Akihiko Oshita

Hiroshima University, Hirosima, Hiroshima, Japan

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Publications (34)80.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: AimThis study investigated the features of fatty livers using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and validated the usefulness of NIR spectroscopy for the measurement of intrahepatic triglyceride (TG) contents and evaluation of viability in fatty livers.Methods In vitro we examined specific spectra for each purified TG fraction by NIR. In vivo the differences between the spectra obtained from normal and fatty livers before warm ischemia and the differences between the spectra obtained from each rat liver before and after warm ischemia were subjected to multi-component analysis.ResultsIn vitro experiments revealed a specific peak at 925 nm in major TG fractions, and NIR spectroscopy precisely detected changes in TG volume. In vivo experiments revealed that NIR spectroscopy detected TG content changes in rat fatty livers induced by a choline-deficient diet (CDD) following the addition of purified TG spectrum for NIR spectroscopic analysis in least-square curve-fitting. The TG level in the fatty livers measured by NIR spectroscopy significantly correlated with the morphometric measurement of lipid content in the livers. NIR spectroscopy also revealed decreased levels of total hemoglobin (Hb) and oxidized Hb and maintenance of homeostasis in cytochrome redox states in fatty livers under normal condition. However, NIR spectroscopy showed irreversible deterioration of hepatic microcirculation, Hb oxygenation, and homeostasis of the cytochrome redox states in fatty livers after 60-minute warm ischemia reperfusion.Conclusions These studies demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy can quantitatively measure the intrahepatic TG content in addition to simultaneously evaluating microcirculation and Hb oxygenation.
    Hepatology Research 05/2014; · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Small-for-size syndrome remains the greatest limiting factor of expanding segmental liver transplantation from living donors. Portal hyperperfusion is considered to substantially contribute to small-for-size syndrome. We investigated the impact of continuous portal infusion of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on small-for-size grafts (SFSGs) in adult-to-adult living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: From July 2003 to December 2009, LDLT was performed in 122 patients. We introduced continuous portal infusion of PGE1 to five SFSG patients (PG group) from November 2007 to December 2009 and retrospectively compared them with a historical control group of eight relevant SFSG patients without PGE1 infusion (non-PG group) from July 2003 to October 2007 to determine the safety and efficacy of continuous PGE1 portal infusion for SFSGs. Splenectomy cases were excluded from analysis. RESULTS: The PG group demonstrated significantly lower postoperative portal pressure than the non-PG group. Moreover, the PG group demonstrated significantly improved liver function in the early posttransplantation period and significantly better recovery from hyperammonemia at 1 week after transplantation and from hyperbilirubinemia in the late posttransplantation period. Overall survival was significantly better in the PG group than in the non-PG group. Three patients in the non-PG group died of rejection-related reasons. Interestingly, immunomonitoring assay revealed that antidonor immune responses were significantly accelerated in the non-PG group compared with the PG group after LDLT. In contrast, the PG group showed well-suppressed antidonor immune responses. CONCLUSION: Continuous portal infusion of PGE1 for SFSG attenuated portal hypertension, improved graft function, and suppressed antidonor immune responses, resulting in better survival.
    Transplantation 04/2013; · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To develop a living liver donor (LLD) quality of life (QOL) scale and test its reliability and validity. METHODS: We sent a draft questionnaire comprising 38 questions to 965 LLDs from five hospitals. To evaluate test-retest reliability, the questionnaire was re-sent 2 weeks later to some of the donors from one hospital. RESULTS: Of the 447 (54.5 %) donors who responded, 15 were excluded. Factor analysis of 26 items extracted 7 subscales; namely, damage from the operation, scarring, satisfaction, burden, after-effects, digestive symptoms, and lack of understanding of donor health. We analyzed construct validity on the basis of factor analysis and observed significant correlations among the seven subscales. Criterion-related validity was confirmed by significant correlation with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey scores. None of the subscales showed unreasonable values. We evaluated the subscale reliability for internal consistency (α = 0.670-0.868, except for "digestive symptoms", α = 0.431) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.749-0.918). The factor "digestive symptoms" needs careful consideration because of low internal consistency. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study confirmed the reliability and validity of the LLD QOL scale, which can be used for quantitatively evaluating the QOL of LLDs.
    Surgery Today 01/2013; · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 76-year-old male was referred for the treatment of liver tumors detected by abdominal computed tomography (CT). Dynamic CT revealed a low-density tumor with an irregularly enhanced rim in the left lateral sector, and a highly enhanced, well-circumscribed tumor in the caudate lobe, accompanied by dilation of the intrahepatic biliary ducts in the left lobe. Preoperative imaging studies led to the diagnosis of double cancers consisting of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Left hemihepatectomy with caudate lobectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Microscopic evaluation revealed that the tumor in the left lateral sector was adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC), whereas that in the caudate lobe was HCC. This report presents the first case describing the resection of synchronous double cancers of primary hepatic ASC and HCC.
    Surgery Today 09/2012; · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia; also called von Gierke disease) is an autosomal recessive disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency. There have been many reports describing hepatic tumors in GSD patients; however, most of these reports were of hepatocellular adenomas, whereas there are only few reports describing focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We report a case with GSD-Ia who had undergone a partial resection of the liver for FNH at 18 years of age and in whom moderately differentiated HCC had developed. Preoperative imaging studies, including ultrasonography, dynamic computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, revealed benign and malignant features. In particular, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT revealed the atypical findings that FDG accumulated at high levels in the non-tumorous hepatic parenchyma and low levels in the tumor. Right hemihepatectomy was performed. During the perioperative period, high-dose glucose and sodium bicarbonate were administered to control metabolic acidosis. He had multiple recurrences of HCC at 10 mo after surgery and was followed-up with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. The tumor was already highly advanced when it was found by chance; therefore, a careful follow-up should be mandatory for GSD-I patients as they are at a high risk for HCC, similar to hepatitis patients.
    World journal of hepatology. 06/2012; 4(6):191-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate both safety of diet-treated donors and the feasibility of their use for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). A total of 128 living donors were enrolled in this study between April 2003 and March 2010. Of them, 41 were diagnosed with hepatic steatosis at the initial consultation. Donor selection was based on the findings of liver biopsy accompanied with normalization of liver function tests after diet treatment consisting of an 800 to 1400 kcal/day diet and a 100 to 400 kcal/day exercise without drug treatment, targeting body mass index of 22 kg/m². Body mass index of diet-treated donors was significantly reduced with diet from 23.3 ± 0.6 to 21.9 ± 0.4 kg/m² (P<0.0001). Liver function tests associated with fatty liver, including alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and total cholesterol levels, also improved with diet (P=0.0128, 0.0016, and 0.0004, respectively). The liver biopsy results of most of these donors showed stage 0/1 fibrosis and minimal/mild steatosis after the diet therapy. Surgical outcomes, including postoperative liver function tests, perioperative complications, and liver regeneration rates, did not significantly differ between nondiet-treated and diet-treated donors. Surgical outcomes and the overall survival did not significantly differ between recipients of grafts from nondiet-treated and diet-treated donors. The use of diet-treated donors for living-donor liver transplantation is feasible with respect to donor safety and the outcome of the recipient when strict selection criteria are used.
    Transplantation 04/2012; 93(10):1024-30. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although several studies have shown that serum antithrombin III (ATIII) has anti-inflammatory effects, the prognostic value of ATIII in HCC is unknown. We investigated the influence of preoperative ATIII levels on the outcome of patients who underwent hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Data from 440 patients (314 patients with ATIII ≥70 % and 126 patients with ATIII <70 %) who underwent curative hepatectomy for HCC were retrospectively collected and analyzed. To overcome bias due to the different distribution of covariates for the 2 groups, propensity score matching was performed on the patients, and outcomes were compared. The propensity score analysis revealed that 65 patients with ATIII of ≥70 % (group 1) and 65 patients with ATIII of <70 % (group 2) had the same preoperative and operative characteristics (excluding the ATIII level). The overall survival rate and the disease-free survival rate was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (P = 0.005 and 0.011, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that ATIII was a significant favorable factor for overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with HCC after curative hepatectomy. The prognosis of patients with HCC was found to be associated with preoperative antithrombin III levels. ATIII may be useful for predicting outcomes of patients with HCC after curative hepatectomy.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 03/2012; 19(9):2888-96. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The vascular abnormalities of recipients are associated with reconstructive difficulties with an increased risk of postoperative complications. We performed an orthotopic liver transplantation that required a complex vascular reconstruction using donor vascular grafts. A patient with hepatitis B virus cirrhosis received a liver from a brain-dead donor. Dynamic computed tomography revealed complete obstruction of the portal vein due to thrombosis as well as narrowing of the hepatic arteries. We employed orthotopic liver transplantation using the piggy-back technique with complex reconstruction of the portal vein and the hepatic arteries. For portal vein reconstruction, we used the donor's iliac vein as an interpositional conduit from the recipient's gastric coronary vein to graft the portal vein. The hepatic arteries of the graft were reconstructed at the back-table before anastomosis to the side of superior mesenteric artery using an interpositional conduit of the donor's external iliac artery. All postoperative studies revealed good graft function with an excellent blood flow through all vascular anastomoses during the first year postoperatively.
    Transplantation Proceedings 03/2012; 44(2):574-8. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although several studies have shown that perioperative blood transfusion is a poor prognostic factor of outcome after hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the impact of perioperative blood transfusion on the prognosis of HCC remains unknown. Data from 835 patients (76 transfused patients and 759 nontransfused patients) who underwent curative hepatectomy for HCC were retrospectively collected and analyzed. To overcome bias due to the different distribution of covariates for the two groups, a one-to-one match was created using propensity score analysis. After matching, patient outcomes were analyzed. After one-to-one matching, 60 transfused patients and 60 nontransfused patients had the same preoperative and operative characteristics (excluding operative blood loss). Although the morbidity rate of hepatectomy was significantly higher in the transfused group than in the nontransfused group (P = 0.016), there was no significant difference in mortality rate (P = 0.242). Additionally, the overall survival rate of transfused patients was similar to that of nontransfused patients (P = 0.466), and the difference in disease-free survival rate between the two groups was insignificant (P = 0.621). Perioperative blood transfusion did not influence the overall and disease-free survival rate in the HCC patients studied. Perioperative blood transfusion may not be considered a poor prognostic factor for patients with HCC.
    World Journal of Surgery 03/2012; 36(3):651-8. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a rare malignant tumor, and only a few cases of the resection of IVC leiomyosarcomas with synchronous liver metastases have been reported. This report describes a female patient who initially presented with a solitary, huge liver tumor and a retroperitoneal tumor. Following our preoperative diagnosis of primary liver cancer with a retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis, the patient underwent combined resection of both tumors. The surgical findings revealed that the retroperitoneal tumor originated from the IVC wall. The pathological and immunohistochemical findings revealed that both tumors were leiomyosarcomas. Although the liver tumor was much larger than the IVC tumor, we considered that the metastatic liver tumor arose from the IVC leiomyosarcoma. This was an instructive case because the metastatic liver tumor from the IVC leiomyosarcoma was so large as to be mistaken for a primary liver tumor.
    Surgery Today 11/2011; 42(5):505-8. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic stellate cells are thought to play a role in modulating intrahepatic vascular resistance based on their capacity to contract via Rho signaling. We investigated the effect of a Rho-kinase inhibitor on ischemia-reperfusion injury in the steatotic liver. Steatotic livers, induced by a choline-deficient diet in rats, were subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Hepatic stellate cells isolated from steatotic livers were analyzed for contractility and Rho signaling activity. The portal pressure of the perfused rat liver and the survival rate after ischemia-reperfusion were also investigated. Hepatic stellate cells from steatotic livers showed increased contractility and upregulation of Rho-kinase 2 compared with those from normal livers. Furthermore, endothelin-1 significantly enhanced the contractility and phosphorylation level of myosin light chain and cofilin in hepatic stellate cells isolated from steatotic livers. A specific Rho-kinase inhibitor, fasudil, significantly suppressed the contractility and decreased the phosphorylation levels of myosin light chain and cofilin. Serum levels of endothelin-1 were markedly increased after IR in rats with steatotic livers, whereas fasudil significantly decreased endothelin-1 serum levels. Rats with steatotic livers showed a significant increase in portal perfusion pressure after ischemia-reperfusion and a significant decrease in survival rate; fasudil treatment significantly reduced these effects. Activation of Rho/Rho-kinase signaling in hepatic stellate cells isolated from steatotic livers is associated with an increased susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury. A Rho-kinase inhibitor attenuated the activation of hepatic stellate cells isolated from steatotic livers and improved ischemia-reperfusion injury in steatotic rats.
    Journal of Hepatology 07/2011; 56(1):146-52. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The preferred choice between surgical treatment and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of small resectable hepatocellular [corrected] carcinoma (HCC) has become a subject for debate. We compared the results of hepatic resection (n = 199) with those of RFA (n = 87), of which 69 patients were treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization followed by RFA, for 286 patients with 3 or fewer nodules, none of which exceeded 3 cm in diameter at Hiroshima University Hospital. In subgroup analysis of single HCC with tumor size exceeding 2 cm in Child-Pugh class A, the disease-free survival time was significantly longer in the surgical resection group than in the RFA group (P = 0.048). In the subgroups of a single and multiple HCC with tumor size ≤2 cm in Child-Pugh class A, the overall and disease-free survival rates were almost the same for the surgical resection and RFA groups (P = 0.46 and 0.58, respectively, in single HCC, and P = 0.98 and 0.98, respectively, in multiple HCC). Surgical resection may provide better long-term disease-free survival than RFA in the subgroup of a single HCC exceeding 2 cm of Child-Pugh class A.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 07/2011; 104(1):3-9. · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The appropriate treatment strategy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that does not meet the Milan criteria (MC) is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of surgical treatment for such patients. From January 1990 to December 2007, 151 patients with HCC exceeding MC who underwent curative surgical treatment were enrolled. Survival and recurrence data and clinicopathological factors were examined. Prognostic factors were analyzed to identify those that contributed to improved surgical outcomes retrospectively. After the initial hepatectomy, the overall 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 73%, 55%, and 33%, respectively, for the 151 patients in this study; the corresponding disease-free survival rates were 36%, 30%, and 17%, respectively. A platelet count under 10(5)/mm(3), multiple tumors, and liver cirrhosis of noncancerous tissue were adverse survival and disease-free survival factors by univariate analysis. Platelet count was an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates of HCC exceeding MC in patients whose platelet count was 10(5)/mm(3) or greater reached 76%, 65%, and 44%, respectively, and were comparable with those that met MC (86%, 68%, and 37%, respectively). Hepatectomy for patients with advanced HCC exceeding MC improves survival, especially for patients with a sufficiently high platelet count, although recurrence rates after initial hepatectomy are high.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 07/2011; 15(7):1173-81. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several published reports investigating the effects of interferon (IFN) therapy on survival and tumor recurrence after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been inconclusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of pegylated-IFN (peg-IFN) therapy after curative hepatic resection for HCC in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Data from 175 patients who underwent curative hepatic resection for HCC associated with HCV were retrospectively collected and analyzed; 75 patients received peg-IFN therapy after surgery, whereas 100 patients did not receive IFN therapy. To overcome biases resulting from the different distribution of covariates in the two groups, a one-to-one match was created using propensity score analysis. After matching, patient outcomes were analyzed. After one-to-one matching, patients (n = 38) who received peg-IFN therapy after surgery and patients (n = 38) who did not receive IFN therapy had the same preoperative and operative characteristics. The 3- and 5-year overall survival rates of patients who received peg-IFN therapy after hepatic resection were significantly higher than those of patients who did not receive IFN therapy (P = 0.00135). The 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 100 and 91.7% and 76.6 and 50.6% in the peg-IFN group and non-IFN group, respectively. There was no significant difference in disease-free survival between the two matched groups (P = 0.886). Peg-IFN therapy may be effective as an adjuvant chemopreventive agent after hepatic resection in patients with HCV-related HCC.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 06/2011; 19(2):418-25. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although many factors related to the tumor or the hepatic functional reserve may affect the outcome of partial hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), these factors have not yet been intensively investigated in patients with solitary HCC. The purpose of this study is to determine the clinicopathological factors influencing the long-term outcomes of partial hepatectomy for solitary HCC. Data on 266 consecutive patients with a solitary HCC who underwent curative hepatectomy between 1997 and 2006 were analyzed with regard to prognosis. Overall survival rates at 3, 5, and 10 years were 89.5, 79.6, and 56.1%, respectively. The significant independent predictors for overall survival included hepatitis C virus infection, liver cirrhosis, and prolonged prothrombin activity. Disease-free survival rates at 3, 5, and 10 years were 51.7, 41.1, and 20.4%, respectively. The significant independent predictors for disease-free survival included elevated levels of aspartate amino transferase, decreased platelet counts, presence of liver cirrhosis, and prolonged prothrombin activity. Tumor-related factors such as tumor size and microscopic vascular invasion were not significant predictors of overall or disease-free survival. The long-term outcomes of patients with a solitary HCC who underwent partial hepatectomy mainly depended on the background liver status but not on tumor-related factors; this suggests that partial hepatectomy is a remarkably effective antitumor therapy. If the hepatic functional reserve is within the permissible range, partial hepatectomy should be considered as the treatment of choice for patients with a solitary HCC.
    Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic sciences. 03/2011; 18(5):689-99.
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    ABSTRACT: Splenectomy is gaining increasing importance for cirrhotic patients with hypersplenism. However, its safety and efficacy for patients with chronic liver disease remain unclear. We retrospectively examined the medical records of 38 consecutive cirrhotic patients who underwent splenectomy or simultaneous hepatectomy and splenectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. White blood cell and platelet counts significantly increased 3 months after splenectomy. Serum levels of total bilirubin and prothrombin time significantly improved 1 year after splenectomy. Interferon therapy was administered to 25 patients after splenectomy. A sustained viral response was achieved in 8 patients (42%). The total incidence of portal or splenic vein thrombosis (PSVT) detected by postoperative dynamic computed tomography was 13/38 (34.2%). Multivariate analysis revealed preoperative spleen volume (SV) to be the sole independent predictor of postoperative PSVT. Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis showed that a cut-off SV of 450 ml corresponded to a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 56%. Splenectomy improved the liver function and facilitated effective interferon therapy in cirrhotic patients with hypersplenism, although preoperative SV was frequently associated with postoperative PSVT.
    Digestive surgery 02/2011; 28(1):9-14. · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The appropriate surgical approach for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients of Child-Pugh class B is unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic factors after hepatectomy in Child-Pugh class B patients and to delineate the selection criteria for hepatectomy. One hundred fifty patients of Child-Pugh class B who underwent hepatectomy were enrolled in this retrospective study (Hx group). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors. The prognosis was compared with that of 23 patients of Child-Pugh class B who underwent liver transplantation (LT group). The overall survival rate of the Hx group was significantly worse than that of the LT group (5-year survival: 36.0 vs. 78.3%, p = 0.001). In multivariate analyses, diabetes mellitus (p = 0.011), preoperative total bilirubin level ≥ 1.5 mg/dl (p = 0.038), and Child-Pugh score of 8 or 9 (p = 0.038) were independent prognostic factors. Although the overall 5-year survival rate of patients with none of the three adverse prognostic factors was only 50.3%, that of patients with one or more adverse prognostic factors was only 27.2% (p = 0.001). Hepatectomy may be the optimal initial treatment for HCC patients classified as Child-Pugh class B and without any adverse prognostic factors.
    World Journal of Surgery 12/2010; 35(4):834-41. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are few reports regarding the use of liver grafts with multiple large cysts in living donor liver transplantation. A 40-year-old woman who was diagnosed with Wilson's disease underwent living donor left liver transplantation; the donor was her 67-year-old mother. The liver graft had multiple large cysts, with a maximum diameter of 9 cm. At donor hepatectomy, the largest cyst and one small cyst were fenestrated, because they were located in the left paramedian sector; the other cysts were left intact. After transplantation, the liver graft exhibited good function with no cyst-related complications, such as hemorrhage, infection, or rupture, despite slight enlargement of the cysts. Thus, a liver graft with multiple large cysts is transplantable. However, the necessity of treating large cysts remains debatable.
    Transplantation Proceedings 11/2009; 41(9):3923-6. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
    Transplantation 07/2009; 88(1):144-145. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) results from diverse causative factors. Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) including essential thrombocythemia (ET) account for a minority of BCS cases in Japan. ABO-blood-type incompatible living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in adults has become an acceptable procedure owing to the development of new strategies for preventing antibody-mediated rejection. This report presents a rare case of BCS secondary to ET, which was cured by an ABO-incompatible (AB to A) LDLT. In this case, prostaglandin E(1) and gabexate mesilate were administered into portal vein and rituximab prophylaxis was applied. No splenectomy was performed as it is in most ABO-incompatible cases, since a flow cytometry showed no anti-B antibodies in the splenocytes collected by a wedge biopsy during the LDLT. The postoperative course was uneventful. Anti-coagulation therapy was initiated with aspirin and warfarin instead of hydroxyurea. This report describes an ABO-incompatible LDLT without a splenectomy for BCS secondary to ET.
    Hepatology Research 05/2009; 39(5):520-4. · 2.07 Impact Factor