[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an emerging class of gene expression modulators with relevant roles in several biological processes, including cell differentiation, development, apoptosis, and regulation of the cell cycle. Deregulation of those tiny RNA molecules has been described frequently as a major determinant for the initiation and progression of diseases, including cancer. Not only miRNAs but also the enzymes responsible for miRNA processing could be deregulated in cancer. In this review, we address the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, since there are oncogenic, tumor-suppressive, and metastatic-influencing miRNAs. Additionally, the different detection platforms and normalization strategies for miRNAs will be discussed. The major part of this review, however, will focus on the capability of miRNAs to act as diagnostic, predictive, or prognostic biomarkers. We will give an overview of their potential to correlate with response to or benefit from a given treatment and we will consider their ability to give information on prognosis in breast cancer. We will focus on miRNAs validated by more than one study or verified in independent cohorts or where results rely on preclinical as well as clinical evidence. As such, we will discuss their potential use in the personalized management of breast cancer.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13058-015-0526-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Breast Cancer Research 12/2015; 17(1). DOI:10.1186/s13058-015-0526-y · 5.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are at high risk of tumor recurrence. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) has been shown to be overexpressed in EOC. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the role of HE4 in predicting recurrence in EOC patients. Furthermore, we assessed the role of HE4 in predicting recurrence after second-line chemotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed data of 92 out of 275 primary EOC patients of the multicenter project "Ovarian Cancer: Diagnosis of a silent killer" (OVCAD). The concentrations of HE4 and CA125 were determined preoperatively and 6 months after the end of platinum-based first-line chemotherapy (FU) using ELISA and Luminex technique, respectively. The role of HE4 and CA125 for prediction of recurrence was determined using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. Out of 92 patients included, 70 (76 %) were responders and 22 (23 %) non-responders in terms of response to platinum-based first-line chemotherapy. Median HE4 concentrations at follow-up (FU) differed between responders and non-responders (60.5 vs. 237.25 pM, p = 0.0001), respectively. The combined use of HE4 and CA125 at FU with cut-off values of 49.5 pM and 25 U/ml for HE4 and CA125, respectively, for predicting recurrence within 12 months after first-line chemotherapy performed better than HE4 or CA125 alone (area under the curve (AUC) 0.928, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.838-1, p < 0.001). HE4 at FU could predict recurrence within 6 months after second-line chemotherapy (AUC 0.719, 95 % CI 0.553-0.885, p = 0.024). The combination of both elevated biomarkers revealed significantly worse estimated median progression-free survival (PFS; hazard ratio (HR) 8.14, 95 % CI 3.75-17.68, p < 0.001) and slightly worse PFS in those in whom only one biomarker was elevated (HR 1.46, 95 % CI 0.72-2.96, p = 0.292) compared to those patients in whom no biomarker was elevated. For the estimated median overall survival (OS), our analysis revealed similar results. HE4 in combination with CA125 performed better than CA125 and HE4 alone in predicting recurrence within 12 months after first-line chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent phase III trial compared the efficacy of cisplatin-topotecan (a topoisomerase I inhibitor) followed by carboplatin-paclitaxel (Arm 1) versus paclitaxel-carboplatin (Arm 2) in women with newly diagnosed stage IIB or greater ovarian cancer. There was a significantly lower response rate in the experimental arm compared to standard treatment, and less likelihood of normalized CA125 within the first 3 months. At 43 months follow-up, there were no significant group differences in progression-free survival. There were also significantly more side effects in the experimental arm.
The current study examined quality of life (QoL) endpoints using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the ovarian cancer module, QLQ-OV28, administered prior to randomization, at day 1 of treatment cycles 3, 5, and 7, at completion of the last cycle, and at 3 and 6 months following completion of chemotherapy.
Global QoL, physical symptoms, fatigue, and role, emotional, cognitive and social function (all from the EORTC QLQ-C30) significantly improved in both treatment arms, with no significant between-arm differences. Between-group differences in pain, insomnia, and peripheral neuropathy reported while on treatment did not differ at follow-up. Nausea and vomiting improved more with standard treatment both during and after treatment. Body image significantly differed between the groups only at cycle 5 (more deterioration in Arm 2) but group differences disappeared at follow-up. A stratified analysis of global QoL by debulking surgery status found no greater effect indicating that overall improvements in QoL were unrelated to surgical recovery.
There was no significant QoL advantage of cisplatin-topotecan. This finding, combined with no progression-free survival conferred by this combination, reaffirms carboplatin-paclitaxel as the standard of care for women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer.
Supportive Care in Cancer 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00520-015-2873-8 · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab Combined With Weekly Paclitaxel, Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin, or Topotecan in Platinum-Resistant Recurrent Ovarian Cancer: Analysis by Chemotherapy Cohort of the Randomized Phase III AURELIA Trial
Journal of clinical orthodontics: JCO 08/2015; DOI:10.1200/JCO.2015.63.1408
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Key contentIntroduction to preoperative classification of ovarian and tubal neoplasms.A discussion of existing guidelines by professional societies.Updated evidence and new strategies for preoperative diagnosis of ovarian cancer.Evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and characterisation of adnexal masses.Areas of future interest in the field of adnexal tumour diagnosis.Learning objectivesTo understand the importance of accurate preoperative discrimination of adnexal tumours to ensure optimal patient management.To critically appraise current guidelines by professional societies.To discuss findings from a recent systematic review and meta-analysis, and two diagnostic accuracy studies comparing different types of prediction models for ovarian cancer diagnosis.To understand the advantages and disadvantages of different International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) prediction models.Ethical issuesConsequences of misclassification of ovarian and tubal masses.Inappropriate use of IOTA prediction models.
The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist 07/2015; 17(3). DOI:10.1111/tog.12200
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite advances in the development of molecularly targeted therapies, limited improvements in overall survival have been noted among many cancer patients with solid tumors, primarily due to development of drug resistance. Accordingly, there is an unmet need for new targeted therapies and treatment approaches for cancer, especially for overcoming resistance. Expression of the folate receptor is upregulated in many tumor types and thus represents an ideal target for cancer treatment. Several folate receptor targeted therapies are in development, including the small molecule drug conjugate vintafolide, the monoclonal antibody farletuzumab, and the antibody-drug conjugate IMGN853. The role of the folate receptor as a target in cancer progression and resistance as well as emerging preclinical and clinical data from studies on those folate receptor targeted agents that are in development with a focus on vintafolide are reviewed. The folate receptor has several unique properties, such as high expression in several tumor types, that make it a rational target for cancer treatment, and allow for selective delivery of folate receptor targeted agents. Early-stage clinical data in lung and ovarian cancer suggest that vintafolide has the potential for combination with other standard approved agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defective cellular transport processes can lead to aberrant accumulation of trace elements, iron, small molecules and hormones in the cell, which in turn may promote the formation of reactive oxygen species, promoting DNA damage and aberrant expression of key regulatory cancer genes. As DNA damage and uncontrolled proliferation are hallmarks of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we hypothesized that inherited variation in the cellular transport genes contributes to EOC risk.
In total, DNA samples were obtained from 14,525 case subjects with invasive EOC and from 23,447 controls from 43 sites in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Two hundred seventy nine SNPs, representing 131 genes, were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium iSelect BeadChip as part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNP analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression under a log-additive model, and the FDR q<0.2 was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons.
The most significant evidence of an association for all invasive cancers combined and for the serous subtype was observed for SNP rs17216603 in the iron transporter gene HEPH (invasive: OR = 0.85, P = 0.00026; serous: OR = 0.81, P = 0.00020); this SNP was also associated with the borderline/low malignant potential (LMP) tumors (P = 0.021). Other genes significantly associated with EOC histological subtypes (p<0.05) included the UGT1A (endometrioid), SLC25A45 (mucinous), SLC39A11 (low malignant potential), and SERPINA7 (clear cell carcinoma). In addition, 1785 SNPs in six genes (HEPH, MGST1, SERPINA, SLC25A45, SLC39A11 and UGT1A) were imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project and examined for association with INV EOC in white-European subjects. The most significant imputed SNP was rs117729793 in SLC39A11 (per allele, OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.5-4.35, p = 5.66x10-4).
These results, generated on a large cohort of women, revealed associations between inherited cellular transport gene variants and risk of EOC histologic subtypes.
PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0128106. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0128106 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) can be prevented. Alizapride is an established antiemetic that may be effective in this role.
Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that alizapride is noninferior to ondansetron for the prophylaxis of PONV.
A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded noninferiority study.
University hospitals of Leuven, Belgium, from November 2008 to July 2011.
A total of 523 patients undergoing laparoscopic gynaecological surgery were included in the study. Reasons for exclusion were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) greater than 2, hypersensitivity to the study medication, pregnancy, mental disorders, psychiatric illness or consumption of antiemetic drugs within 24 h before initiation of the study.
Patients received either alizapride 100 mg, ondansetron 4 mg or placebo intravenously 30 min before the end of surgery.
The main outcome measures included the incidences of postoperative nausea (PON) and postoperative vomiting (POV) during the stay in the postanaesthetic care unit (PACU), with noninferiority testing for alizapride versus ondansetron. The region of noninferiority was defined as a relative difference in incidence of 25%. Secondary outcome was the incidence of PONV in the PACU and after 24 h.
In the alizapride group, 32% of the patients experienced PON during the PACU stay, compared with 28% in the ondansetron group [relative risk 1.13, 90% confidence interval (CI) 0.87 to 1.46], exceeding the predefined margin of noninferiority. With respect to the incidences of POV during the PACU stay, 12.8% of the patients randomised to receive alizapride experienced POV, compared with 7.7% of who received ondansetron (relative risk 1.67, 90% CI 1.00 to 2.87). The incidences of PON and POV in the placebo group during the PACU stay were 34.2 and 9.8%, respectively. The 24-h incidences of PONV were lower than expected in this high-risk group of patients and were similar at 39.3, 36.8 and 31.5% in the placebo, alizapride and ondansetron groups, respectively (χ, P = 0.36). Patients treated with ondansetron required significantly less rescue medication than placebo-treated patients (P = 0.035). Due to the lower than expected incidences of PONV in this study, the power to conclude any noninferiority of alizapride was reduced to only 41%.
We found no evidence to support the noninferiority of alizapride 100 mg when compared with ondansetron 4 mg for the intraoperative prophylaxis of PONV. However, the lower than expected incidences of PONV reduced the power of this study to conclude noninferiority or confirm significant beneficial effects for either antiemetic for PON and POV during the PACU stay.
Eudra CT 2008-004789-20.
European Journal of Anaesthesiology 06/2015; DOI:10.1097/EJA.0000000000000288 · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first version of ENGOT's Requirements for Trials Between Academic Groups and Industry Partners in Europe was published 2010. This first update integrates the experiences made by the ENGOT network and the cooperative group studies while performing, analyzing, and publishing -among others - three large phase III trials. Furthermore, progress in European legislation and its impact on clinical studies in Europe have been considered in this update process.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 06/2015; 25(7). DOI:10.1097/IGC.0000000000000478 · 1.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance:
Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal aneuploidy by scanning cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma is rapidly becoming a major prenatal genetic test. Similar to placental DNA, tumor DNA can be detected in the plasma, and analysis of cell-free tumor DNA can be used to characterize and monitor cancers. We show that plasma DNA profiling allows for presymptomatic detection of tumors in pregnant women undergoing routine NIPT.
During NIPT in over 4000 prospective pregnancies by parallel sequencing of maternal plasma cell-free DNA, 3 aberrant genome representation (GR) profiles were observed that could not be attributed to the maternal or fetal genomic constitution. A maternal cancer was suspected, and those 3 patients were referred for whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, which uncovered an ovarian carcinoma, a follicular lymphoma, and a Hodgkin lymphoma, each confirmed by subsequent pathologic and genetic investigations. The copy number variations in the subsequent tumor biopsies were concordant with the NIPT plasma GR profiles.
Conclusions and relevance:
We show that maternal plasma cell-free DNA sequencing for noninvasive prenatal testing also may enable accurate presymptomatic detection of maternal tumors and treatment during pregnancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, we aimed to identify molecular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tissue biomarkers in patients with ovarian cancer who were treated within the phase III randomized European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Gynaecological Cancer Group (EORTC-GCG) 55041 study comparing erlotinib with observation in patients with no evidence of disease progression after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.
Somatic mutations in KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, PIK3CA, EGFR, and PTEN were determined in 318 (38 %) and expression of EGFR, pAkt, pMAPK, E-cadherin and Vimentin, and EGFR and HER2 gene copy numbers in 218 (26 %) of a total of 835 randomized patients. Biomarker data were correlated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
Only 28 mutations were observed among KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, PIK3CA, EGFR, and PTEN (in 7.5 % of patients), of which the most frequent were in KRAS and PIK3CA. EGFR mutations occurred in only three patients. When all mutations were pooled, patients with at least one mutation in KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, or EGFR had longer PFS (33.1 versus 12.3 months; HR 0.57; 95 % CI 0.33 to 0.99; P = 0.042) compared to those with wild-type tumors. EGFR overexpression was detected in 93 of 218 patients (42.7 %), and 66 of 180 patients (36.7 %) had EGFR gene amplification or high levels of copy number gain. Fifty-eight of 128 patients had positive pMAPK expression (45.3 %), which was associated with inferior OS (38.9 versus 67.0 months; HR 1.81; 95 % CI 1.11 to 2.97; P = 0.016). Patients with positive EGFR fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) status had worse OS (46.1 months) than those with negative status (67.0 months; HR 1.56; 95 % CI 1.01 to 2.40; P = 0.044) and shorter PFS (9.6 versus 16.1 months; HR 1.57; 95 % CI 1.11 to 2.22; P = 0.010). None of the investigated biomarkers correlated with responsiveness to erlotinib.
In this phase III study, increased EGFR gene copy number was associated with worse OS and PFS in patients with ovarian cancer. It remains to be determined whether this association is purely prognostic or is also predictive.