[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and toxicity of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) in patients with untreated, indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
For this multicenter, single-arm, Phase II study, 44 patients with treatment-naive, stage III or IV, indolent NHL (International Working Formulation subtypes A, B, and C) were enrolled. Patients received 0.14 mg/kg per day of 2-CdA as a 2-hour bolus infusion for 5 consecutive days every 28 days until maximal response or a total of 6 cycles.
Thirty-eight patients were eligible for response evaluation. The overall response rate was 100% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 90.8-100%), and the complete response rate was 31.6% (95% CI, 17.5-48.7%). In the intent-to-treat population, the median failure-free survival was 2.0 years (95% CI, 1.3-3.4 years), and the overall survival rate was 7.0 years (95% CI, 4.3-9.4 years). Six patients had sustained remissions that lasted a median of 8.7 years (range, from 5.9 years to > or =11 years). Although 68% of patients experienced at least 1 grade 3 or 4 event, consisting primarily of myelosuppression, severe infections were rare, with only 8 grade 3 infections. Four late malignancies (prostate adenocarcinoma, ductal carcinoma in situ, and myelodysplasia) and 4 patients with large cell transformation were reported.
2-CdA is an active, well-tolerated therapy for patients with untreated, indolent NHL.
Cancer 12/2006; 107(12):2817-25. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cladribine has been reported to have little activity in fludarabine- refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We sought to determine whether resistance to therapy with cladribine in fludarabine-refractory CLL patients represented primary drug resistance or the inability to tolerate the myelosuppression associated with this therapy. Patients with fludarabine refractory CLL patients without severe thrombocytopenia (platelets >/=50 x 10(9)/l) or granulocytopenia (neutrophils >1.5 x 10(9)/l) were enrolled. All patients received cladribine (0.14 mg/kg) as a 2-h intravenous infusion daily for 5 days, repeated every 4 weeks. Patients received up to six cycles of therapy. Twenty-eight patients enrolled; 13 had intermediate (Rai stage I or II) and 15 high (Rai stage III and IV) risk stages. No patient had a complete remission, but nine (32%; 95% confidence interval, 15-49%) attained a partial remission when assessed using the modified NCI criteria (1996). The median time to relapse for responders was 12 months, while median progression-free survival for the entire group was 9 months (95% confidence interval, 4-14 months). The median overall survival was 2.2 years (95% confidence interval, 0.8-3.1 years). Response was predicted by pre-treatment Rai status with seven of 13 (54%) intermediate risk vs two of 15 (13%) high-risk patients responding (P = 0.04). Toxicity was myelosuppression and infections (grade 3-5: neutropenia 75%, thrombocytopenia 68%, and infections 43%). Cladribine has modest clinical activity and considerable toxicity in a very selected group of patients with fludarabine-refractory CLL lacking pre-treatment neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the B-cell CD20 antigen which has been utilized for therapy of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). A previous clinical trial demonstrated that treatment with four weekly doses of 375 mg/m2 of Rituximab in patients with relapsed or refractory low-grade or follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was well tolerated and had significant clinical activity.
To assess the safety and efficacy of Rituximab treatment, an open-label, single-arm, multi-center, phase II study of eight consecutive weekly infusions of 375 mg/m2 Rituximab in patients with low-grade or follicular B-cell NHL who had relapsed or had failed primary therapy was conducted. Thirty-seven patients with a median age of 55 years were treated.
Grade 1 or 2 adverse events were the majority of reported toxicities and occurred most frequently with the first infusion, decreasing with subsequent infusions. No patients developed a host antibody response (HACA) to Rituximab. The mean serum immunoglobulin levels for IgG, IgA, and IgM stayed within the normal range throughout the study. The majority of patients who were bcl-2 positive at baseline in peripheral blood became bcl-2 negative during treatment and remained negative at the time of B-cell recovery. In the 37 intent-to-treat patients, 5 (14%) had a complete response and 16 (43%) had a partial response for an overall response rate of 57%. Of 35 evaluable patients, 21 (60%) responded to treatment (14% CR and 46% PR). In responders, the median time to progression (TTP) and the median response duration have not been reached after 19.4+ months and 13.4+ months, respectively.
The safety profile and efficacy achieved in this pilot study of extended treatment with Rituximab compares favorably with those seen with four weekly doses. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether this or other extended Rituximab schedules will result in increased efficacy in all or in certain subgroups of patients with low-grade or follicular NHL.
Annals of Oncology 07/1999; 10(6):655-61. · 7.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hairy cell leukemia is a chronic B-cell disorder that follows an indolent, but progressive course. Cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine) induces complete remissions in the majority of patients after a single course. We report the long-term outcomes, including response rates and their duration; time-to-treatment failure (TTF) rates; retreatment results; toxicities; and survival rates of patients treated at Scripps Clinic (La Jolla, CA). A total of 358 patients with hairy cell leukemia were treated with cladribine at 0.087 or 0.1 mg/kg body weight per day by continuous intravenous infusion for 7 days. The expected number of second neoplasms was based on the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data. Of 349 evaluable patients, 319 (91%) achieved an initial complete response and 22 (7%) a partial response with an overall median duration of response follow-up of 52 months. Ninety patients (26%) had relapsed at a median of 29 months. The TTF rate for all 341 responders was 19% at 48 months, 16% for complete responders, and 54% for partial responders. Of 53 evaluable patients treated with second courses of cladribine at first relapse, 33 (62%) achieved complete responses and 14 (26%) partial responses. Twenty-seven patients (8%) developed second neoplasms (only 1 hematopoietic) with an observed-to-expected ratio of 1.88 (95% confidence interval, 1.24 to 2.74). The overall survival rate was 96% at 48 months. Single courses of cladribine induced long-lasting complete responses in the vast majority of patients. Relapse rates for complete responders were low. Patients who relapse can be successfully retreated with cladribine. Cladribine has high efficacy and a favorable acute and long-term toxicity profile when administered to patients with hairy cell leukemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue is increasingly being delivered in the outpatient setting. Such intensive outpatient management programs have reduced the total hospital length of stay without compromising clinical outcomes. However, a detailed financial analysis of outpatient programs has not been performed. These data are the results of a prospective study of 94 patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant in one of three settings: traditional inpatient, partial outpatient, total outpatient. Patients were allowed to choose their own treatment setting based upon the availability of a caregiver and personal preference. Total hospital length of stay and the actual cost and charges for each patient were monitored prospectively. The patients in the three groups were well balanced with regard to age and functional status prior to high-dose chemotherapy. The average length of stay was reduced from 17.3 to 8.2 to 2.7 days in the three different treatment settings (P < 0.01). Mean procedure costs were reduced from $39.7 thousand (US dollars) to $36.2 thousand to $29.4 thousand in the three treatment settings (P < 0.029). No differences in toxicity or overall response to therapy was noted. High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue can be safely administered in the outpatient setting and results in significant cost savings.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 06/1998; 21(9):927-32. · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in myeloid blast phase received 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) at 0.7 mg/kg per course over 5 days every 2-4 weeks for 7, 2 and 5 courses. Each patient had a decrement in their white blood cell count, and in the absolute number and percentage of circulating immature cells following 2-CdA administration. Two patients achieved hematologic responses of 14 and 3 months and survived 19 and 6 months, respectively, while the non-responder died 2 months later. 2-CdA-induced anemia and thrombocytopenia, generally mild and reversible, were observed in all patients. Given the dismal results and considerable toxicities that follow multiagent induction chemotherapy for CML in myeloid blast phase, 2-CdA therapy may represent a reasonable therapeutic alternative, although confirmation is required in larger numbers of patients.
Leukemia and Lymphoma 12/1997; 28(1-2):183-5. · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: De novo B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) is a distinct clinicopathologic entity usually characterized by marked lymphocytosis, massive splenomegaly, an aggressive course, and refractoriness to therapy. Cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine [2-CdA]; Ortho Biotech, Raritan, NJ) is a newer purine analog with potent activity against indolent lymphoproliferative disorders.
We treated eight patients with cladribine 0.1 mg/kg/d for 7 days by continuous infusion or 0.14 mg/kg/d over 2 hours for 5 days, every 28 to 35 days, for a median of three courses (range, two to five). There were five men and three women, with a median age of 62 years and a median pretreatment duration of 6 months; four patients were previously untreated.
All eight patients were assessable: five achieved a complete response with a median response duration of 14 months (range, 1+ to 55+), and three achieved a partial response with a median duration of 3 months (range, 1 to 3). Of four patients who achieved a complete response and in whom a peripheral-blood immunophenotypic analysis was performed, two had no circulating B-PLL cells and one had no residual disease on Southern blot analysis. Myelosuppression and infection were the major toxicities: three patients developed grade 3 or 4 myelosuppression, four had bacterial infections, and two had herpes zoster infections.
In this small study of patients with de novo B-PLL, cladribine was an active agent that induced a high overall and complete response rate. These results require confirmation in larger numbers of B-PLL patients.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/1997; 15(1):37-43. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prospective study to determine the feasibility of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous stem-cell rescue (ASCR) in the outpatient setting.
One hundred thirteen consecutive patients underwent 165 cycles of HDC/ASCR for a variety of malignancies. HDC regimens were disease-specific. Initially, patients were hospitalized for HDC, discharged on completion, and maintained as outpatients unless toxicities required rehospitalization (subtotal outpatient transplantation [STOT]). Once this was established as safe, a total outpatient transplant (TOT) program was developed in which patients received all of the HDC, as well as supportive care, as outpatients. Patients who declined the outpatient programs received the same HDC and supportive care as inpatients.
In 140 of 165 (85%) HDC cycles, patients agreed to participate in one of the outpatient transplant programs. Five patients in the STOT program could not be discharged from the hospital because of toxicities that developed during HDC; thus, 135 patients were monitored the outpatient setting, 95 (70%) of whom were never readmitted. The mean +/- SEM total hospital length of stay (LOS), including all readmissions and excess days after chemotherapy, was 18.33 +/- 5.06 days for patients who refused the outpatient program, 8.22 +/- 5.76 days for patients in the STOT program, and 2.81 +/- 7.66 days for those in the TOT program (P < .001). One treatment-related death occurred in each treatment setting: day 120 inpatient, day 17 STOT, and day 110 TOT.
Outpatient management of HDC/ASCR is safe and acceptable for the vast majority of patients. The STOT program resulted in significant reduction in hospital LOS, while the TOT program appears equally safe and further reduces LOS. Hospitalization for HDC/ASCR is unnecessary in most patients.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/1997; 15(1):11-7. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) is unique compared with traditional antimetabolites in that it is equally active against dividing and resting lymphocytes, which may be especially important in the treatment of indolent lymphoproliferative disorders because most cells in these disorders are in the resting phase. Significant clinical activity has been demonstrated for 2-CdA in the treatment of hairy cell leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and more recently prolymphocytic leukemia. More modest activity has been shown for 2-CdA in acute and chronic leukemias and in a variety of miscellaneous conditions, including Langerhans'-cell histiocytosis and multiple sclerosis.
Hematology and Cell Therapy 01/1997; 38 Suppl 2:S93-101.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Essential mixed cryoglobulinemia is a systemic disorder in which cutaneous vasculitis and frequently glomerulonephritis are associated with cryoprecipitable serum immune complexes. Typically, the treatment regimen consists of plasmapheresis, high-dose corticosteroids, and cytotoxic chemotherapy, as well as interferon alfa for hepatitis C virus-related cryoglobulinemia. Herein we describe a man with progressive, symptomatic cryoglobulinemia and multisystem organ dysfunction in whom corticosteroid and alkylating therapy failed; however, he had a complete and long-lasting remission after administration of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (cladribine).
Mayo Clinic Proceedings 11/1996; 71(10):966-8. · 5.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine [2-CdA]) and mitoxantrone both exhibit major activity against indolent lymphoid malignancies and have different mechanisms of action, we performed a dose-escalation study of 2-CdA and mitoxantrone in patients with alkylator-failed indolent lymphoma to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of this combination and to make preliminary observations about efficacy.
Twenty-three patients were treated every 28 to 35 days, in cohorts of at least three patients, with stepwise dose escalations until dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were encountered. The initial dose levels were 2-CdA 0.1 mg/kg/d by continuous infusion for 7 days, mitoxantrone 5 mg/m2 intravenously (i.v.) on day 1, and prednisone 100 mg/d on days 1 to 5. Mitoxantrone was dose-escalated in increments of 2.5 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1.
The MTD of the combination was 2-CdA 0.1 mg/kg/d for 7 days, mitoxantrone 7.5 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1, and prednisone 100 mg/d on days 1 to 5. Myelosuppression and infection were the DLTs. The recommended phase II doses were 2-CdA 0.075 mg/kg/d for 7 days mitoxantrone 5 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1; prednisone was omitted to decrease the risk of opportunistic infections. The overall response rate was 70%, with 22% complete responses (CRs) and 48% partial responses (PRs). The median duration of CR was 15 months and PR 5 months.
These results demonstrate the feasibility and safety of combining 2-CdA and mitoxantrone in the treatment of indolent lymphoma, and appear to confirm clinically the mechanistic synergism and rationale for this combination regimen. Prednisone exacerbated the risk of opportunistic infection and was omitted. The overall response rate was high, including durable CRs. Further studies of this combination regimen are warranted in untreated and alkylator-failed indolent lymphoma.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/1996; 14(7):2139-44. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigation of the biological actions of loxoribine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was undertaken because of the pervasive immunostimulatory effects of the nucleoside on normal B cells. In vitro studies with cells from a spectrum of CLL patients demonstrate that loxoribine induces B-CLL cells to enter and traverse the cell cycle. This is reflected by marked increases in DNA synthesis, by standard morphological criteria, and by flow cytometric evaluation of cell cycle status and of cell surface activation markers. Cells from about 75% of patients studied evince this response. Analysis of a variety of biological parameters indicate that only the ratio of T cells (CD4+ or CD8+) to B-CLL cells correlates with induction and degree of proliferative response. Co-stimulation with loxoribine and IL-2 results in modest proliferative synergy, presumably due to upregulation of IL-2R alpha expression on B-CLL cells by loxoribine. Prolonged exposure of B-CLL cells to stimulatory concentrations of loxoribine frequently culminates in progression of the responsive cells to apoptosis. The capacity of loxoribine to transiently approximate the reversible transformation of a low grade B cell malignancy to one of a higher grade presents the opportunity for evaluation of cycle-active drugs under these conditions. Recent studies indicate that pre-treatment of B-CLL cells with loxoribine results in synergistic killing of leukemic cells with cycle-active drugs. The ability to induce B-CLL cells into cell cycle entry and/or into either activation-induced apoptosis or into phases of the cell cycle sensitive to cytotoxic therapy opens up new perspectives for the development of potentially curative strategies for this chronic leukemia.
Leukemia and Lymphoma 07/1996; 22(1-2):1-10. · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the absolute bioavailability (F value) of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (cladribine; 2-CdA) after multiple oral administrations, and the intersubject variability after oral and 2-hour intravenous (IV) administration schedules in patients with malignancy.
Patients with advanced malignancies were eligible. There were two treatment cycles; during cycle 1, patients received 2-CdA solution at 0.28 mg/kg/d orally under fasting conditions for 5 consecutive days concomitantly with omeprazole, and 4 weeks later during cycle 2 patients received 2-CdA as a 2-hour IV infusion of 0.14 mg/kg/d for 5 consecutive days. Serial blood samples for 2-CdA plasma levels were obtained after drug administrations on days 1 and 5 during each treatment cycle.
Ten patients completed cycles 1 and 2. The F value of oral 2-CdA measured on days 1 and 5 was 37.2% and 36.7%, respectively. For both oral and IV multiple administrations, there was no significant accumulation in maximum concentration (Cmax), and the intersubject variabilities (coefficient of variation [CV], approximately 40%) in Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 hours [AUC(0-24)] values were comparable for both routes on days 1 and 5. A three-compartment open model was applied to the plasma concentration data after oral and IV administrations and resulted in good agreement between observed and simulated concentration-time profiles. Neutropenia was the principal adverse event observed when 2-CdA was administered orally and IV.
The F value of 2-CdA after oral administration was approximately 37% and there were no cumulative differences in bioavailability observed on multiple dosing of the drug. The absorption and disposition characteristics of oral 2-CdA were linear and predictable with this dosing regimen.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/1996; 14(3):978-83. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) presenting with generalized lymphadenopathy, clinically stimulating aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This patient presented with anemia and bulky lymphadenopathy in the oropharyngeal (Waldeyer's ring), submandibular, supraclavicular and inguinal nodal regions. Lymph node biopsy was initially suggestive of a T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, based on morphologic features together with positive immunohistochemical staining for CD7 and CD43 (Leu 22). Definitive diagnosis of AML was established when a more detailed immunophenotypic analysis showed expression of the myeloid markers CD13 and CD33, and by the demonstration of rare Auer rods and positive peroxidase staining in bone marrow blast cells. Although this is a rare presentation, AML must always be considered in the clinical and pathologic differential diagnosis of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low-grade follicular lymphomas, follicular small cleaved and follicular mixed, generally follow an indolent but progressive course. Although available therapies induce responses, continuous relapse occurs. In investigating potential therapeutic regimens, researchers have sought regimens that will result in a postchemotherapy survival plateau rather than a pattern of continuous relapse. The newer, purine analogs, 2'-deoxycoformycin, fludarabine, and 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine have shown activity in the low-grade B-cell lymphomas, especially with the follicular histologic subtype. Response rates in studies of previously untreated patients approach 100%. The newer purine analogs are emerging as an important treatment approach for indolent B-cell lymphomas, but the impact on survival remains to be assessed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on the encouraging results of the use of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine ([2-CdA], cladribine) in patients with advanced, low-grade lymphomas resistant to conventional therapy and the acceptable toxicity profile encountered, we conducted a phase II trial of 2-CdA in patients with untreated indolent lymphomas. Twenty-eight patients with untreated low-grade lymphomas were given 2-CdA at 0.1 mg/kg/d as a 7-day continuous infusion every 28 to 35 days. A total of 89 courses, median of three courses per patient, of 2-CdA were administered. Seventeen men and 11 women with a median age of 58 years were treated. Fifteen patients had diffuse small lymphocytic (8 with plasmacytoid features), 10 had follicular small cleaved-cell, and there were single patients with monocytoid B-cell, mantle cell and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma histologies. All 28 patients were evaluable for toxicity and 26 were evaluable for response. Nine (35%) patients (4 with diffuse small lymphocytic, 3 with follicular small cleaved-cell, 1 with mantle cell, and 1 with MALT lymphoma) achieved a complete response, and 14 (54%) patients (8 with diffuse small lymphocytic, 5 with follicular small cleaved-cell, and 1 with monocytoid B-cell lymphoma) achieved a partial response, for an overall response rate of 88%. The median response duration was 10 months (range, 3 to 44+). Myelosuppression was the principal toxicity. Actuarial survival at 60 months from initial diagnosis was 60% (95% confidence interval, 35% to 82%) and at 48 months from treatment onset was 62% (95% confidence interval, 39% to 83%). These results establish the major activity of 2-CdA in patients with untreated indolent lymphoma, especially those with the diffuse small lymphocytic subtype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hairy cell leukaemia is an uncommon B cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterised by circulating lymphocytes displaying prominent cytoplasmic projections. Therapy is initiated for severe cytopenias or recurrent infections. Splenectomy, the first standard treatment, is now less commonly used as primary treatment. Interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) induces partial responses in most patients but complete responses in only a few. Adverse effects from IFN alpha are common but not life-threatening. The ability of two newer purine analogues, pentostatin (2'-deoxycoformycin) and cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine), to induce long-lasting complete remissions in the majority of patients has revolutionised the treatment of this disease. Cladribine is emerging as the treatment of choice because of its favourable toxicity profile, brief duration of treatment, high percentage of unmaintained complete remissions and low incidence of relapse.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA; cladribine) is a purine analog with activity in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who fail to respond to alkylator therapy. We conducted a phase II trial of 2-CdA in previously untreated CLL patients.
2-CdA was administered to 20 patients with previously untreated CLL as a 0.1-mg/kg/d 7-day continuous intravenous infusion every 28 to 35 days until maximum response or prohibitive toxicity.
A median of four courses (range, one to nine) was administered to each patient. Five patients (25%) achieved a complete response and 12 (60%) achieved a partial response, for an overall response rate of 85%. The median response follow-up duration was 8+ months (range, 3 to 27). Myelosuppression was the principal toxicity. Four of 20 patients (20%) experienced grade III or IV thrombocytopenia. Three patients, all of whom received corticosteroid therapy, developed opportunistic infections at a median of 19 months following discontinuation of 2-CdA therapy.
2-CdA has major activity in patients with previously untreated CLL, and the lower response rates seen in previously treated patients may be due in part to poor marrow reserve from prior therapy. Determination of the relative effectiveness of 2-CdA, fludarabine, and chlorambucil in the treatment of CLL patients will require a randomized trial.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/1995; 13(3):570-4. · 18.04 Impact Factor