[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A single encounter with a dialysis patient led to the study of complement and neutrophil aggregation, which in turn spawned our work and the remarkable development of the field of vascular biology. As our understanding of these cellular interactions and the signaling pathways involved in these processes has expanded, so has our appreciation for the broad impact of this work on an array of human diseases.
The Journal of clinical investigation 09/2012; 122(9):3044-5. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iron-derived reactive oxygen species are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous vascular disorders. One abundant source of redox active iron is heme, which is inherently dangerous when it escapes from its physiologic sites. Here, we present a review of the nature of heme-mediated cytotoxicity and of the strategies by which endothelium manages to protect itself from this clear and present danger. Of all sites in the body, the endothelium may be at greatest risk of exposure to heme. Heme greatly potentiates endothelial cell killing mediated by leukocytes and other sources of reactive oxygen. Heme also promotes the conversion of low-density lipoprotein to cytotoxic oxidized products. Hemoglobin in plasma, when oxidized, transfers heme to endothelium and lipoprotein, thereby enhancing susceptibility to oxidant-mediated injury. As a defense against such stress, endothelial cells upregulate heme oxygenase-1 and ferritin. Heme oxygenase opens the porphyrin ring, producing biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and a most dangerous product-redox active iron. The latter can be effectively controlled by ferritin via sequestration and ferroxidase activity. These homeostatic adjustments have been shown to be effective in the protection of endothelium against the damaging effects of heme and oxidants; lack of adaptation in an iron-rich environment led to extensive endothelial damage in humans.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 01/2008; 9(12):2119-37. · 7.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heme arginate infusions blunt the symptoms of patients with acute intermittent porphyria without evidence of the vascular or thrombotic side effects reported for hematin. To provide a rationale for heme arginate's safety, the present study examined the effects of various ferriporphyrins to sensitize human endothelial cells to free radical injury and to induce heme oxygenase and ferritin expression. Heme arginate, unlike hematin, did not amplify oxidant-induced cytotoxicity mediated by hydrogen peroxide (5.3 +/- 2.4 versus 62.3 +/- 5.3% (51)Cr release, P <.0001) or by activated neutrophils (14.4 +/- 2.9 versus 41.1 +/- 6.0%, P <.0001). Nevertheless, heme arginate efficiently entered endothelial cells similarly to hematin, since both markedly induced heme oxygenase mRNA (more than 20-fold increase) and enzyme activity. Even with efficient permeation, endothelial cell ferritin content was only minimally increased by heme arginate compared with a 10-fold induction by hematin; presumably less free iron was derived from heme arginate despite up-regulation of heme oxygenase. Hematin is potentially vasculopathic by its marked catalysis of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to endothelial-toxic moieties. Heme arginate was significantly less catalytic. Heme arginate-conditioned LDL was less than half as cytotoxic to endothelial cells as hematin-conditioned LDL (P <.004). It is concluded that heme arginate may be less vasculotoxic than hematin since it is an effective heme oxygenase gene regulator but a less efficient free-radical catalyst.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1 plaque-forming unit/cell and remained > 95% viable even after 10 days of infection. To induce apoptosis, control human umbilical vein endothelial cells and cells infected with HCMV for 3, 5, and 7 days were serum starved for 48 hours. Almost one-half of the uninfected cells lost viability after 48 hours of serum starvation whereas HCMV-infected cells were virtually unaffected (< 20% death, P < 0.05). Uninfected cells showed typical hallmarks of apoptosis, including unique morphological changes and DNA laddering. HCMV-infected cells, concomitant with their resistance to serum-starvation-induced death, displayed almost none of these characteristics. Active replication of HCMV was necessary for the anti-apoptotic effect, as cells treated with ultraviolet light-inactivated virus were not protected. p53, the G1/S phase cell cycle brake protein, was elevated in HCMV-infected cells. However, rather than accumulating in the nucleus, immunofluorescent and Western blot studies demonstrated remarkable and predominant cytoplasmic sequestration of p53 in HCMV-infected endothelial cells. Although HCMV proteins have already been shown to block apoptosis, we suggest that the aberrant subcellular pattern of p53 is the disturbed cellular mechanism that may be responsible for the anti-apototic properties of HCMV-infected cells. The selective resistance to apoptosis can be important during HCMV replication and may explain the oncogenic potential of HCMV as well as its pathogenic role in intimal-proliferation-mediated vascular diseases.
American Journal Of Pathology 11/1996; 149(5):1531-9. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ferritin protects endothelial cells from the damaging effects of iron-catalyzed oxidative injury. Regulation of ferritin occurs through the formation of an iron-sulfur cluster within a cytoplasmic protein, the iron regulatory protein (IRP) that controls ferritin mRNA translation. Nitric oxide has been shown to inhibit iron-sulfur proteins and is present at vascular sites of inflammation; therefore, we undertook a study to examine the influence of nitric oxide on changes in endothelial cell ferritin content in response to iron exposure, and the subsequent effects on susceptibility to oxidative injury. Iron-loaded endothelial cells (EC) exposed to nitric oxide donors synthesize markedly less ferritin. Treatment of EC with a nitric oxide donor increases IRP affinity for ferritin mRNA concomitant with a loss of cytoplasmic aconitase activity in iron-laden EC. Iron-treated EC exposed to NO donors were resistant to oxidative injury despite their low ferritin content when examined 1 h after the treatment period. In contrast, 24 h later, these same cells become sensitive to oxidants, whereas iron-treated EC that are ferritin-rich continue to be resistant. In conclusion, NO inhibits the increase of EC ferritin after exposure to iron but provides short-term protection against oxidants; ferritin, in turn, provides durable cytoprotection by inactivating reactive iron.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 02/1996; 20(1):63-73. · 5.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analysed the clinical features, course and response to immunosuppressive therapy in 30 patients with autoimmune disorders associated with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). 18 patients with MDS developed acute systemic autoimmune disorders. Common manifestations were skin vasculitis (n = 15) and arthritis (n = 11). Seven patients had an acute clinical syndrome of vasculitic skin rash, fever and arthritis with peripheral oedema in three and pulmonary infiltrates in five of these seven patients. Other acute manifestations included pericarditis, pleural effusions, skin ulceration, seizures, myositis and peripheral neuropathy. Chronic or isolated autoimmune manifestations (n = 11) included glomerulonephritis, polyneuropathy, pyoderma gangrenosum, ulcerative colitis and polyarthritis. Classic connective tissue disorders recognized included relapsing polychondritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, Raynaud's syndrome and Sjögren's syndrome. Autoimmune manifestations responded to immunosuppressive therapy (primarily prednisone) in 26/27 patients treated. Furthermore, cytopenias improved substantially in six patients, including complete normalization of peripheral blood counts in two patients with cytogenetic remission in one. Patients with a haematological response to immunosuppressive therapy had improved survival compared with non-responding patients. The autoimmune syndrome was implicated as a primary cause of death in 8/17 patients who died. Autoimmune manifestations may be more common than previously recognized in patients with MDS. Aggressive therapy with immunosuppressive agents in selected patients often controls autoimmune phenomena associated with MDS and may lead to haematological responses in some patients.
British Journal of Haematology 11/1995; 91(2):403-8. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low density lipoprotein (LDL), if it becomes oxidized, develops several unique properties including the capacity to provoke endothelial cytotoxicity via metal-catalyzed free radical-mediated mechanisms. As were previously have shown that iron-catalyzed oxidant injury to endothelial cells can be attenuated by the addition of exogenous iron chelators such as the lazaroids and deferoxamine, we have examined whether the endogenous iron chelator, ferritin, might provide protection from oxidized LDL. LDL oxidized by iron-containing hemin and H2O2 is toxic to endothelial cells in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Endothelial cell ferritin content is increased by pretreatment of cells with iron compounds or by the direct addition of exogenous apoferritin; ferritin-loaded cells are markedly resistant to the toxicity caused by oxidized LDL. Iron inactivation by ferritin depends on its ferroxidase activity. When a recombinant human ferritin heavy chain mutant, 222, which is devoid of ferroxidase activity, is added to endothelial cells, unlike the excellent protection afforded by the wild-type recombinant heavy chain, endothelial cells are not protected from oxidized LDL. To assess the in vivo relevance of our observation, we examined human coronary arteries of cardiac explants taken from patients with end-stage atherosclerosis. Large amounts of immunoreactive ferritin are focally detected in atherosclerotic lesions, specifically in the myofibroblasts, macrophages, and endothelium without a notable increase in Prussian blue-detectable iron. These findings suggest that ferritin may modulate vascular cell injury in vivo.
American Journal Of Pathology 10/1995; 147(3):782-9. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iron-derived reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of various vascular disorders including vasculitis, atherosclerosis, and capillary leak syndromes such as the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We have suggested that acute incorporation of the heme moiety of hemoglobin released from red blood cells into endothelium could provide catalytically active iron to the vasculature. Adaptation to chronic heme stress involves the induction of heme oxygenase and ferritin; the latter provides cytoprotection against free radicals in vitro. The present studies examine the bioavailability of heme, derived from hemoglobin, to induce heme oxygenase and ferritin in rat lungs in vivo. Intravenous injection of methemoglobin, but not oxyhemoglobin, increases total lung heme oxygenase mRNA approximately fivefold after 16 h. Accompanying this mRNA induction, expression of total lung heme oxygenase enzyme activity is also markedly enhanced. In situ hybridization for heme oxygenase reveals mRNA accumulation in the lung microvascular endothelium, implying incorporation of heme into endothelial cells. Similarly, methemoglobin significantly increases the ferritin protein content of rat lungs and in parallel, ferritin light-chain mRNA increases approximately 1.6-fold, whereas heavy-chain mRNA is upregulated by approximately 1.9-fold. Immunoreactive ferritin is present in lung microvascular endothelium after methemoglobin treatment, suggesting incorporation of heme iron into pulmonary vasculature. Subcutaneous injection of Sn-protoporphyrin IX, a competitive inhibitor of heme oxygenase, does not affect methemoglobin-induced ferritin synthesis in lungs. We speculate that methemoglobin, which might be generated by activated leukocytes in ARDS associated with disseminated interavascular coagulation, can provide heme iron to lung microvascular endothelium to induce heme oxygenase and ferritin.
The American journal of physiology 03/1995; 268(2 Pt 1):L321-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heme proteins transport oxygen and facilitate redox reactions. Heme, however, may be dangerous, especially when free in biologic systems. For example, iron released from hemoglobin-derived heme can catalyze oxidative injury to neuronal cell membranes and may be a factor in post-traumatic damage to the central nervous system. We have shown that heme catalyzes the oxidation of low density lipoproteins which can damage vascular endothelial cells. The endothelium is susceptible to damage by oxidants generated by activated phagocytes, and this has been invoked as an important mechanism in a number of pathologies including the Adulte Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), acute tubular necrosis, reperfusion injury and atherosclerosis. Because of its highly hydrophobic nature, heme readily intercalates into endothelial membranes and potentiates oxidant-mediated damage. This injury is dependent on the iron content of heme and is completely blocked when concomitant hemopexin is added. Ferrohemoglobin, when added to cultured endothelial cells, is without deleterious effects, but if oxidized to ferrihemoglobin (methemoglobin), it greatly amplifies oxidant damage. Methemoglobin, but not ferrohemoglobin, releases its hemes which can then be incorporated into endothelial cells. Cultured endothelial cells, when exposed to methemoglobin but not ferrohemoglobin, cytochrome c or metmyoglobin, potentiate this oxidant injury. Stabilization of the methemoglobin by cyanide, haptoglobin or capture of the heme by hemopexin abrogates this effect. Paradoxically, more prolonged exposure of endothelium to heme or methemoglobin renders them remarkably resistant to oxidant challenge. Endothelium defends itself from heme by induction of the heme degrading enzyme heme oxygenase and the concomitant production of large amounts of the iron binding protein ferritin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In previously reported in vitro studies, we found that heme, a physiologically widespread hydrophobic iron compound, can rapidly generate oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which then becomes cytotoxic to cultured vascular endothelial cells; both LDL oxidation and endothelial cytotoxicity were inhibited by incubation with exogenous alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) or ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Seeking relevance to in vivo conditions, we performed a study in which 10 human volunteers were given daily antioxidant supplements of 800 IU of DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate alone or in combination with 1000 mg of ascorbic acid for 2 weeks. LDL resistance to heme oxidation ex vivo, as measured by the lag time for conjugated-diene formation, increased by as much as threefold from a mean +/- SD of 58 +/- 11 to 104 +/- 18 minutes (P < .001); LDL alpha-tocopherol increased from 11 +/- 2 to 26 +/- 6 molecules per LDL particle (P < .001); and most impressively, cytotoxicity to porcine aortic endothelial cells incubated with LDL conditioned with heme plus H2O2 or with copper was completely prevented (cytotoxicity before supplementation was 42 +/- 12%, decreasing after supplementation to 3 +/- 2%, P < .001). These measurements reverted to their presupplement levels within 2 weeks after participants stopped taking antioxidant supplements and were reproduced in 4 subjects taking 800 IU of DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate supplements alone but not in the same subjects taking 1000 mg ascorbic acid supplements alone. In conclusion, oral vitamin E supplementation increases LDL alpha-tocopherol content, increases LDL resistance to oxidation, and decreases the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL to cultured vascular endothelial cells.
Arteriosclerosis and thrombosis: a journal of vascular biology / American Heart Association 01/1994; 13(12):1779-89.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neovascularization and hemorrhage are common features of malignant tumors. We wondered whether hemoglobin derived from extravasated RBC deposits heme-derived iron into the tumor, which could modulate the sensitivity of cancer cells to oxidant-mediated injury. A brief exposure (1 h) of 51Cr-radiolabeled breast cancer cells (BT-20) but not colon cancer cells (Caco-2) to hemin (10 microM) or FeSO4 (10 microM) significantly enhances cytotoxicity mediated by 0.5 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Associated with Caco-2 resistance, these cells were found to be enriched in the endogenous iron chelator, ferritin. If cellular ferritin is even further increased through 1 h incubation (24 h prior to H2O2 exposure) of both cell types with hemin, FeSO4, or exogenous spleen apoferritin itself (24 h), marked resistance to H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity is manifest. Under several conditions, the sensitivity of tumor cells to oxidant-mediated lysis is inversely proportional to their ferritin content. Pretreatment of BT-20 and Caco-2 cells with hemin or FeSO4 rapidly increases H-ferritin mRNA but only slightly increases L-ferritin mRNA; nevertheless, large increases in overall ferritin content of iron-exposed cells result. Data analogous to those with H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity were obtained in studies of bleomycin-engendered DNA strand breakage and cell damage, i.e., brief treatment of BT-20 cells with both hemin or FeSO4 significantly increases their sensitivity to bleomycin (100 micrograms/ml), whereas treatment followed by 24 h incubation with media alone significantly protects against bleomycin toxicity. We speculate that acute exposure of tumors to iron (e.g., derived from heme-proteins in hemorrhagic cancerous lesions) may increase sensitivity of some cancer cells, particularly those relatively low in endogenous ferritin, to oxidant-mediated lysis. In contrast, repeated, more chronic, exposure effector cells or chemotherapeutic agents, an effect derived from their increased synthesis and accumulation of the intracellular iron scavenger, ferritin.
Cancer Research 12/1993; 53(21):5308-13. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iron-derived reactive oxygen species are implicated in the pathogenesis of various vascular disorders including atherosclerosis, vasculitis, and reperfusion injury. The present studies examine whether heme, when liganded to physiologically relevant proteins as in hemoglobin, can provide potentially damaging iron to intact endothelium. We demonstrate that reduced ferrohemoglobin, while relatively innocuous to cultured endothelial cells, when oxidized to ferrihemoglobin (methemoglobin), greatly amplifies oxidant (H2O2)-mediated endothelial-cell injury. Drawing upon our previous observation that free heme similarly primes endothelium for oxidant damage, we posited that methemoglobin, but not ferrohemoglobin, releases its hemes that can then be incorporated into endothelial cells. In support, cultured endothelial cells exposed to methemoglobin--in contrast to exposure to ferrohemoglobin, cytochrome c, or metmyoglobin--rapidly increased their heme oxygenase mRNA and enzyme activity, thereby supporting heme uptake; ferritin production was also markedly increased after such exposure, thus attesting to eventual incorporation of Fe. These cellular methemoglobin effects were inhibited by the heme-scavenging protein hemopexin and by haptoglobin or cyanide, agents that strengthen the liganding between heme and globin. If the endothelium is exposed to methemoglobin for a more prolonged period (16 hr), it accumulates large amounts of ferritin; concomitantly, and presumably associated with iron sequestration by this protein, the endothelium converts from hypersusceptible to hyperresistant to oxidative damage. We conclude that when oxidation of hemoglobin facilitates release of its heme groups, catalytically active iron is provided to neighboring tissue environments. The effect of this relinquished heme on the vasculature is determined both by extracellular factors--i.e., plasma proteins, such as haptoglobin and hemopexin--as well as intracellular factors, including heme oxygenase and ferritin. Acutely, if both extra- and intracellular defenses are overwhelmed, cellular toxicity arises; chronically, when ferritin is induced, resistance to oxidative injury may supervene.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1993; 90(20):9285-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acute inflammatory response is frequently accompanied by serious thrombotic events. We show that C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase reactant that markedly increases its serum concentration in response to inflammatory stimuli, induced monocytes to express tissue factor (TF), a potent procoagulant. Purified human CRP in concentrations commonly achieved in vivo during inflammation (10 to 100 micrograms/mL) induced a 75-fold increase in TF procoagulant activity (PCA) of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), with a parallel increase in TF antigen levels. CRP-induced PCA was completely blocked by a monoclonal antibody against human TF but not by irrelevant murine IgG. Dot blot analysis showed a significant increase of TF mRNA after 4 hours of incubation with CRP, followed by a peak of PCA within 6 and 8 hours. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide blocked CRP-stimulated PCA, suggesting that de novo TF protein synthesis was required. Endotoxin (LPS) contamination of CRP was excluded as the mediator of TF synthesis because: (1) CRP was Limulus assay negative; (2) induction of TF PCA by CRP was not blocked by Polymyxin B, in contrast to LPS-induced PCA; (3) antihuman CRP IgG inhibited CRP-induced PCA, but not LPS-induced PCA; (4) CRP was able to stimulate TF production in LPS-pretreated PBM refractory to additional LPS stimulation; and, (5) unlike LPS, CRP was incapable of inducing TF in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We suggest that CRP-mediated TF production in monocytes may contribute to the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation and thrombosis in inflammatory states.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is histopathologically associated with vascular injury, fibrinoid necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltrates. We have previously shown in vitro that HSV infection of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) promotes a procoagulant phenotype manifest by the induction of tissue factor, the loss of thrombomodulin, and an increase in platelet adhesion. In these studies we examined the effects of HSV infection on HUVEC plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). HSV infection caused the loss of PAI-1 in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and that released into the supernatant of HUVEC. Both activity and antigen levels of the Serpin inhibitor are diminished as a result of HSV infection. The loss of inhibitor is not secondary to diminished vitronectin (Vn), the primary binding protein of PAI-1 in the ECM, but appears to be secondary to decreased synthesis at the RNA level. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) synthesis is also decreased in endothelial HSV infection. PAI-1 loss may further promote a procoagulant phenotype in HSV infection in vivo.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 04/1993; 69(3):253-8. · 6.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin E supplements may decrease the incidence of myocardial infarction by inhibiting LDL oxidation to atherogenic moieties. We previously reported that hemin is a potent and relevant lipophilic source of iron that can rapidly intercalate into LDL, catalyzing its oxidation and promoting its cytolysis of endothelium. The effects of oral vitamin E on heme-catalyzed LDL oxidation and resulting endothelial damage were studied in 10 volunteers who received daily 800 I.U. of vitamin E with or without vitamin C (1000 mg) for 2 weeks. Prior, during, and 2 weeks after supplementation, plasma LDL was isolated and its number of alpha-tocopherol molecules, resistance to heme-catalyzed oxidation, and ability to damage porcine aortic endothelial cells were assayed. Vitamin E supplementation doubled the lag phase of LDL peroxidation as compared to control (104 +/- 18 vs. 58 +/- 11 min; p < 0.001) accompanied by an increase in alpha-tocopherol content of LDL particles (26 +/- 6 vs. 11 +/- 2 mol/mol; p < 0.001). Most intriguingly, LDL-mediated endothelial cell cytotoxicity was prevented (3 +/- 2% vs. 42 +/- 12%; p < 0.001). After a 2-week washout period, LDL alpha-tocopherol content, the lag time of LDL oxidation, and oxidized LDL-mediated cytolysis all returned to baseline levels. To determine whether supplements of vitamin E and vitamin C beneficially synergize in these effects, we monitored several volunteers on daily vitamin E alone or vitamin C alone. Vitamin E alone (at doses as low as 400 I.U./day) affected all measurements in a manner identical to that when it was taken with vitamin C. Vitamin C alone had no significant effect on these measurements. We conclude: dietary vitamin E supplementation provides cytoprotection against LDL oxidation-mediated endothelial cell injury, but this salutary effect is rapidly lost after supplementation is stopped.
Transactions of the Association of American Physicians 02/1993; 106:128-33.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phagocyte-mediated oxidant damage to vascular endothelium is likely involved in various vasculopathies including atherosclerosis and pulmonary leak syndromes such as adult respiratory distress syndrome. We have shown that heme, a hydrophobic iron chelate, is rapidly incorporated into endothelial cells where, after as little as 1 h, it markedly aggravates cytotoxicity engendered by polymorphonuclear leukocyte oxidants or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In contrast, however, if cultured endothelial cells are briefly pulsed with heme and then allowed to incubate for a prolonged period (16 h), the cells become highly resistant to oxidant-mediated injury and to the accumulation of endothelial lipid peroxidation products. This protection is associated with the induction within 4 h of mRNAs for both heme oxygenase and ferritin. After 16 h heme oxygenase and ferritin have increased approximately 50-fold and 10-fold, respectively. Differential induction of these proteins determined that ferritin is probably the ultimate cytoprotectant. Ferritin inhibits oxidant-mediated cytolysis in direct relation to its intracellular concentration. Apoferritin, when added to cultured endothelial cells, is taken up in a dose-responsive manner and appears as cytoplasmic granules by immunofluorescence; in a similar dose-responsive manner, added apoferritin protects endothelial cells from oxidant-mediated cytolysis. Conversely, a site-directed mutant of ferritin (heavy chain Glu62----Lys; His65----Gly) which lacks ferroxidase activity and is deficient in iron sequestering capacity, is completely ineffectual as a cytoprotectant. We conclude that endothelium and perhaps other cell types may be protected from oxidant damage through the iron sequestrant, ferritin.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/1992; 267(25):18148-53. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 23-year-old woman experienced six distinct episodes of severe combined neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. At least one of the episodes was accompanied by hemodialysis-requiring acute renal failure and fragmentation hemolysis (hemolytic uremic syndrome [HUS]). In retrospect, all episodes were probably associated with the ingestion of quinine. Quinine-dependent antibodies to platelets, neutrophils, T lymphocytes, and red blood cells (RBCs) were detected in the patient's serum. By a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay, the patient's serum contained IgG antibodies, which in the presence, but not absence, of quinine reacted with platelet glycoprotein (GP) complexes Ib/IX and IIb/IIIa, but not Ia/IIa. By immunoprecipitation assay, the serum, after addition of quinine, reacted strongly with an 85-Kd neutrophil membrane protein and weakly with 130- and 60-Kd moieties. Serum adsorbed with RBCs in the presence of quinine continued to react with platelets and neutrophils, and serum that was absorbed with platelets continued to react with neutrophils and RBCs, indicating that the antigenic targets were different on platelets, neutrophils, and RBCs. Since platelets and endothelial cells share some antigens, we tested patient serum for antibodies to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC); no quinine-dependent antibodies to HUVEC were detected. However, her quinine-dependent antibodies not only bound to platelets and neutrophils, but also activated neutrophils. Thus, the patient's serum with quinine aggregated neutrophils, but neither agent alone caused activation. Moreover, the patient's serum with quinine (but not without) augmented the adherence of neutrophils to HUVEC. Treatment of the patient's serum with staphylococcal protein A removed the quinine neutrophil aggregation cofactor, suggesting it was due to IgG. In both neutrophil aggregation and adherence assays, decomplementation of the patient's serum markedly blunted its effect. Furthermore, the patient's serum failed to aggregate formalin-inactivated neutrophils, suggesting neutrophil activation, probably by activated complement, was necessary for aggregation and adhesivity to endothelium. We conclude that our patient's neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, and anemia were due to quinine-dependent antibodies, and that these antibodies recognized epitopes that were different in the three target cell populations. We further suggest that HUS was likely secondary to the activation and adhesion of neutrophils to endothelium.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heme proteins such as myoglobin or hemoglobin, when released into the extracellular space, can instigate tissue toxicity. Myoglobin is directly implicated in the pathogenesis of renal failure in rhabdomyolysis. In the glycerol model of this syndrome, we demonstrate that the kidney responds to such inordinate amounts of heme proteins by inducing the heme-degradative enzyme, heme oxygenase, as well as increasing the synthesis of ferritin, the major cellular repository for iron. Prior recruitment of this response with a single preinfusion of hemoglobin prevents kidney failure and drastically reduces mortality (from 100% to 14%). Conversely, ablating this response with a competitive inhibitor of heme oxygenase exacerbates kidney dysfunction. We provide the first in vivo evidence that induction of heme oxygenase coupled to ferritin synthesis is a rapid, protective antioxidant response. Our findings suggest a therapeutic strategy for populations at a high risk for rhabdomyolysis.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 08/1992; 90(1):267-70. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that human aortic endothelium exhibits morphologic heterogeneity in situ, and this heterogeneity can be reproduced in culture. In this study, we have compared prothrombotic properties of cultured endothelial cells (EC) from areas of human aorta at high risk for atherosclerosis (HP-EC) with EC from areas at low risk (LP-EC). Using paired cultures from the same donors, we have found that the expression of cell surface thrombomodulin (TM)--as measured by the ability to generate activated protein C (APC) from protein C in the presence of thrombin--is relatively reduced on HP-EC compared to LP-EC (respectively, 4.98 +/- 4.43 vs. 5.83 +/- 4.37 pM APC/min/cm2; p = .03, n = 12). Furthermore, HP-EC more efficiently assemble the prothrombinase complex on their cellular surface, resulting in an increased rate of thrombin generation from prothrombin (9.81 +/- 3.10 (HP-EC) vs. 7.96 +/- 3.20 nM thrombin/min/cm2 (LP-EC); p less than .03, n = 7). The combination of reduced TM expression and increased prothrombinase complex assembly on HP-EC suggests a prothrombotic phenotype in these cells. These findings may be important in the pathogenesis of thrombosis associated with atherosclerotic plaques.
Thrombosis Research 08/1992; 67(2):135-45. · 3.13 Impact Factor