ABSTRACT: The clinical responses to chemotherapy in lung cancer patients are unsatisfactory. Thus, the development of more effective anticancer drugs for lung cancer is urgently needed.
A 2-step novel synthetic compound, referred to as 1,1,3-tri(3-indolyl)cyclohexane (3-indole), was generated in high purity and yield. 3-Indole was tested for its biologic activity in A549, H1299, H1435, CL1-1, and H1437 lung cancer cells. Animal studies were also performed.
The data indicate that 3-indole induced apoptosis in various lung cancer cells. Increased cytochrome-c release from mitochondria to cytosol, decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2, and increased expression of proapoptotic Bax were observed. In addition, 3-indole stimulated caspases-3, -9, and to a lesser extent caspase-8 activities in cancer cells, suggesting that the intrinsic mitochondria pathway was the potential mechanism involved in 3-indole-induced apoptosis. 3-Indole-induced a concentration-dependent mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and triggering of DNA damage were also apparent. Note that 3-indole-induced JNK activation and DNA damage can be partially suppressed by an ROS inhibitor. Apoptosis induced by 3-indole could be abrogated by ROS or JNK inhibitors, suggesting the importance of ROS and JNK stress-related pathways in 3-indole-induced apoptosis. Moreover, 3-indole showed in vivo antitumor activities against human xenografts in murine models.
On the basis of its potent anticancer activity in cell and animal models, the data suggest that this 2-step synthetic 3-indole compound of high purity and yield is a potential candidate to be tested as a lead pharmaceutical compound for cancer treatment.
Cancer 08/2008; 113(4):815-25. · 4.77 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Most lung cancer patients have some resistance to and suffer from side effects of conventional chemotherapy. Thus, identification of a novel anticancer drug with better target selectivity for lung cancer treatment is urgently needed.
In order to investigate whether OSU03013, a derivative of celecoxib, can be a potential drug for lung cancer treatment, we examined its cytotoxicity mechanisms by flow cytometry and phosphatidylserine staining in A549, CL1-1, and H1435 lung cancer cell lines, which are resistant to the conventional drug, cisplatin. In addition, we identified the affected proteins by proteomics and confirmed the selected proteins by Western blot analysis. We examined the interaction between OSU03013 and potential target protein by molecular modeling.
Our results indicated that OSU03013 had low-dose (1 approximately 4 microM) cytotoxicity in all lung cancer cell lines tested 48 hours posttreatment. OSU03013 caused cell cycle G1 phase arrest and showed phosphatidylserine early apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress. Several proteins such as heat shock protein 27, 70, and 90, CDC2, alpha-tubulin, annexin A3, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta, and beta-catenin were identified by proteomics and confirmed by Western blot. In addition, molecular modeling showed that OSU03013 competes with ATP to bind to cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
We identified for the first time that OSU03013 inhibits cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity and causes dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta leading to beta-catenin degradation, which is often overexpressed in lung cancer. Our molecular and proteomic results show the potential of OSU03013 as an anticancer drug for lung cancer.
Clinical Cancer Research 04/2008; 14(6):1823-30. · 7.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We found a relatively reduced frequency of p53 mutation with a much greater frequency of p53 protein overexpression, which reflected stabilization of p53 protein in the absence of p53 gene mutation. Therefore, we investigated the possibility of alternative mechanisms leading to p53 protein stabilization.
We performed gene and protein alteration studies on p53 and its upstream effectors, MDM2 and p14ARF, in tumors from 94 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
Immunohistochemical and sequencing analyses indicated that 37 tumors showed overexpression of wild-type p53. An absence of nuclear staining of MDM2 protein was found in 95% of these tumors (35 of 37; P < .001). The tumors with negative MDM2 staining showed a significantly high concordance of loss of Akt activity and low MDM2 mRNA expression (P < .001). Sequencing analysis revealed five distinct MDM2 splicing variants disrupting the conserved p53 binding domain. Corresponding variant proteins were detected in three lung cancer cell lines using the Western blot analysis. Our results also indicated that among the tumors with overexpression of the wild-type p53, 92% (34 of 37) showed immunoreactivity to p14ARF (P = .001). In addition, the deregulation of p53 and MDM2 genes was significantly associated with squamous lung cancer (P < .05) and was correlated with advanced stages (P < .05) and poor prognosis (P < .05).
Our data suggest that immunopositivity of p14ARF together with a low expression of MDM2 contributes to accumulation of the wild-type p53, and that deregulation of the p53-MDM2-p14ARF pathway is important in the pathogenesis and outcome of a subset of NSCLC.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2005; 23(1):154-64. · 18.37 Impact Factor