ABSTRACT: The impact of chronic alcohol consumption on hepatic gluconeogenesis (HGN) between males and females is unknown. To determine the effects of chronic alcohol consumption (8 weeks) on HGN, the isolated liver perfusion technique was used on 24-hr-fasted male and female Wistar rats.
After surgical isolation, livers were perfused (single pass) for 30 min with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer and fresh bovine erythrocytes with no added substrate (washout period). After the washout period, livers were perfused with lactate (10 mM) and [U-14C]lactate (15,000 dpm/ml) using the recirculation method.
There was no significant difference in HGN between males and females fed the control diet. In contrast, the females chronically fed the ethanol diet (FE) had significantly lower HGN rates (2.73 +/- 0.37 micromol/min x g liver protein(-1)), whereas males fed the ethanol diet (ME) had significantly higher HGN rates (4.99 +/- 0.45 micromol/min x g liver protein(-1)) than controls (3.83 +/- 0.34 micromol/min x g liver protein(-1)). Concomitant decreases were also observed for both 14C-lactate incorporation into 14C-glucose and rates of lactate uptake for FE, while corresponding increases were observed for 14C-lactate incorporation into 14C-glucose for ME. The livers from ME were able to convert a greater percentage of the lactate into glucose, resulting in the elevation in gluconeogenic capacity.
Chronic alcohol consumption lowers the hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from lactate in females and elevates HGN in males.
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 11/2005; 29(10):1899-905. · 3.34 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The effects of endurance training on hepatic glucose production (HGP) from lactate were examined in 24-h-fasted young (4 mo) and old (24 mo) male Fischer 344 rats by using the isolated-hepatocyte technique. The liver cells were incubated for 30 min with 5 mM lactate ([U-14C]lactate; 25000 dpm/ml) and nine different concentrations of epinephrine (Epi). Basal HGP (with lactate only and no Epi) was significantly greater for young trained (T) (99.6 +/- 6.2 nmol/mg protein) compared with young controls (C) (78.2 +/- 6.0 nmol/mg protein). The basal HGP was also significantly greater for old T (97.3 +/- 5.9 nmol/mg protein) compared with old C (72.2 +/- 3.9 nmol/mg protein). After the incubation with the various concentrations of Epi, Hanes-Woolf plots were generated to determine kinetic constants (Vmax and EC50). Maximal Epi-stimulated hepatic glucose production (Vmax) was significantly greater for young T (142.5 +/- 6.5 nmol/mg protein) compared with young C (110.9 +/- 4.8 nmol/mg protein). Similarly, the Vmax was significantly greater for old T (138.2 +/- 5.0 nmol/mg protein) compared with old C (103.9 +/- 2.5 nmol/mg protein). Finally, there was an increase in the EC50 from the hepatocytes of old T (56.2 +/- 6.2 nM) compared with young T (32.6 +/- 4.9 nM). In like manner, there was an increase in the EC50 from the hepatocytes of old C (59.7 +/- 5.8 nM) compared with young C (33.1 +/- 2.7 nM). The results suggest that training elevates HGP in the basal and maximally Epi-stimulated condition, but with age there is a decline in EC50 that is independent of training status.
Journal of Applied Physiology 09/2003; 95(2):712-9. · 3.75 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The effects of chronic alcohol consumption (8 weeks) on glucose kinetics, in the absence (water, 4 g/kg) and presence of an acute ethanol dose (4 g/kg), were examined in 48 h fasted male and female Wistar rats.
Primed continuous infusions of [6-3H]- and [U-14C]glucose were employed to assess rates of glucose appearance (Ra), glucose disappearance (Rd), and apparent glucose carbon recycling.
After injecting the male and female controls with water, there were no significant alterations in glucose kinetics. Compared to controls, chronic alcohol-fed female animals (injected with water) demonstrated significantly lower: glucose Ra, blood glucose concentration, and apparent glucose carbon recycling for a majority of the experimental period. In separate groups injected with ethanol, the glucose Ra fell by 31% for male rats fed the control diet (MC), 43% for male rats fed the ethanol diet (ME), 29% for female rats fed the control diet (FC), and 42% for female rats fed the ethanol diet (FE). Further, compared to controls (MC and FC), the blood glucose concentration was significantly lower prior to and following the ethanol injection for FE. In addition, FE animals had significantly lower rates of glucose Ra and glucose carbon recycling compared to controls prior to and after the ethanol injection. ME animals demonstrated similar declines in glucose Ra (compared to FE), but only after the ethanol injection. Conversely, ME were able to match the decrease in glucose Ra with comparable declines in glucose Rd resulting in blood glucose concentrations that did not differ from controls.
Chronic alcohol consumption results in sex differences in whole-body glucose production and glucose regulation.
Alcohol and Alcoholism 39(5):418-26. · 2.95 Impact Factor