-affinity binding partner for protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and was recently used as lead structure to analyze the recognition requirements for the enzyme's N-SH2 domain. Here, we focused on a set of peptides comprising C-terminally extended linear and conformationally constrained side chain-bridged cyclic N-SH2 ligands based on the consensus sequence LxpYhxh(h/b)(h/b) (x = any amino acid, h = hydrophobic, and b = basic residue). Furthermore, the bivalent peptides described were designed to modulate the activity of SHP-1 through binding to both, the N-SH2 domain as well as an independent binding site on the surface of the catalytic domain (PTP domain). Consistent with previous experimental findings, surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed dissociation constants of most compounds in the low micromolar range. One peptide, EGLNpYc[KVD]MFPAPEEE--NH(2), displayed favorable binding affinity, but reduced ability to stimulate SHP-1. Docking experiments revealed that the binding of this ligand occurs in binding mode I, recently described to lead to an inhibited activation of SHP-1. In summary, results presented in this study suggest that inhibitory N-SH2 ligands of SHP-1 may be obtained by designing bivalent compounds that associate with the N-SH2 domain and simultaneously occupy a specific binding site on the PTP domain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cyclic peptide EGLNc Psi [CON((CH(2))(3)NH)pYNleE(NHCH(2)CO)]L-NH(2) (1) was designed and synthesized according to a native interaction partner of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. We introduced N-aminopropyl-phosphotyrosine to enable backbone-side chain cyclization with a glutamic acid derivative as counterpart for cyclization. Different approaches have been compared to find a strategy for the generation of backbone and backbone-side chain cyclic phosphopeptides.
Protein and Peptide Letters 09/2009; 17(7):809-16. DOI:10.2174/092986610791306779 · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The formation of amyloid fibrils is a common biochemical characteristic that occurs in Alzheimer's disease and several other amyloidoses. The unifying structural feature of amyloid fibrils is their specific type of beta-sheet conformation that differentiates these fibrils from the products of normal protein folding reactions. Here we describe the generation of an antibody domain, termed B10, that recognizes an amyloid-specific and conformationally defined epitope. This antibody domain was selected by phage-display from a recombinant library of camelid antibody domains. Surface plasmon resonance, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry show that this antibody domain distinguishes Abeta amyloid fibrils from disaggregated Abeta peptide as well as from specific Abeta oligomers. The antibody domain possesses functional activity in preventing the formation of mature amyloid fibrils by stabilizing Abeta protofibrils. These data suggest possible applications of B10 in the detection of amyloid fibrils or in the modulation of their formation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2008; 104(49):19232-7. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0703793104 · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The formation of amyloid fibrils and other polypeptide aggregates depends strongly on the physico-chemical environment. One such factor affecting aggregation is the presence and concentration of salt ions. We have examined the effects of salt ions on the aggregation propensity of Alzheimer's Abeta(1-40) peptide and on the structure of the dissolved and of the fibrillar peptide. All salts examined promote aggregation strongly. The most pronounced effect is seen within the cationic series, i.e. for MgCl2. Evaluation of different possible explanations suggests that Abeta(1-40) aggregation depends on direct interaction between ions and Abeta(1-40) peptide, and correlates with ion-induced changes of the surface tension. Salts have profound effects on the fibril structure. In the presence of salts, fibrils are associated with smaller diameters, narrower crossover distances and lower amide I maxima. Since Abeta(1-40) aggregation responds to salts in a manner unlike that for other polypeptides, such as glucagon, beta2-microglobulin or alpha-synuclein; these data argue that there is no fully uniform way in which salts affect aggregation of different polypeptide chains. These observations are important for understanding and predicting aggregation on the basis of simple physico-chemical properties.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid fibrils are fibrous polypeptide aggregates that can be formed in vitro and under pathologic conditions, such as in type II diabetes, Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases. Using a range of biophysical techniques including electron microscopy we have analysed the quaternary structure of a mature amyloid fibril formed from the Abeta(1-40) peptide from Alzheimer's disease. We find that the analysed fibril is discernibly polar and represents a left-handed helix consisting of two or three protofilaments. These are organised in a manner so that the cross-section is, under the present resolution conditions (2.6 nm), S-shaped. In the cross-section, each protofilament can accommodate two beta-strands, suggesting that each protofilament contains two cross-beta-sheets. These data shed new light on the way in which Abeta(1-40) and the protofilaments formed from this peptide are organised within the mature fibril.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an effort to gain further insight into the conformational and topographical requirements for recognition by the N-terminal SH2 domain of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, we synthesized a series of linear and cyclic peptides derived from the sequence surrounding phosphotyrosine 2267 in the receptor tyrosine kinase Ros (EGLNpYMVL). A molecular modeling approach was used to suggest peptide modifications sterically compatible with the N-SH2-peptide binding groove and possibly enhanced binding affinities compared to the parent peptide. The potencies of the synthesized compounds were evaluated by assaying their ability to stimulate phosphatase activity as well as by their binding affinities to the GST-fused N-SH2 domain of SHP-1. In the series of linear peptides, structural modifications of Ros pY2267 in positions pY + 1 to pY + 3 by amino acid residues structurally related to Phe, for example l-erythro/threo-Abu(betaPh) (5a, 5b), yielded ligands with increased binding affinity. The incorporation of d-amino acid residues at pY + 1 and pY + 3 led to inactive peptides. The replacement of Phe in both pY + 1 and pY + 3 by Tic (1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) was also not tolerated due to steric hindrance. Cyclic peptides (13, 14) that were linked via residues in positions pY - 1 (Lys) and pY + 2 (Asp/Glu) and contained a Gly residue in the bridging unit displayed much lower potencies for the stimulation of SHP-1 activity but increased binding affinities compared to Ros pY2267. They partially competed with Ros pY2267 in the activation assay. Such cyclic structures may serve as scaffolds for competitive SHP-1 inhibitor design targeting N-SH2 domain-protein interactions that block SHP-1 activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 is a negative regulator of multiple signal transduction pathways. We observed that SHP-1 effectively antagonized Src-dependent phosphorylations in HEK293 cells. This occurred by dephosphorylation of Src substrates, because Src activity was unaffected in the presence of SHP-1. One reason for efficient dephosphorylation was activation of SHP-1 by Src. Recombinant SHP-1 had elevated activity subsequent to phosphorylation by Src in vitro, and SHP-1 variants with mutated phosphorylation sites in the C terminus, SHP-1 Y538F, and SHP-1 Y538F,Y566F were less active toward Src-generated phosphoproteins in intact cells. A second reason for efficient dephosphorylation is the substrate selectivity of SHP-1. Pull-down experiments with different GST-SHP-1 fusion proteins revealed efficient interaction of Src-generated phosphoproteins with the SHP-1 catalytic domain rather than with the SH2 domains. Phosphopeptides that correspond to good Src substrates were efficiently dephosphorylated by SHP-1 in vitro. Phosphorylated "optimal Src substrate" AEEEIpYGEFEA (where pY is phosphotyrosine) and a phosphopeptide corresponding to a recently identified Src phosphorylation site in p120 catenin, DDLDpY(296)GMMSD, were excellent SHP-1 substrates. Docking of these phosphopeptides into the catalytic domain of SHP-1 by molecular modeling was consistent with the biochemical data and explains the efficient interaction. Acidic residues N-terminal of the phosphotyrosine seem to be of major importance for efficient substrate interaction. Residues C-terminal of the phosphotyrosine probably contribute to the substrate selectivity of SHP-1. We propose that activation of SHP-1 by Src and complementary substrate specificities of SHP-1 and Src may lead to very transient Src signals in the presence of SHP-1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signal transduction events are often mediated by small protein domains such as SH2 (Src homology 2) domains that recognize phosphotyrosines (pY) and flanking sequences. In case of the SHP-2 receptor tyrosine phosphatase an N-terminal SH2 domain binds and inactivates the phosphatase (PTP) domain. The pY-peptide-binding site on the N-terminal SH2 domain does not overlap with the PTP binding region. Nevertheless, pY-peptide binding causes domain dissociation and phosphatase activation. Comparative multi-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations on the N-SH2 domain in ligand-bound and free states have been performed to study the allosteric mechanism that leads to domain dissociation upon pY-peptide binding. Significant ligand-dependent differences in the conformational flexibility of regions that are involved in SH2-PTP domain association have been observed. The results support a mechanism of signal transduction where SH2-peptide binding modulates the domain flexibility and reduces its capacity to fit into the entrance of the PTP catalytic domain of SHP-2.