[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin secreted by adipocytes acts on the brain to reduce food intake by regulating neuronal activity in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). Obesity is associated with resistance to high circulating leptin levels. Here, we demonstrate that peripherally administered leptin activates its receptor (LepR) in median eminence tanycytes followed by MBH neurons, a process requiring tanycytic ERK signaling and the passage of leptin through the cerebrospinal fluid. In mice lacking the signal-transducing LepRb isoform or with diet-induced obesity, leptin taken up by tanycytes accumulates in the median eminence and fails to reach the MBH. Triggering ERK signaling in tanycytes with EGF reestablishes leptin transport, elicits MBH neuron activation and energy expenditure in obese animals, and accelerates the restoration of leptin sensitivity upon the return to a normal-fat diet. ERK-dependent leptin transport by tanycytes could thus play a critical role in the pathophysiology of leptin resistance, and holds therapeutic potential for treating obesity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ependymal cell cilia help move cerebrospinal fluid through the cerebral ventricles, but the regulation of their beat frequency remains unclear. Using in vitro, high-speed video microscopy and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging in mice, we found that the metabolic peptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) positively controlled cilia beat frequency, specifically in the ventral third ventricle, whereas a lack of MCH receptor provoked a ventricular size increase.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The delivery of blood-borne molecules conveying metabolic information to neural networks that regulate energy homeostasis is restricted by brain barriers. The fenestrated endothelium of median eminence microvessels and tight junctions between tanycytes together compose one of these. Here, we show that the decrease in blood glucose levels during fasting alters the structural organization of this blood-hypothalamus barrier, resulting in the improved access of metabolic substrates to the arcuate nucleus. These changes are mimicked by 2-deoxyglucose-induced glucoprivation and reversed by raising blood glucose levels after fasting. Furthermore, we show that VEGF-A expression in tanycytes modulates these barrier properties. The neutralization of VEGF signaling blocks fasting-induced barrier remodeling and significantly impairs the physiological response to refeeding. These results implicate glucose in the control of blood-hypothalamus exchanges through a VEGF-dependent mechanism and demonstrate a hitherto unappreciated role for tanycytes and the permeable microvessels associated with them in the adaptive metabolic response to fasting.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To maintain homeostasis, hypothalamic neurons in the arcuate nucleus must dynamically sense and integrate a multitude of peripheral signals. Blood-borne molecules must therefore be able to circumvent the tightly sealed vasculature of the blood-brain barrier to rapidly access their target neurons. However, how information encoded by circulating appetite-modifying hormones is conveyed to central hypothalamic neurons remains largely unexplored. Using in vivo multiphoton microscopy together with fluorescently labeled ligands, we demonstrate that circulating ghrelin, a versatile regulator of energy expenditure and feeding behavior, rapidly binds neurons in the vicinity of fenestrated capillaries, and that the number of labeled cell bodies varies with feeding status. Thus, by virtue of its vascular connections, the hypothalamus is able to directly sense peripheral signals, modifying energy status accordingly.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing clinical and therapeutic interest in the neurobiology of eating disorders reflects their dramatic impact on health. Chronic food restriction resulting in severe weight loss is a major symptom described in restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, and they also suffer from metabolic disturbances, infertility, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Restrictive AN, mostly observed in young women, is the third largest cause of chronic illness in teenagers of industrialized countries. From a neurobiological perspective, AN-linked behaviors can be considered an adaptation that permits the endurance of reduced energy supply, involving central and/or peripheral reprograming. The severe weight loss observed in AN patients is accompanied by significant changes in hormones involved in energy balance, feeding behavior, and bone formation, all of which can be replicated in animals models. Increasing evidence suggests that AN could be an addictive behavior disorder, potentially linking defects in the reward mechanism with suppressed food intake, heightened physical activity, and mood disorder. Surprisingly, the plasma levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone that drives food-motivated behavior, are increased. This increase in plasma ghrelin levels seems paradoxical in light of the restrained eating adopted by AN patients, and may rather result from an adaptation to the disease. The aim of this review is to describe the role played by ghrelin in AN focusing on its central vs. peripheral actions. In AN patients and in rodent AN models, chronic food restriction induces profound alterations in the « ghrelin » signaling that leads to the development of inappropriate behaviors like hyperactivity or addiction to food starvation and therefore a greater depletion in energy reserves. The question of a transient insensitivity to ghrelin and/or a potential metabolic reprograming is discussed in regard of new clinical treatments currently investigated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibiting the α4 subunit of the integrin heterodimers α4β1 and α4β7 with the mab natalizumab is an effective treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Which of the two α4 heterodimers is involved in disease pathogenesis has, however, remained controversial. Whereas the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, is ameliorated in β7-integrin-deficient C57BL/6 mice, neutralizing antibodies against the β7-integrin subunit or the α4β7-integrin heterodimer fail to interfere with EAE pathogenesis in the SJL mouse. To facilitate α4β7-integrin-mediated immune-cell trafficking across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we established transgenic C57BL/6 mice with endothelial cell-specific, inducible expression of the α4β7-integrin ligand mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule (MAdCAM)-1 using the tetracycline (TET)-OFF system. Although TET-regulated MAdCAM-1 induced α4β7-integrin mediated interaction of α4β7(+) /α4β1(-) T cells with the BBB in vitro and in vivo, it failed to influence EAE pathogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. TET-regulated MAdCAM-1 on the BBB neither changed the localization of central nervous system (CNS) perivascular inflammatory cuffs nor did it enhance the percentage of α4β7-integrin(+) inflammatory cells within the CNS during EAE. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that ectopic expression of MAdCAM-1 at the BBB does not increase α4β7-integrin-mediated immune cell trafficking into the CNS during MOG(aa35-55)-induced EAE.
European Journal of Immunology 03/2011; 41(3):813-21. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The median eminence is one of the seven so-called circumventricular organs. It is located in the basal hypothalamus, ventral to the third ventricle and adjacent to the arcuate nucleus. This structure characteristically contains a rich capillary plexus and features a fenestrated endothelium, making it a direct target of blood-borne molecules. The median eminence also contains highly specialized ependymal cells called tanycytes, which line the floor of the third ventricle. It has been hypothesized that one of the functions of these cells is to create a barrier that prevents substances in the portal capillary spaces from entering the brain. In this paper, we utilize immunohistochemistry to study the expression of tight junction proteins in the cells that compose the median eminence in adult mice. Our results indicate that tanycytes of the median eminence express occludin, ZO-1, and claudin 1 and 5, but not claudin 3. Remarkably, these molecules are organized as a continuous belt around the cell bodies of the tanycytes that line the ventral part of the third ventricle. In contrast, the tanycytes at the periphery of the arcuate nucleus do not express claudin 1 and instead exhibit a disorganized expression pattern of occludin, ZO-1, and claudin 5. Consistent with these observations, permeability studies using peripheral or central injections of Evans blue dye show that only the tanycytes of the median eminence are joined at their apices by functional tight junctions, whereas tanycytes located at the level of the arcuate nucleus form a permeable layer. In conclusion, this study reveals a unique expression pattern of tight junction proteins in hypothalamic tanycytes, which yields new insights into their barrier properties.
The Journal of Comparative Neurology 04/2010; 518(7):943-62. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Utilizing both the TET-OFF and TET-ON systems in combination with transcriptional control elements of the Tie-2 gene, we have established a series of transgenic activator and responder mice for TET-regulated endothelial cell-specific transgene expression in double transgenic mouse embryos and in adult mice. TET-regulated expression of LacZ reporter genes could be achieved in virtually all endothelia in mid gestation stage mouse embryos. In contrast in adult mice, using the very same Tie-2 tTA activator mouse strain, we observed striking differences of TET-induced gene expression from various inducible expression constructs in different vascular beds. Non-endothelial expression was never detected. The prominent differences in completeness of TET-induced endothelial expression highlight the still underestimated critical role of the responder mouse lines for uniform TET-induced gene expression in heterogeneous cell populations such as endothelial cells. Interestingly, in double transgenic mice inducibly expressing several different adhesion molecules, no adverse effects were observed even though these proteins were robustly expressed on endothelial cells in adult tissues. These transgenic model systems provide versatile tools for the TET-regulated manipulation of endothelial cell-specific gene expression in the entire embryonic vasculature and distinct vascular beds in adult mice.
Experimental Cell Research 05/2008; 314(6):1202-16. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is becoming increasingly apparent that non-neuronal cells play a critical role in generating and regulating the flow of information within the brain. Among these non-neuronal cells, astroglial cells have been shown to play important roles in the control of both synaptic transmission and neurosecretion. In addition to modulating neuronal activity, astroglial cells interact with endothelial cells throughout the central nervous system to define specific functional domains. In the hypothalamus, neurons that release gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the neurohormone that controls both sexual development and adult reproductive function, offer an attractive model system in which to study glial-neuronal-endothelial interactions. Within the median eminence of the hypothalamus, alterations of the anatomical relationship that exists between GnRH axon terminals and ependymoglial cell processes belonging to tanycytes regulate the direct access of GnRH neurosecretory axons to the vascular wall. This cell plasticity presumably modulates the release of GnRH into the portal vasculature during the reproductive cycle. Both structural changes and GnRH secretory activity appear to be modulated, at least in part, by specific cell-cell signalling molecules secreted by astrocytes, tanycytes and endothelial cells. It is becoming increasingly clear that among the different factors that may be involved, glial cells use growth factor members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, acting via receptors endowed with tyrosine kinase activity, to produce morphological changes and release neuroactive substances that directly excite nearby neurons, whereas endothelial cells of the median eminence employ nitric oxide to induce neuroglial plasticity and facilitate GnRH release.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considerable research has been devoted to the understanding of how nitric oxide (NO) influences brain function. Few studies, however, have addressed how its production is physiologically regulated. Here, we report that protein-protein interactions between neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) and glutamate NMDA receptors via the scaffolding protein postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) in the hypothalamic preoptic region of adult female rats is sensitive to cyclic estrogen fluctuation. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments were used to assess the physical association between nNOS and NMDA receptor NR2B subunit in the preoptic region of the hypothalamus. We found that nNOS strongly interacts with NR2B at the onset of the preovulatory surge at proestrus (when estrogen levels are highest) compared with basal-stage diestrous rats. Consistently, estrogen treatment of gonadectomized female rats also increases nNOS/NR2B complex formation. Moreover, endogenous fluctuations in estrogen levels during the estrous cycle coincide with changes in the physical association of nNOS to PSD-95 and the magnitude of NO release in the preoptic region. Finally, temporary and local in vivo suppression of PSD-95 synthesis by using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides leads to inhibition of nNOS activity in the preoptic region and disrupted estrous cyclicity, a process requiring coordinated activation of neurons containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (the neuropeptide controlling reproductive function). In conclusion, our findings identify a novel steroid-mediated molecular mechanism that enables the adult mammalian brain to control NO release under physiological conditions.
Journal of Neuroscience 07/2007; 27(23):6103-14. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased lymphocyte trafficking across blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a prominent and early event in inflammatory and immune-mediated CNS diseases. The adhesion molecules that control the entry of leukocytes into the brain have not been fully elucidated. Although the role of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 has been well documented, the expression and role of selectins is still a matter of controversy. In a mouse syngenic in vitro BBB model, highly relevant for examining immunological events, mouse brain capillary endothelial cells (MBCECs) do not express selectins. Treatment of MBCECs with LPS, induced E- and P-selectin expression, whereas TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma treatments did not. Finally, P-selectin but not E-selectin expression was induced in IL-1beta treated MBCECs. Thus, our study suggests that diverse inflammatory stimuli could differentially regulate selectin expression at the BBB.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although cerebral endothelium disturbance is commonly observed in central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory pathologies, neither the cause of this phenomenon nor the effective participation of blood-brain barrier (BBB) in such diseases are well established. Observations were mostly made in vivo using mouse models of chronic inflammation. This paper presents a new mouse in vitro model suitable for the study of underlying mechanistic events touching BBB functions during CNS inflammatory disturbances. This model consists of a coculture with both primary cell types isolated from mice. Mouse brain capillary endothelial cell (MBCEC)s coming from brain capillaries are in culture with their in vivo partners and form differentiated monolayers that retain endothelial markers and numerous phenotypic properties of in vivo cerebral endothelium, such as: (1) peripheral distribution of tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-5, claudin-3 and JAM-1); (2) high trans-endothelium electrical resistance value; (3) attenuated paracellular flux of sucrose and inulin; (4) P-gp expression; (5) no MECA-32 expression. Furthermore, this endothelium expresses cell adhesion molecules described in vivo and shows intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 upregulation under lipopolysaccharide-treatment. Therefore, this well-differentiated model using autologous cells appears as a suitable support to reconstitute pathological in vitro BBB model.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the central nervous system (CNS) complex endothelial tight junctions (TJs) form a restrictive paracellular diffusion barrier, the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Pathogenic changes within the CNS are frequently accompanied by the loss of BBB properties, resulting in brain edema. In order to investigate whether BBB leakiness can be monitored by a loss of TJ proteins from cellular borders, we used an in vitro BBB model where brain endothelial cells in co-culture with astrocytes form a tight permeability barrier for 3H-inulin and 14C-sucrose. Removal of astrocytes from the co-culture resulted in an increased permeability to small tracers across the brain endothelial cell monolayer and an opening of the TJs to horseradish peroxidase as detected by electron microscopy. Strikingly, opening of the endothelial TJs was not accompanied by any visible change in the molecular composition of endothelial TJs as junctional localization of the TJ-associated proteins claudin-3, claudin-5, occludin, ZO-1 or ZO-2 or the adherens junction-associated proteins beta-catenin or p120cas did not change. Thus, opening of BBB TJs is not readily accompanied by the complete loss of the junctional localization of TJ proteins.
Cell and Tissue Research 03/2004; 315(2):157-66. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous infections of the central nervous system are characterized by altered blood-brain barrier (BBB) functions leading to brain damage. To study the mechanisms that cause BBB disruption in these pathologies, we used an in vitro BBB model consisting of a coculture of brain capillary endothelial cells and glial cells. When these endothelial cells were submitted alone to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), added in the luminal compartment, a huge increase in the paracellular permeability of the monolayer was observed. As glial cells surrounding the brain capillaries are of prime importance in specifying at least some cellular properties, we investigated whether glial cells would be able to modulate this endothelial cell response to LPS. When endothelial cells were incubated with LPS added luminally, in the presence of glial cells, LPS surprisingly had no effect on the endothelial cell monolayer permeability, suggesting a protective effect of glial cells on the LPS-mediated injury. As in our experiments, the endotoxin does not interact with the glial cell population. This protective effect suggests a close communication between cerebral endothelial cells and brain parenchymal cells. In our coculture model, the glial cell population is a mixture of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglial cells. Further experiments performed with purified astrocytes showed that microglial cells or oligodendrocytes, or both, are essential for the complete protection of the endothelial cell monolayer integrity. All these results are direct evidence for a modulatory effect of glial cells on brain capillary endothelial cell response in the pathogenesis of endotoxemia.