[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic heterogeneous connective tissue disorders characterized by increased bone fragility and susceptibility to fractures. Laboratory diagnosis relies on time-consuming and cost-intensive biochemical and molecular genetics analyses. Therefore, it is desirable to identify and establish new diagnostic markers for OI that are reliable, cost-effective and easily accessible. In our study we have identified the ratio of the urinary pyridinoline cross-links lysyl-pyridinoline and hydroxylysyl-pyridinoline as a promising, time- and cost-effective biomarker for osteogenesis imperfecta, that could be used furthermore to investigate cases of suspected non-accidental injury in infants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is the most common genetic disorder leading to lactic acidosis. PDHC deficiency is genetically heterogenous and most patients have defects in the X-linked E1-α gene but defects in the other components of the complex encoded by PDHB, PDHX, DLAT, DLD genes or in the regulatory enzyme encoded by PDP1 have also been found. Phenylbutyrate enhances PDHC enzymatic activity in vitro and in vivo by increasing the proportion of unphosphorylated enzyme through inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases and thus, has potential for therapy of patients with PDHC deficiency. In the present study, we investigated response to phenylbutyrate of multiple cell lines harboring all known gene defects resulting in PDHC deficiency.Methods
Fibroblasts of patients with PDHC deficiency were studied for their enzyme activity at baseline and following phenylbutyrate incubation. Drug responses were correlated with genotypes and protein levels by Western blotting.ResultsLarge deletions affecting PDHA1 that result in lack of detectable protein were unresponsive to phenylbutyrate, whereas increased PDHC activity was detected in most fibroblasts harboring PDHA1 missense mutations. Mutations affecting the R349-α residue were directed to proteasome degradation and were consistently unresponsive to short-time drug incubation but longer incubation resulted in increased levels of enzyme activity and protein that may be due to an additional effect of phenylbutyrate as a molecular chaperone.InterpretationPDHC enzyme activity was enhanced by phenylbutyrate in cells harboring missense mutations in PDHB, PDHX, DLAT, DLD, and PDP1 genes. In the prospect of a clinical trial, the results of this study may allow prediction of in vivo response in patients with PDHC deficiency harboring a wide spectrum of molecular defects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the CACNA1A gene, encoding the α1 subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel CaV2.1 (P/Q-type), have been associated with three neurological phenotypes: familial and sporadic hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1, SHM1), episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2), and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). We report a child with congenital ataxia, abnormal eye movements and developmental delay who presented severe attacks of hemiplegic migraine triggered by minor head traumas and associated with hemispheric swelling and seizures. Progressive cerebellar atrophy was also observed. Remission of the attacks was obtained with acetazolamide. A de novo 3bp deletion was found in heterozygosity causing loss of a phenylalanine residue at position 1502, in one of the critical transmembrane domains of the protein contributing to the inner part of the pore. We characterized the electrophysiology of this mutant in a Xenopus oocyte in vitro system and showed that it causes gain of function of the channel. The mutant CaV2.1 activates at lower voltage threshold than the wild type. These findings provide further evidence of this molecular mechanism as causative of FHM1 and expand the phenotypic spectrum of CACNA1A mutations with a child exhibiting severe SHM1 and non-episodic ataxia of congenital onset.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences 04/2014; 342(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2014.04.027 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances in genetics led to significant improvement in the field of childhood epilepsies diagnosis and physiopathology. Genetic testing is indicated by geneticist who is himself guided by the pediatric neurological approach. In rare circumstance, genetic etiology affects the clinical management. Cost remains the main limitation. Those new genetic tools are the first step toward a better understanding of seizure mechanism and therefore more efficient treatments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the TMEM70 are the most common cause of nuclear ATP synthase deficiency resulting in a distinctive phenotype characterized by severe neonatal hypotonia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP), facial dysmorphism, severe lactic acidosis, hyperammonemia and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (3-MGA).
We collected 9 patients with genetically confirmed TMEM70 defect from 8 different families. Six were homozygous for the c.317-2A>G mutation, 2 were compound heterozygous for mutations c.317-2A>G and c.628A>C and 1 was homozygous for the novel c.701A>C mutation. Generalized hypotonia, lactic acidosis, hyperammonemia and 3-MGA were present in all since birth. Five patients presented acute respiratory distress at birth requiring intubation and ventilatory support. HCMP was detected in 5 newborns and appeared a few months later in 3 additional children. Five patients showed a severe and persistent neonatal pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) requiring Nitric Oxide (NO) and/or sildenafil administration combined in 2 cases with high-frequency oscillatory (HFO) ventilation. In 3 of these patients, echocardiography detected signs of HCMP at birth.
PPHN is a life-threatening poorly understood condition with bad prognosis if untreated. Pulmonary hypertension has rarely been reported in mitochondrial disorders and, so far, it has been described in association with TMEM70 deficiency only in one patient. This report further expands the clinical and genetic spectrum of the syndrome indicating PPHN as a frequent and life-threatening complication regardless of the type of mutation. Moreover, in these children PPHN appears even in the absence of an overt cardiomyopathy, thus representing an early sign and a clue for diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Mutations in the TMEM70 are the most common cause of nuclear ATP synthase deficiency resulting in a distinctive phenotype characterized by severe neonatal hypotonia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP), facial dysmorphism, severe lactic acidosis, hyperammonaemia and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (3-MGA).
Methods and Results
We collected 9 patients with genetically confirmed TMEM70 defect from 8 different families. Six were homozygous for the c.317-2A > G mutation, 2 were compound heterozygous for mutations c.317-2A > G and c.628A > C and 1 was homozygous for the novel c.701A > C mutation. Generalized hypotonia, lactic acidosis, hyperammonaemia and 3-MGA were present in all since birth. Five patients presented acute respiratory distress at birth requiring intubation and ventilatory support. HCMP was detected in 5 newborns and appeared a few months later in 3 additional children. Five patients showed a severe and persistent neonatal pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) requiring Nitric Oxide (NO) and/or sildenafil administration combined in 2 cases with high-frequency oscillatory (HFO) ventilation. In 3 of these patients echocardiography detected signs of HCMP at birth.
PPHN is a life-threatening poorly understood condition with bad prognosis if untreated. Pulmonary hypertension has rarely been reported in mitochondrial disorders and, so far, it has been described in association with TMEM70 deficiency only in one patient. This report further expands the clinical and genetic spectrum of the syndrome indicating PPHN as a frequent and life-threatening complication regardless of the type of mutation. Moreover, in these children PPHN appears even in absence of an overt cardiomyopathy, thus representing an early sign and a clue for diagnosis.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 01/2014; · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genomic rearrangements at chromosome 13q31.3q32.1 have been associated with digital anomalies, dysmorphic features, and variable degree of mental disability. Microdeletions leading to haploinsufficiency of miR17∼92, a cluster of micro RNA genes closely linked to GPC5 in both mouse and human genomes, has recently been associated with digital anomalies in the Feingold like syndrome. Here, we report on a boy with familial dominant post-axial polydactyly (PAP) type A, overgrowth, significant facial dysmorphisms and autistic traits who carries the smallest germline microduplication known so far in that region. The microduplication encompasses the whole miR17∼92 cluster and the first 5 exons of GPC5. This report supports the newly recognized role of miR17∼92 gene dosage in digital developmental anomalies, and suggests a possible role of GPC5 in growth regulation and in cognitive development.
European journal of medical genetics 06/2013; 57(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.ejmg.2013.06.001 · 1.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kenny-Caffey syndrome (KCS) and the similar but more severe osteocraniostenosis (OCS) are genetic conditions characterized by impaired skeletal development with small and dense bones, short stature, and primary hypoparathyroidism with hypocalcemia. We studied five individuals with KCS and five with OCS and found that all of them had heterozygous mutations in FAM111A. One mutation was identified in four unrelated individuals with KCS, and another one was identified in two unrelated individuals with OCS; all occurred de novo. Thus, OCS and KCS are allelic disorders of different severity. FAM111A codes for a 611 amino acid protein with homology to trypsin-like peptidases. Although FAM111A has been found to bind to the large T-antigen of SV40 and restrict viral replication, its native function is unknown. Molecular modeling of FAM111A shows that residues affected by KCS and OCS mutations do not map close to the active site but are clustered on a segment of the protein and are at, or close to, its outer surface, suggesting that the pathogenesis involves the interaction with as yet unidentified partner proteins rather than impaired catalysis. FAM111A appears to be crucial to a pathway that governs parathyroid hormone production, calcium homeostasis, and skeletal development and growth.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 05/2013; 92(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.04.020 · 10.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteoglycans (PGs) are a major component of the extracellular matrix in many tissues and function as structural and regulatory molecules. PGs are composed of core proteins and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains. The biosynthesis of GAGs starts with the linker region that consists of four sugar residues and is followed by repeating disaccharide units. By exome sequencing, we found that B3GALT6 encoding an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the GAG linker region is responsible for a severe skeletal dysplasia, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity type 1 (SEMD-JL1). B3GALT6 loss-of-function mutations were found in individuals with SEMD-JL1 from seven families. In a subsequent candidate gene study based on the phenotypic similarity, we found that B3GALT6 is also responsible for a connective tissue disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (progeroid form). Recessive loss-of-function mutations in B3GALT6 result in a spectrum of disorders affecting a broad range of skeletal and connective tissues characterized by lax skin, muscle hypotonia, joint dislocation, and spinal deformity. The pleiotropic phenotypes of the disorders indicate that B3GALT6 plays a critical role in a wide range of biological processes in various tissues, including skin, bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 05/2013; 92(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.04.003 · 10.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutaric aciduria type I (glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency) is an inborn error of metabolism that usually manifests in infancy by an acute encephalopathic crisis and often results in permanent motor handicap. Biochemical hallmarks of this disease are elevated levels of glutarate and 3-hydroxyglutarate in blood and urine. The neuropathology of this disease is still poorly understood, as low lysine diet and carnitine supplementation do not always prevent brain damage, even in early-treated patients. We used a 3D in vitro model of rat organotypic brain cell cultures in aggregates to mimic glutaric aciduria type I by repeated administration of 1 mM glutarate or 3-hydroxyglutarate at two time points representing different developmental stages. Both metabolites were deleterious for the developing brain cells, with 3-hydroxyglutarate being the most toxic metabolite in our model. Astrocytes were the cells most strongly affected by metabolite exposure. In culture medium, we observed an up to 11-fold increase of ammonium in the culture medium with a concomitant decrease of glutamine. We further observed an increase in lactate and a concomitant decrease in glucose. Exposure to 3-hydroxyglutarate led to a significantly increased cell death rate. Thus, we propose a three step model for brain damage in glutaric aciduria type I: (i) 3-OHGA causes the death of astrocytes, (ii) deficiency of the astrocytic enzyme glutamine synthetase leads to intracerebral ammonium accumulation, and (iii) high ammonium triggers secondary death of other brain cells. These unexpected findings need to be further investigated and verified in vivo. They suggest that intracerebral ammonium accumulation might be an important target for the development of more effective treatment strategies to prevent brain damage in patients with glutaric aciduria type I.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53735. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0053735 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Methylmalonic aciduria is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by accumulation of methylmalonate (MMA), propionate and 2-methylcitrate (2-MCA) in body fluids. Early diagnosis and current treatment strategies aimed at limiting the production of these metabolites are only partially effective in preventing neurological damage.
To explore the metabolic consequences of methylmalonic aciduria on the brain, we used 3D organotypic brain cell cultures from rat embryos. We challenged the cultures at two different developmental stages with 1 mM MMA, propionate or 2-MCA applied 6 times every 12 h. In a dose–response experiment cultures were challenged with 0.01, 0.1, 0.33 and 1 mM 2-MCA. Immunohistochemical staining for different brain cell markers were used to assess cell viability, morphology and differentiation. Significant changes were validated by western blot analysis. Biochemical markers were analyzed in culture media. Apoptosis was studied by immunofluorescence staining and western blots for activated caspase-3.
Among the three metabolites tested, 2-MCA consistently produced the most pronounced effects. Exposure to 2-MCA caused morphological changes in neuronal and glial cells already at 0.01 mM. At the biochemical level the most striking result was a significant ammonium increase in culture media with a concomitant glutamine decrease. Dose–response studies showed significant and parallel changes of ammonium and glutamine starting from 0.1 mM 2-MCA. An increased apoptosis rate was observed by activation of caspase-3 after exposure to at least 0.1 mM 2-MCA.
Surprisingly, 2-MCA, and not MMA, seems to be the most toxic metabolite in our in vitro model leading to delayed axonal growth, apoptosis of glial cells and to unexpected ammonium increase. Morphological changes were already observed at 2-MCA concentrations as low as 0.01 mM. Increased apoptosis and ammonium accumulation started at 0.1 mM thus suggesting that ammonium accumulation is secondary to cell suffering and/or cell death. Local accumulation of ammonium in CNS, that may remain undetected in plasma and urine, may therefore play a key role in the neuropathogenesis of methylmalonic aciduria both during acute decompensations and in chronic phases. If confirmed in vivo, this finding might shift the current paradigm and result in novel therapeutic strategies.