Laurent Loufrani

French National Centre for Scientific Research, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (80)418.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In resistance arteries a chronic increase in blood flow induces hypertrophic outward remodeling. This flow-mediated remodeling (FMR) is absent in male rats aged 10 months and more. As FMR depends on estrogens in 3-month old female rats, we hypothesized that it might be preserved in 12-month old female rats. Blood flow was increased in vivo in mesenteric resistance arteries after ligating side arteries in 3- and 12-month old male and female rats. After 2 weeks, high (HF) and normal flow (NF) arteries were isolated for in vitro analysis. Arterial diameter and cross sectional area increased in HF, compared to NF arteries, in 3-month old male and female rats. In 12-month old rats, diameter increased only in female rats. Endothelial NO-synthase expression and endothelium-mediated relaxation were higher in HF than in NF arteries in all groups. ERK1/2 phosphorylation, NADPHoxidase subunits expression level and arterial contractility to KCl and to phenylephrine were greater in HF than in NF vessels in 12-month old male rats only. Ovariectomy in 12-month old female rats induced a similar pattern with an increased contractility without diameter increase in HF arteries. Treatment of 12-month old male rats and ovariectomized female rats with hydralazine, the antioxidant TEMPOL or the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan restored HF-remodeling and normalized arterial contractility in HF vessels. Thus, we found that FMR of resistance arteries remains efficient in 12-month old female rats compared to age-matched male rats. A balance between estrogens and vascular contractility might preserve FMR in mature female rats.
    American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Flow (shear stress)-mediated outward remodeling (FMR) of resistance arteries is a key adaptive process allowing collateral growth after arterial occlusion but declining with age. 17-β-estradiol (E2) has a key role in this process through activation of estrogen receptor α (ERα). Thus, we investigated the impact of age and timing for estrogen efficacy on FMR. Female rats, 3 to 18 months old, were submitted to surgery to increase blood flow locally in 1 mesenteric artery in vivo. High-flow and normal-flow arteries were collected 2 weeks later for in vitro analysis. Diameter increased by 27% in high-flow arteries compared with normal-flow arteries in 3-month-old rats. The amplitude of remodeling declined with age (12% in 18-month-old rats) in parallel with E2 blood level and E2 substitution failed restoring remodeling in 18-month-old rats. Ovariectomy of 3-, 9-, and 12-month-old rats abolished FMR, which was restored by immediate E2 replacement. Nevertheless, this effect of E2 was absent 9 months after ovariectomy. In this latter group, ERα and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression were reduced by half compared with age-matched rats recently ovariectomized. FMR did not occur in ERα(-/-) mice, whereas it was decreased by 50% in ERα(+/-) mice, emphasizing the importance of gene dosage in high-flow remodeling. E2 deprivation, rather than age, leads to decline in FMR, which can be prevented by early exogenous E2. However, delayed E2 replacement was ineffective on FMR, underlining the importance of timing of this estrogen action.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 04/2014; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A chronic increase in blood flow in resistance arteries is associated with increased lumen diameter (outward remodeling) and improved endothelium (NO)-mediated relaxation. Flow-mediated remodeling of resistance arteries is essential for revascularization in ischemic diseases. Nevertheless, it is impaired in 12 to 24-month old rats and in young Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats due to advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and oxidative stress. As type 2 diabetes occurs preferentially in older subjects we investigated flow-mediated remodeling and the effect of the AGEs breaker ALT-711 associated or not to the antioxidant TEMPOL in one-year old lean (LZ) and ZDF rats. Mesenteric resistance arteries were exposed to high (HF) or normal blood flow (NF) in vivo. They were collected after 2 weeks for in vitro analysis. In LZ rats, diameter expansion did not occur despite a significant increase in blood flow in HF arteries. Nevertheless, endothelium-mediated relaxation was higher in HF than in NF arteries. ALT-711, alone or in combination with TEMPOL, restored outward remodeling in HF arteries in association with AGEs reduction. TEMPOL alone had no effect. ALT-711, TEMPOL or the combination of the 2 drugs did not significantly affect endothelium-mediated relaxation in HF and NF arteries.In ZDF rats, diameter did not increase despite the increase in blood flow and endothelium-mediated relaxation was further decreased in HF arteries in association with AGEs accumulation and excessive oxidative stress. In both NF and HF arteries, endothelium-mediated relaxation was lower in ZDF than in LZ rats. ALT-711, TEMPOL or their combination did not improve remodeling (diameter equivalent in HF and NF arteries). In parallel, they did not reduce AGEs level and did not improve MMPs activity. Nevertheless, ALT-711 and TEMPOL partly improved endothelium-mediated relaxation through a reduction of oxidative stress and the association of ALT-711 and TEMPOL fully restored relaxation to the level found in LZ rats. ALT-711 did not improve outward remodeling in mature ZDF rats but it reduced oxidative stress and consequently improved endothelium-dependent relaxation. In mature LZ rats, ALT-711 improved outward remodeling and reduced AGEs level. Consequently, AGEs breaking is differently useful in ageing whether it is associated with diabetes or not.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 03/2014; 13(1):55. · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. As flow-mediated outward remodeling has a key role in postischemic revascularization, we investigated this remodeling in mesenteric resistance arteries of normotensive (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) aged 3 to 9 months. Sequential ligation of mesenteric resistance arteries allowed modifying blood flow in vivo, thus exposing arteries to low, normal, or high flow. After 1, 3, 8, or 24 weeks, arteries were isolated for in vitro study. High flow (HF) induced outward hypertrophic remodeling in WKY rats after 1 week and persisted until 24 weeks without change in wall to lumen ratio. In SHRs, diameter increase was delayed, occurring only after 3 weeks. Nevertheless, it was reduced at 8 weeks and no longer significant after 24 weeks. In parallel, media cross-section area increased more with time in SHRs than in WKY rats and this was associated with increased contractility and oxidative stress with decreased NO-dependent relaxation. Low flow induced progressive inward remodeling until 24 weeks in both strains with excessive hypertrophy in SHRs. Thus, a chronic increase in flow induced transitory diameter expansion and long-lasting hypertrophy in SHRs. This could contribute to the higher susceptibility of hypertensive subjects to ischemic diseases.
    International journal of hypertension. 01/2014; 2014:859793.
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence implicates overactivation of RhoA as a critical component of the pathogenesis of hypertension. Although a substantial body of work has established that Rac1 functions antagonize RhoA in a broad range of physiological processes, the role of Rac1 in the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure is not fully elucidated.
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2014; 3(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies assess an important risk of thrombosis relapse in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (1-2), and the need for a secondary prophylaxis (3). Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is such a treatment, revealing a positive balance benefits/risks and a low economic cost. The goals of this first prospective study in primary APS patients were to assess the HCQ efficacy as a new therapeutic approach and to evaluate its effectiveness relative to standard oral anticoagulants (OA) for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 08/2013; · 6.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arteriogenesis requires growth of pre-existing arteriolar collateral networks and determines clinical outcome in arterial occlusive diseases. Factors responsible for the development of arteriolar collateral networks are poorly understood. The Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4) promotes arterial differentiation and restricts vessel branching. We hypothesized that Dll4 may act as a genetic determinant of collateral arterial networks and functional recovery in stroke and hind limb ischemia models in mice. Genetic loss- and gain-of-function approaches in mice showed that Dll4-Notch signaling restricts pial collateral artery formation by modulating arterial branching morphogenesis during embryogenesis. Adult Dll4(+/-) mice showed increased pial collateral numbers, but stroke volume upon middle cerebral artery occlusion was not reduced compared with wild-type littermates. Likewise, Dll4(+/-) mice showed reduced blood flow conductance after femoral artery occlusion, and, despite markedly increased angiogenesis, tissue ischemia was more severe. In peripheral arteries, loss of Dll4 adversely affected excitation-contraction coupling in arterial smooth muscle in response to vasopressor agents and arterial vessel wall adaption in response to increases in blood flow, collectively contributing to reduced flow reserve. We conclude that Dll4-Notch signaling modulates native collateral formation by acting on vascular branching morphogenesis during embryogenesis. Dll4 furthermore affects tissue perfusion by acting on arterial function and structure. Loss of Dll4 stimulates collateral formation and angiogenesis, but in the context of ischemic diseases such beneficial effects are overruled by adverse functional changes, demonstrating that ischemic recovery is not solely determined by collateral number but rather by vessel functionality.
    Development 04/2013; 140(8):1720-9. · 6.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with altered arterial structure and function leading to arterial narrowing in most vascular beds, especially when associated with aging. Nevertheless, mesenteric blood flow remains elevated in obese rats, although the effect of aging remains unknown. We investigated mesenteric arteries narrowing following blood flow reduction in vivo in 3- and 12-month-old obese Zucker rats. After 21days, inward remodeling occurred in low flow (LF) arteries in young and old lean rats and in young obese rats (30% diameter reduction). Diameter did not significantly decrease in old obese rats. Phenylephrine-mediated contraction was reduced by approximately 20% in LF arteries in all groups but in old obese rats arteries in which the decrease reached 80%. LF arteries expressed cyclooxygenase-2 and blood 6-keto-PGF1alpha (prostacyclin metabolite) was elevated in old obese rats. In old obese rats acute cyclooxygenase-2 blockade restored phenylephrine-mediated contraction in LF arteries and chronic cyclooxygenase-2 blockade restored inward remodeling and contractility to control level. Thus, in old obese rats cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostacyclin prevented diameter reduction induced by a chronic decrease in blood flow. This adaptation is in favor of a preserved perfusion of the mesentery by contrast with other vascular territories, possibly amplifying the vascular disorders occurring in obesity.
    Vascular Pharmacology 03/2013; · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic modulation plays an important role in arterial stiffening associated with ageing. Serum response factor (SRF) is a major transcription factor regulating smooth muscle (SM) genes involved in maintenance of the contractile state of VSMCs. Objective: We investigated whether SRF and its target genes regulate intrinsic SM-tone and thereby arterial stiffness. Methods and Results: The SRF gene was inactivated (SRF(SMKO)) specifically in VSMCs by injection of tamoxifen into adult transgenic mice. Fifteen days later, arterial pressure and carotid thickness were lower in SRF(SMKO) than in control mice. The carotid distensibility/pressure and elastic modulus/wall stress curves showed a greater arterial elasticity in SRF(SMKO) without modification in collagen/elastin ratio. In SRF(SMKO), vasodilation was decreased in aorta and carotid arteries whereas a decrease in contractile response was found in mesenteric arteries. By contrast, in mice with inducible SRF overexpression, the in vitro contractile response was significantly increased in all arteries. Without endothelium, the contraction was reduced in SRF(SMKO) compared with control aortic rings due to impairment of the NO pathway. Contractile components (SM-actin and myosin light chain), regulators of the contractile response (myosin light chain kinase, myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 and protein kinase C-potentiated myosin phosphatase inhibitor) and integrins were reduced in SRF(SMKO). Conclusions: SRF controls vasoconstriction in mesenteric arteries via VSMC phenotypic modulation linked to changes in contractile protein gene expression. SRF-related decreases in vasomotor tone and cell-matrix attachment increase arterial elasticity in large arteries.
    Circulation Research 02/2013; · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Flow- (shear stress-)mediated outward remodeling of resistance arteries is involved in collateral growth during postischemic revascularization. As this remodeling is especially important during pregnancy, we hypothesized that estrogens may be involved. A surgical model eliciting a local increase in blood flow in 1 mesenteric resistance artery was used in 3-month-old ovariectomized female rats either treated with 17-β-estradiol (E2) or left untreated. METHODS AND RESULTS: After 14 days, arterial diameter was greater in high-flow arteries than in normal-flow vessels. An ovariectomy suppressed high-flow remodeling, while E2 restored it. High-flow remodeling was absent in mice lacking the estrogen receptor α but not estrogen receptor β. The kinetics of inflammatory marker expression, macrophage infiltration, oxidative stress, and MMP expression were not altered by the absence of E2 after 2 and 4 days, that is, during remodeling. Nevertheless, E2 was required for the increase in endothelial NOS expression and activation at day 4 when diameter expansion occurs. Finally, the impact of E2 on the endothelium appeared crucial for high-flow remodeling, as this E2 action was abrogated in mice lacking endothelial NOS, as well as in Tie2-Cre(+) ERα(f/f) mice. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the essential role of E2 and endothelial estrogen receptor α in flow-mediated remodeling of resistance arteries in vivo.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 01/2013; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction in resistance arteries alters end organ perfusion in type 2 diabetes. Superoxides and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derivatives have been shown separately to alter endothelium-mediated relaxation in aging and diabetes but their role in the alteration of vascular tone in old diabetic subjects is not clear, especially in resistance arteries. Consequently, we investigated the role of superoxide and COX-2-derivatives on endothelium-dependent relaxation in 3 and 12 month-old Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and lean (LZ) rats. Mesenteric resistance arteries were isolated and vascular tone was investigated using wire-myography. Endothelium (acetylcholine)-dependent relaxation was lower in ZDF than in LZ rats (60 versus 84% maximal relaxation in young rats and 41 versus 69% in old rats). Blocking NO production with L-NAME was less efficient in old than in young rats. L-NAME had no effect in old ZDF rats although eNOS expression level in old ZDF rats was similar to that in old LZ rats. Superoxide level and NADPH-oxidase subunits (p67phox and gp91phox) expression level were greater in ZDF than in LZ rats and were further increased by aging in ZDF rats. In young ZDF rats reducing superoxide level with tempol restored acetylcholine-dependent relaxation to the level of LZ rats. In old ZDF rats tempol improved acetylcholine-dependent relaxation without increasing it to the level of LZ rats. COX-2 (immunolabelling and Western-blot) was present in arteries of ZDF rats and absent in LZ rats. In old ZDF rats arterial COX-2 level was higher than in young ZDF rats. COX-2 blockade with NS398 restored in part acetylcholine-dependent relaxation in arteries of old ZDF rats and the combination of tempol and NS398 fully restored relaxation in control (LZ rats) level. Accordingly, superoxide production and COX-2 derivatives together reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation in old ZDF rats whereas superoxides alone attenuated relaxation in young ZDF or old LZ rats.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e68217. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: In resistance arteries, diameter adjustment in response to pressure changes depends on the vascular cytoskeleton integrity. Serum response factor (SRF) is a dispensable transcription factor for cellular growth, but its role remains unknown in resistance arteries. We hypothesized that SRF is required for appropriate microvascular contraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used mice in which SRF was specifically deleted in smooth muscle or endothelial cells, and their control. Myogenic tone and pharmacological contraction was determined in resistance arteries. mRNA and protein expression were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Actin polymerization was determined by confocal microscopy. Stress-activated channel activity was measured by patch clamp. Myogenic tone developing in response to pressure was dramatically decreased by SRF deletion (5.9±2.3%) compared with control (16.3±3.2%). This defect was accompanied by decreases in actin polymerization, filamin A, MLCK and MLC expression level, and stress-activated channel activity and sensitivity in response to pressure. Contractions induced by phenylephrine or U46619 were not modified, despite a higher sensitivity to p38 blockade; this highlights a compensatory pathway, allowing normal receptor-dependent contraction. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that SRF has a major part to play in the control of local blood flow via its central role in pressure-induced myogenic tone in resistance arteries.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 12/2012; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with sickle cell disease suffer from painful crises associated with disseminated vaso-occlusions, increased circulating erythrocyte microparticles (MP) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP1). MP are submicron membrane vesicles shed by compromised or activated cells. We hypothesized that TSP1 mediates MP shedding and participates in vaso-occlusions. We injected TSP1 to transgenic SAD mice with sickle cell disease and characterized circulating phosphatidylserine+ MP by FACS. TSP1 stimulated MP in plasma and initiated vaso-occlusions within minutes. In vitro, TSP1 triggered rapid erythrocyte conversion into spicule-covered echinocytes, followed by MP shedding. MP shedding was recapitulated by peptides derived from the TSP1 carboxyterminus. We purified MP shed by erythrocytes in vitro and administered them back to SAD mice. MP triggered immediate renal vaso-occlusions. In vitro, MP triggered the production of radical oxygen species by endothelial monolayers, favored erythrocyte adhesion and induced endothelial apoptosis. MP also compromised vasodilation in perfused microvessels. These effects were inhibited by saturating MP phosphatidylserine with annexin-V, or with inhibitors of endothelial ROS production. We conclude that TSP1 triggers erythrocyte microparticle shedding. These MP induce endothelial injury and facilitate acute vaso-occlusive events in transgenic SAD mice. This work supports a novel concept that toxic erythrocyte microparticles may connect sickle cell anemia to vascular disease.
    Blood 09/2012; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Shear stress due to blood flow is the most important force stimulating vascular endothelium. Acute stimulation of the endothelium by shear stress induces a vasodilatation mainly due to the release of nitric oxide (NO) among other relaxing agents. After a chronic increase in blood flow (shear stress), the endothelium triggers diameter enlargement, medial hypertrophy and improvement of arterial contractility and endothelium-mediated dilation. Shear stress-mediated outward remodeling requires an initial inflammatory response followed by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxinitrite anions, which activate MMPs and extracellular matrix digestion allowing diameter expansion. This outward remodeling occurs in collateral growth following occlusion of a large artery. In diabetes, an excessive ROS production is associated with the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and the glycation of enzymes involved in vascular tone. The balance between inflammation, AGEs and ROS level determines the ability of resistance arteries to develop outward remodeling whereas AGEs and ROS contribute to decrease endothelium-mediated dilation in remodeled vessels. This review explores the interaction between ROS, AGEs and the endothelium in shear stress-mediated outward remodeling of resistance arteries in diabetes. Restoring or maintaining this remodeling is essential for an efficient blood flow in distal organs.
    Vascular Pharmacology 03/2012; 57(5-6):173-8. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flow-mediated remodeling of resistance arteries is essential for revascularization in ischemic diseases, but this is impaired in diabetes. We hypothesized that breaking advanced glycation end product (AGE) cross-links could improve remodeling in mesenteric resistance arteries in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats compared with lean Zucker (LZ) rats. Arteries, exposed to high (HF) or normal (NF) blood flow after alternate arterial ligation in vivo, were collected after 2 weeks. In LZ rats, HF artery diameter was larger than for NF vessels, but this was not the case in ZDF rats. Endothelium-mediated dilation in ZDF rats, which was lower than in LZ rats, was further decreased in HF arteries. Treatment of rats with the AGE-breaker 4,5-dimethyl-3-phenacylthiazolium chloride (ALT-711) (3 mg/kg/day; 3 weeks) reversed diabetes-induced impairment of HF-dependent remodeling. ALT-711 also improved endothelium nitric oxide-dependent relaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries. Reactive oxygen species reduction restored relaxation in ZDF rats but not in LZ or ALT-711-treated rats. AGEs were reduced in ALT-711-treated ZDF rats compared with ZDF rats. Metalloproteinase activity, necessary for HF-dependent remodeling, was reduced in ZDF rats compared with LZ rats and restored by ALT-711. Thus, targeting AGE cross-links may provide a therapeutic potential for overcoming microvascular complications in ischemic disorders occurring in diabetes.
    Diabetes 03/2012; 61(6):1562-72. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Large vessels are also affected in sickle cell disease. The aim of this study was to assess several parameters in adult patients with sickle cell disease compared with control subjects and in patients with sickle cell disease with stroke. Carotid arterial stiffness, intima-media thickness, and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography were measured. Arterial stiffness and transcranial Doppler velocity were significantly increased in 49 patients with sickle cell disease compared with 47 control subjects (P<0.05) and especially in patients with stroke (P<0.05). These data suggest that transcranial Doppler and arterial stiffness might be associated to stroke in adult patients with sickle cell disease.
    Stroke 12/2011; 43(4):1129-30. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance arteries remain subject to pulsatility, a potent regulator of large elastic artery tone and structure, but the effect is incompletely understood. Extracorporeal circulation during cardiac surgery is often associated with absence of pulsatility, which may affect vascular tone. To define the role of the vascular wall in the inflammatory process that may occur with or without pulsatility, we studied resistance arteries functions ex vivo. We measured vascular reactivity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the arterial wall. Isolated rat mesenteric resistance arteries were mounted in an arteriograph and subjected to pulsatility or not in vitro. Arteries were perfused with a physiologic salt solution without circulating cells. After 180 minutes, flow-mediated dilation was higher and pressure-induced myogenic tone lower in arteries subjected to pulsatility. Without pulsatility, reactive oxygen species and markers of inflammation (monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and tumor necrosis factor α) were higher than baseline. In perfused mesenteric beds under similar conditions, tumor necrosis factor α was higher in perfusate after 180 minutes of nonpulsatility (5.7 ± 1.6 pg/mL vs 1.1 ± 0.4 pg/mL; P < .01). In arteries treated with the antioxidant 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (tempol), flow-mediated dilation and myogenic tone were similar in nonpulsatile and pulsatile arteries; monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and nuclear factor κB expression levels were not increased in tempol-treated nonpulsatile arteries. Absence of pulsatility in resistance arteries increased oxidative stress, which in turn induced inflammation and preferentially altered pressure and flow-dependent tone, which play a key role in control of local blood flow.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 08/2011; 142(5):1254-62. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cryofibrinogenemia may be essential, or secondary to diseases such as neoplasia, infection, thrombosis, and collagen vascular diseases. In a previous study, we reported the occurrence of neoplasia in some essential cryofibrinogenemia patients after a short period of follow-up. We performed a prospective multi-center 5-year follow-up study in essential cryofibrinogenemia patients (2005-2009). 23 patients with essential cryofibrinogenemia were included, mean age 59 years (range: 33-79), 14 males. After a mean follow-up period of 24 months, 11/23 (47%) of cases that were initially diagnosed as essential cryofibrinogenemia were found to have an underlying lymphoma (6 T lymphoma and 5 B lymphoma). This prospective study suggests that some cases of cryofibrinogenemia that are initially considered as essential, may have underlying lymphoma. Thus, we further suggest that regular follow-up should be performed in patients with essential cryofibrinogenemia.
    Autoimmunity reviews 07/2011; 10(9):559-62. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase 1 is induced by hemodynamic forces in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. We investigated the involvement of heme oxygenase 1 in flow (shear stress)-dependent remodeling. Two or 14 days after ligation of mesenteric resistance arteries, vessels were isolated. In rats, at 14 days, diameter increased by 23% in high-flow arteries and decreased by 22% in low-flow arteries compared with normal flow vessels. Heme oxygenase activity inhibition using Tin-protoporphyrin abolished diameter enlargement in high-flow arteries and accentuated arterial narrowing in low-flow arteries (32% diameter decrease versus 22% in control). Two days after ligation, heme oxygenase 1 expression increased in high-flow and low-flow vessels, in association with a reduced mitochondrial aconitase activity (marker of oxidative stress) in high-flow arteries only. Inhibition of macrophage infiltration (clodronate) decreased heme oxygenase 1 induction in low-flow but not in high-flow arteries. Similarly, inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity (apocynin) decreased heme oxygenase 1 induction in low-flow but not high-flow arteries. However, dihydroethidium staining was higher in high-flow and low-flow compared with normal flow arteries. In arteries cannulated in an arteriograph, heme oxygenase 1 mRNA increased in a flow-dependent manner and was abolished by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, catalase, or mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibition. Furthermore, heme oxygenase 1 induction using cobalt-protoporphyrin restored altered high-flow remodeling in endothelial NO synthase knockout mice. Thus, in high-flow remodeling, heme oxygenase 1 induction depends on shear stress-generated NO and mitochondria-derived hydrogen peroxide. In low-flow remodeling, heme oxygenase 1 induction requires macrophage infiltration and is mediated by NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide.
    Hypertension 06/2011; 58(2):225-31. · 6.87 Impact Factor
  • Hypertension. 12/2010; 56(6):1169.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
418.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007–2013
    • University of Angers
      • Faculté de médecine
      Angers, Pays de la Loire, France
  • 2002–2009
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 1999–2009
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      • Paris-Cardiovascular Research Center PARCC
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France