L D Jacobs

University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, United States

Are you L D Jacobs?

Claim your profile

Publications (46)299.38 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new liquid formulation of Avonex (interferon beta-1a [IFNbeta-1a]) in a prefilled syringe has been developed to make administration of the drug easier for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This formulation does not contain human serum albumin (HSA), often added to interferon (IFN) products for stabilization. However, formulation changes may alter the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of IFNbeta products. These kinds of structural changes could lead to the formation of antibodies directed against IFNbeta. Some of these anti-IFN antibodies may neutralize the biologic activity of IFNbeta. This study was designed to determine the immunogenicity and safety of the new prefilled syringe (liquid) HSA-free formulation of Avonex in patients with relapsing MS. This was a multicenter, single-arm, open-label study. Patients with relapsing MS received liquid, HSA-free Avonex 30 microg by IM injection from a prefilled syringe once weekly for up to 24 months. Immunogenicity and safety were assessed every 3 months. Serum levels of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) were measured at baseline and every 3 months using a 2-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and antiviral cytopathic effect assay. A total of 153 patients (121 women, 32 men; mean [SD] age, 39.6 [9.9] years; age range, 19.0-59.0 years) were enrolled in the study. Sera were available for analysis from 125 and 119 patients after 18 and 24 months of treatment, respectively. By 18 months, 1 patient (1%) had > or =2 consecutive titers of > or =20, a level at which the persistent presence of NAbs has been shown in some studies to have clinical consequences. By 24 months, 1 additional patient (total 2%) had > or =2 consecutive titers of > or =20. At 18 months, 5 patients (4%) had > or =1 NAb titer of > or =5; at 24 months, 6 patients (5%) had > or =1 NAb titer of > or =5. The safety profile of liquid Avonex was comparable to the lyophilized form containing HSA. The prefilled syringe (liquid) HSA-free formulation of Avonex was well tolerated and showed a low level of immunogenicity. Over 24 months, 2% of patients developed persistent NAbs (> or =2 consecutive titers of > or =20).
    Clinical Therapeutics 04/2004; 26(4):511-21. · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • J. H. Simon, L. Jacobs, N. Simonian
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: T1 -hypointense lesions (T1-black holes) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are areas of relatively severe central nervous system (CNS) damage compared with the more non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions, which show greater signal intensity than normal brain on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The T1-hypointense lesions are areas of axonal loss, as well as matrix disruption [1, 2]. T1-hypointense lesions are moderately correlated with focal reduction in the magnetization transfer index [3, 4] and reduced N-acetylaspartate (NAA) [2]. T1hypointense lesions appear to evolve from only a subset of prior enhancing MS lesions. Recent studies have suggested that an increase in T1-hypointense lesions is more strongly correlated with progression of disability in secondary progressive MS than T2-hyperintense lesions [5, 6]. For these reasons, the T1 -hypointense lesions are considered to be potential independent markers of the MS disease process compared with the conventional MR measures of subclinical disease — the T2-lesions, and markers of inflammation, the enhancing lesions [7, 8]. Here we summarize the analyses of T1-black holes from the MS Collaborative Research Group Trial of interferon β-1a, which provided an opportunity to determine the natural history of T1-black holes in relatively early MS, in patients with only mild-to-moderate disability, and to evaluate the potential of T1-black holes as a measure of treatment efficacy. Details of this work have been published previously [9].
    01/2004;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) in African American (AA) patients in the New York State Multiple Sclerosis Consortium (NYSMSC) patient registry. The NYSMSC is a group of 18 MS centers throughout New York State organized to prospectively assess clinical characteristics of MS patients. AAs comprise 6% (329) of the total NYSMSC registrants (5602). Demographics, disease course, therapy, and socioeconomic status were compared in AA registrants versus nonAfrican Americans (NAA). There was an increased female preponderance and a significantly younger age at diagnosis in the AA group. AA patients were more likely to have greater disability with increased disease duration. No differences were seen in types of MS and use of disease modifying therapies. Our findings suggest a racial influence in MS. Further genetic studies that consider race differences are warranted to elucidate mechanisms of disease susceptibility.
    Multiple Sclerosis 07/2003; 9(3):293-8. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We compared the patterns of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) from peripheral blood of male and female patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) and secondary progressive (SP) forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The relationships between pro-inflammatory cytokines and disability (expanded disability status scale, EDSS) were also examined. Peripheral blood anti-coagulated with heparin was obtained from 47 MS patients (30 women and 17 men) and activated with phorbol-12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA) and ionomycin in the presence of brefeldin A and stained for flow cytometry with fluorescently labeled antibodies against intracellular IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10. The T cells were delineated with peridinin chlorophyll protein (Per-CP) labeled anti-CD3 antibody. The stained samples were analyzed on a flow cytometer to assess the intracellular pro-inflammatory cytokine patterns. The levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) were measured in plasma using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The percentage of TNF-alpha-producing CD3 positive cells was significantly higher (P=0.045) in men (mean+/-S.D., 39+/-13%) than in women (mean+/-S.D., 29+/-13%) RR-MS patients. The percentage of CD3 positive cells producing IFN-gamma was significantly correlated with EDSS in females but not in males (Spearman rank correlation r(S)=0.49, P=0.018). The secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, is influenced by gender in MS patients and may contribute to the sexual dimorphism of MS.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 06/2003; 209(1-2):93-9. · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to assess the effect of interferon beta-1a (Avonex) on the rate of development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis and brain magnetic resonance imaging changes in subgroups based on type of presenting event, baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging parameters, and demographic factors in the Controlled High-Risk Subjects Avonex Multiple Sclerosis Prevention Study (CHAMPS) trial. After the onset of a first demyelinating event, 383 patients with brain magnetic resonance imaging evidence of subclinical demyelination were treated with corticosteroids and randomly assigned to receive weekly intramuscular injections of 30 microg interferon beta-1a or placebo. The treatment effect within subgroups was assessed in proportional hazards models both for the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis and for a combined outcome of development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis or >1 new or enlarging T2 lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging. A beneficial effect of treatment was noted in all subgroups evaluated. Adjusted rate ratios for the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis in the optic neuritis, brainstem-cerebellar, and spinal cord syndrome subgroups were 0.58 (p = 0.05), 0.40 (p = 0.03), and 0.30 (p = 0.01) and for the development of the combined clinically definite multiple sclerosis/magnetic resonance imaging outcome were 0.50 (p < 0.001), 0.41 (p = 0.001), and 0.40 (p = 0.004), respectively. A treatment benefit on both outcome measures also was seen in subgroups based on baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging parameters, gender, and age. Interferon beta-1a is beneficial when initiated at the first clinical demyelinating event in patients with brain magnetic resonance imaging evidence of subclinical demyelination. The beneficial effect is present for optic neuritis, brainstem-cerebellar syndromes, and spinal cord syndromes.
    Annals of Neurology 05/2002; 51(4):481-90. · 11.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to assess the effect of interferon β-1a (Avonex®) on the rate of development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis and brain magnetic resonance imaging changes in subgroups based on type of presenting event, baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging parameters, and demographic factors in the Controlled High-Risk Subjects Avonex Multiple Sclerosis Prevention Study (CHAMPS) trial. After the onset of a first demyelinating event, 383 patients with brain magnetic resonance imaging evidence of subclinical demyelination were treated with corticosteroids and randomly assigned to receive weekly intramuscular injections of 30μg interferon β-1a or placebo. The treatment effect within subgroups was assessed in proportional hazards models both for the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis and for a combined outcome of development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis or >1 new or enlarging T2 lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging. A beneficial effect of treatment was noted in all subgroups evaluated. Adjusted rate ratios for the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis in the optic neuritis, brainstem–cerebellar, and spinal cord syndrome subgroups were 0.58 (p = 0.05), 0.40 (p = 0.03), and 0.30 (p = 0.01) and for the development of the combined clinically definite multiple sclerosis/magnetic resonance imaging outcome were 0.50 (p < 0.001), 0.41 (p = 0.001), and 0.40 (p = 0.004), respectively. A treatment benefit on both outcome measures also was seen in subgroups based on baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging parameters, gender, and age. Interferon β-1a is beneficial when initiated at the first clinical demyelinating event in patients with brain magnetic resonance imaging evidence of subclinical demyelination. The beneficial effect is present for optic neuritis, brainstem–cerebellar syndromes, and spinal cord syndromes.
    Annals of Neurology 03/2002; 51(4):481 - 490. · 11.19 Impact Factor
  • Neurology 01/2002; 57(12 Suppl 5):S25-30. · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • J H Simon, L Jacobs, R P Kinkel
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A pattern of injury observed in patients at high risk for MS described as transcallosal bands (TCB) is hypothesized to be the result of neuronal tract degeneration in earliest MS, extending from typical acute, focal demyelinating lesions located along the lateral borders of the corpus callosum. The TCB, a T2-hyperintense lesion traversing the corpus callosum is recognized on 3-mm thick, T2-weighted imaging, develops over months and persists over years.
    Neurology 12/2001; 57(10):1888-90. · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To use DNA arrays to identify differences in gene expression associated with relapsing–remitting (RR) MS.Methods: Total RNA was isolated from monocyte depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 15 RR MS patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls. The RNA was reverse transcribed to radiolabeled cDNA and the resultant cDNA was used to probe a DNA array containing over 4000 named human genes. The binding of radiolabeled cDNA to the probes on the array was measured by phosphorimager.Results: Of more than 4000 genes tested, only 34 were significantly different in RR-MS patients from controls. Of these, 25 were significantly increased and 9 significantly decreased in the RR MS patients. Twelve of these genes have inflammatory and/or immunological functions that could be relevant to the MS disease process. The potentially relevant genes that were elevated (15% to 28%) were P protein, LCK, cAMP responsive element modulator, IL-7 receptor, matrix metalloproteinase-19, M130 antigen, and peptidyl–prolyl isomerase. Those that were significantly decreased (15% to 35%) were SAS transmembrane 4 superfamily protein, STRL22 (C–C chemokine receptor 6), AFX protein, DNA fragmentation factor-45 and immunoglobulin gamma 3 (Gm marker).Conclusions: The RR-MS disease effect was relatively restricted and most of the mRNAs tested were not different from the normal controls. However, there were significant differences identified in the expression of a subset of mRNAs, including 13 with inflammatory/immune functions that could be relevant to MS. The systematic use of DNA arrays can provide insight into the dynamic cellular pathways involved in MS pathogenesis and its phenotypic heterogeneity.
    Journal of Neuroimmunology 07/2001; · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The authors used data collected prospectively during a multicenter trial in 133 patients with secondary progressive MS to assess the relative sensitivity of quantitative functional tests and traditional measures, including the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Ambulation Index. Quantitative functional measures worsened in 69% of patients during an average of 6 months of observation, whereas the Clinical Global Impression of Change worsened in 33% and the EDSS worsened in 25% of patients. These changes should be interpreted in the context of the test-retest reliability for each measure.
    Neurology 01/2001; 55(12):1901-3. · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cognitive dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), yet few studies have examined effects of treatment on neuropsychological (NP) performance. To evaluate the effects of interferon beta-1a (IFNbeta-1a, 30 microg administered intramuscularly once weekly [Avonex]) on cognitive function, a Comprehensive NP Battery was administered at baseline and week 104 to relapsing MS patients in the phase III study, 166 of whom completed both assessments. A Brief NP Battery was also administered at 6-month intervals. The primary NP outcome measure was 2-year change on the Comprehensive NP Battery, grouped into domains of information processing and learning/memory (set A), visuospatial abilities and problem solving (set B), and verbal abilities and attention span (set C). NP effects were most pronounced in cognitive domains vulnerable to MS: IFNbeta-1a had a significant beneficial effect on the set A composite, with a favorable trend evident on set B. Secondary outcome analyses revealed significant between-group differences in slopes for Brief NP Battery performance and time to sustained deterioration in a Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test processing rate, favoring the IFNbeta-1a group. These results support and extend previous observations of significant beneficial effects of IFNbeta-1a for relapsing MS.
    Annals of Neurology 01/2001; 48(6):885-92. · 11.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Treatment with interferon beta has been shown to help patients with established multiple sclerosis, but it is not known whether initiating treatment at the time of a first clinical demyelinating event is of value. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of 383 patients who had a first acute clinical demyelinating event (optic neuritis, incomplete transverse myelitis, or brain-stem or cerebellar syndrome) and evidence of prior subclinical demyelination on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. After initial treatment with corticosteroids, 193 patients were randomly assigned to receive weekly intramuscular injections of 30 microg of interferon beta-1a and 190 were assigned to receive weekly injections of placebo. The study end points were the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis and changes in findings on MRI of the brain. The trial was stopped after a preplanned interim efficacy analysis. During three years of follow-up, the cumulative probability of the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis was significantly lower in the interferon beta-1a group than in the placebo group (rate ratio, 0.56; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.81; P=0.002). As compared with the patients in the placebo group, patients in the interferon beta-1a group had a relative reduction in the volume of brain lesions (P<0.001), fewer new or enlarging lesions (P<0.001), and fewer gadolinium-enhancing lesions (P<0.001) at 18 months. Initiating treatment with interferon beta-1a at the time of a first demyelinating event is beneficial for patients with brain lesions on MRI that indicate a high risk of clinically definite multiple sclerosis.
    New England Journal of Medicine 10/2000; 343(13):898-904. · 54.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme mRNAs, other drug-metabolizing enzyme mRNAs, and transporter mRNAs can be detected using DNA arrays. Total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 10 multiple sclerosis patients and 10 age- and sex-matched controls. The mRNA was reverse transcribed to radiolabeled cDNA, and the resultant cDNA was used to probe a DNA array containing several thousand known human genes. The signals corresponding to several CYPs, drug-metabolizing, and transporter mRNAs was substantially above background. The results demonstrate that the DNA array technique has the sensitivity and the selectivity for applications in the pharmaceutical sciences. The mean values for mRNAs of specific CYPs and drug-metabolizing enzymes in peripheral blood cells were compared with reported values for liver. The capabilities of DNA arrays may prove useful for characterizing CYP expression in a variety of clinical samples.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 09/2000; 28(8):987-93. · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: T1 hypointense lesions (T1 black holes) are focal areas of relatively severe CNS tissue damage detected by MRI in patients with MS. To determine the natural history of T1 hypointense lesions in relapsing MS and the utility of T1 hypointense lesions as outcome measures in MS clinical trials. MR studies were from the Multiple Sclerosis Collaborative Research Group trial. Longitudinal results are reported in 80 placebo- and 80 interferon beta-1a (IFNbeta-1a)-treated patients with mild to moderate disability relapsing-remitting MS. There was a small but significant correlation between T1 hypointense lesion volume and disability at baseline and on trial (r = 0.22, r = 0.28). In placebo patients there was a 29.2% increase in the mean volume of T1 hypointense lesions (median 124.5 mm3) over 2 years (p < 0.001 for change from baseline), as compared to an 11.8% increase (median 40 mm3) in the IFNbeta-1a-treated patients (change from baseline not significant). These treatment group comparisons did not quite reach significance. The most significant contributor to change in T1 hypointense lesions was the baseline number of enhancing lesions (model r2 = 0.554). Placebo patients with more active disease, defined by enhancing lesions at baseline, were the only group to show a significant increase in T1 hypointense lesion volume from baseline. The development of T1 hypointense lesions is strongly influenced by prior inflammatory disease activity, as indicated by enhancing lesions. These results suggest that treatment with once weekly IM IFNbeta-1a (30 mcg) slows the 2-year accumulation of these lesions in the brain.
    Neurology 08/2000; 55(2):185-92. · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Demyelination alone may not explain the progressive disability that frequently develops in MS. An alternative explanation for irreversible disability assumes a contribution from axonal injury or loss. In theory, axonal injury may occur in the focal areas characterized by early inflammation, or can be more distant, as in Wallerian degeneration. However, Wallerian degeneration is thought of as a rare or a late finding in MS. Studies showing a classic Wallerian degeneration pattern in the corticospinal tract were selected from a review of MR studies from patients enrolled in a longitudinal treatment trial. Entry was based on first occurrence of an isolated neurologic syndrome consistent with MS and a positive MRI. This report is based on five cases followed longitudinally who showed development of a classic T2-hyperintense lesion along the ipsilateral corticospinal tract, subsequent to an initial inciting event located in the white matter located in the superior aspect of the corona radiata. Lesions were evident as T2-hyperintensity persisting throughout the 12 to 18 months of observation. This series suggests that Wallerian degeneration, implying axonal injury, may occur as a sequela of acute demyelinating lesions in patients presenting with their first symptoms suggestive of MS. This can produce a component of the increasing burden of T2-hyperintense lesions temporally and spatially dissociated from inflammatory or demyelinating activity. Further studies are required to determine if Wallerian degeneration is an important factor contributing to disability progression in MS.
    Neurology 04/2000; 54(5):1155-60. · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • B Weinstock-Guttman, L D Jacobs
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered an autoimmune disease associated with immune activity directed against central nervous system antigens. Based on this concept, immunosuppression and immunomodualtion have been the mainstays of therapeutic strategies in MS. During the last decade new therapies have been shown to significantly improve MS disease course. The effective therapies have led to a better understanding of MS pathogenesis and further development of even more efficient therapeutic interventions. Recombinant interferon (IFN)beta represents the first breakthrough in MS therapy. Three large placebo-controlled, double-blind studies and several smaller studies have demonstrated the efficacy of different forms of IFNbeta administrated by either subcutaneous or intramuscular routes and at different doses in patients with active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS). The three IFNbeta drugs are IFNbeta-1b and two IFNbeta-1a preparations (Avonex and Rebif). Although each clinical trial had unique features and differences that make direct comparisons difficult, the aggregate results demonstrate a clear benefit of IFNbeta for decreasing relapses and probability of sustained clinical disability progression in patients with RR-MS. All forms of IFNbeta therapy had beneficial effects on the disease process measured by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). IFNbeta-1a (Avonex) also showed benefit in slowing or preventing the development of MS related brain atrophy measured by MRI after 2 years of therapy. Glatiramer acetate, the acetate salt of a mixture synthetic polypeptides thought to mimic the myelin basic protein showed a significant positive results in reducing the relapse rate in patients with RR-MS. Follow up of these patients for approximately 3 years continued to show a beneficial effect on disease relapse rate. Recent MRI data supported the beneficial clinical results seen with glatiramer acetate in patients with RR-MS. Recent studies using intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) suggest that IVIG could be effective to some degree in patients with RR-MS. However, there is not enough evidence that IVIG is equivalent to IFNbeta or glatiramer acetate in the treatment of patients with RR-MS. There have also been recent therapeutical advances in secondary progressive MS (SP-MS). A recent large phase II, placebo-controlled study with IFNbeta-1b in patients with SP-MS convincingly documented that IFNbeta-1b slowed progression of the disease independent of the degree of the clinical disability at the time of treatment initiation and independent of presence of superimposed relapses. Mitoxantrone, an anthracenedione synthetic agent, was also shown to be effective as treatment for active SP-MS. It is well tolerated but the duration of treatment is limited by cumulative cardiotoxicity. There is a growing consensus that disease-modifying therapies should be initiated early in the course of the disease before irreversible clinical disability has developed. Different therapies should be considered and tailored based on patient condition. Combination therapies could be considered as a therapeutic option for patients that failed therapies with IFNbeta and/or glatiramer acetate. Currently, there are new ongoing studies testing safety and/or efficacy of different combination regimens (i.e. azathioprine with IFNbeta, IFNbeta with glatiramer acetate, or pulses of intravenous cyclophosphamide with IFNbeta). Determining the effect of different therapies on the course of the disease within large clinical studies appears easier than determining individual responsiveness. Therefore, standardised methods for evaluating individual patients receiving disease-modifying therapies and development of effective therapeutic algorithms are needed.
    Drugs 04/2000; 59(3):401-10. · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Annals of Neurology - ANN NEUROL. 01/2000; 48(6):885-892.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Episodic inflammation in the CNS during the early stages of MS results in progressive disability years later, presumably due to myelin and axonal injury. MRI demonstrates ongoing disease activity during the early disease stage, even in some patients who are stable clinically. The optimal MRI measure for the destructive pathologic process is uncertain, however. In this post-hoc study, MRI scans were analyzed from patients with relapsing MS participating in a placebo-controlled trial of interferon beta-1a. The brain parenchymal fraction, defined as the ratio of brain parenchymal volume to the total volume within the brain surface contour, was used to measure whole brain atrophy. The relationship between disease features and brain atrophy and effect of interferon beta-1a were determined. MS patients had significant brain atrophy that worsened during each of 2 years of observation. In many patients, brain atrophy worsened without clinical disease activity. Baseline clinical and MRI abnormalities were not strongly related to the rate of brain atrophy during the subsequent 2 years. Treatment with interferon beta-1a resulted in a reduction in brain atrophy progression during the second year of the clinical trial. Patients with relapsing-remitting MS have measurable amounts of whole brain atrophy that worsens yearly, in most cases without clinical manifestations. The brain parenchymal fraction is a marker for destructive pathologic processes ongoing in relapsing MS patients, and appears useful in demonstrating treatment effects in controlled clinical trials.
    Neurology 12/1999; 53(8):1698-704. · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have obtained a current profile of multiple sclerosis York State through a centralized patient registry and standardized data collection instrument associated with the New York State Multiple Sclerosis Consortium of 12 MS centers located throughout the state. Data from the first 3019 patients with clinically definite MS revealed a clear relationship between MS disease type, duration of disease, and severity of physical disability. Patients with relapsing disease had disease durations approximately half as long as those with progressive forms of the disease (means approximately 6 years versus 11 years). The majority of patients with relapsing disease had Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores of 4.0 or less (self-sustained, fully ambulatory), whereas the majority of patients with progressive disease types had EDSS scores of 6.0 or greater (at least unilateral assist for walking). These findings emphasize the importance of early intervention in patients with relapsing disease to slow or prevent the accumulation of physical disability associated with progressive types of disease. Progressive disease was associated with lack of full-time employment and being disabled before the age of 60 years. Patients with relapsing disease were more likely to be employed and have private forms of insurance, whereas patients with progressive types of disease were more likely to have government-supported insurance to cover medical expenses.
    Multiple Sclerosis 11/1999; 5(5):369-76. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine if progressive brain atrophy could be detected over 1- and 2-year intervals in relapsing MS, based on annual MR studies from the Multiple Sclerosis Collaborative Research Group (MSCRG) trial of interferon beta-1a (Avonex). All subjects had mild to moderate disability, with baseline expanded disability status scores ranging from 1.0 to 3.5, and at least two relapses in the 3 years before study entry. Atrophy measures included third and lateral ventricle width, brain width, and corpus callosum area. Significant increases were detected in third ventricle width at year 2 and lateral ventricle width at 1 and 2 years. Significant decreases in corpus callosum area and brain width were also observed at 1 and 2 years. Multiple regression analyses suggested that the number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions at baseline was the single significant contributor to change in third ventricle width. Atrophy over 1 and 2 years as indicated by enlargement of the third and lateral ventricle and shrinkage of the corpus callosum was greater for patients entering the trial with enhancing lesions. Greater disability increments over 1 and 2 years were associated with more severe third ventricle enlargement. In patients with relapsing MS and only mild to moderate disability, significant cerebral atrophy is already developing that can be measured over periods of only 1 to 2 years. The course of cerebral atrophy in MS appears to be influenced by prior inflammatory disease activity as indicated by the presence of enhancing lesions. Brain atrophy measures are important markers of MS disease progression because they likely reflect destructive and irreversible pathologic processes.
    Neurology 08/1999; 53(1):139-48. · 8.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
299.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991–2003
    • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
      • • Pharmaceutical Sciences Department
      • • Department of Neurology
      Buffalo, NY, United States
  • 1994–2000
    • Buffalo General Medical Center
      Buffalo, New York, United States
  • 1999
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • Cleveland Clinic
      • Neurological Institute
      Cleveland, OH, United States
  • 1998–1999
    • University of Colorado
      • Department of Radiology
      Denver, CO, United States
  • 1997
    • Roswell Park Cancer Institute
      • Department of Neurology
      Buffalo, New York, United States
  • 1991–1995
    • Multiple Sclerosis Research Center of New York
      New York City, New York, United States