[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is a 116-kDa endocytic protein, which is necessary for the maintenance of several tissues in vivo as its deficiency leads to degenerative adult phenotypes. HIP1 deficiency also inhibits prostate tumor progression in mice. To better understand how deficiency of HIP1 leads to such phenotypes, we analyzed tumorigenic potential in mice homozygous for a Hip1 mutant allele, designated Hip1(Delta 3-5), which is predicted to result in a frame-shifted, nonsense mutation in the NH(2) terminus of HIP1. In contrast to our previous studies using the Hip1 null allele, an inhibition of tumorigenesis was not observed as a result of the homozygosity of the nonsense Delta 3-5 allele. To further examine the contrasting results from the prior Hip1 mutant mice, we cultured tumor cells from homozygous Delta 3-5 allele-bearing mice and discovered the presence of a 110-kDa form of HIP1 in tumor cells. Upon sequencing of Hip1 DNA and message from these tumors, we determined that this 110-kDa form of HIP1 is the product of splicing of a cryptic U12-type AT-AC intron. This event results in the insertion of an AG dinucleotide between exons 2 and 6 and restoration of the reading frame. Remarkably, this mutant protein retains its capacity to bind lipids, clathrin, AP2, and epidermal growth factor receptor providing a possible explanation for why tumorigenesis was not altered after this knockout mutation. Our data show how knowledge of the transcript that is produced by a knockout allele can lead to discovery of novel types of molecular compensation at the level of splicing.
Cancer Research 03/2008; 68(4):1064-73. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-5892 · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is an inositol lipid, clathrin, and actin binding protein that is overexpressed in a variety of epithelial malignancies. Here, we report for the first time that HIP1 is elevated in non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphomas and that patients with lymphoid malignancies frequently had anti-HIP1 antibodies in their serum. Moreover, p53-deficient mice with B-cell lymphomas were 13 times more likely to have anti-HIP1 antibodies in their serum than control mice. Furthermore, transgenic overexpression of HIP1 was associated with the development of lymphoid neoplasms. The HIP1 protein was induced by activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway, which is frequently activated in lymphoid malignancies. These data identify HIP1 as a new marker of lymphoid malignancies that contributes to the transformation of lymphoid cells in vivo.
Cancer Research 10/2007; 67(18):8923-31. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-2153 · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The members of the huntingtin-interacting protein-1 (HIP1) family, HIP1 and HIP1-related (HIP1r), are multi-domain proteins that interact with inositol lipids, clathrin and actin. HIP1 is over-expressed in a variety of cancers and both HIP1 and HIP1r prolong the half-life of multiple growth factor receptors. To better understand the physiological importance of the HIP1 family in vivo, we have analyzed a large cohort of double Hip1/Hip1r knockout (DKO) mice. All DKO mice were dwarfed, afflicted with severe vertebral defects and died in early adulthood. These phenotypes were not observed during early adulthood in the single Hip1 or Hip1r knockouts, indicating that HIP1 and HIP1r compensate for one another. Despite the ability of HIP1 and HIP1r to modulate growth factor receptor levels when over-expressed, studies herein using DKO fibroblasts indicate that the HIP1 family is not necessary for endocytosis but is necessary for the maintenance of diverse adult tissues in vivo. To test if human HIP1 can function similar to mouse HIP1, transgenic mice with 'ubiquitous' expression of the human HIP1 cDNA were generated and crossed with DKO mice. Strikingly, the compound human HIP1 transgenic DKO mice were completely free from dwarfism and spinal defects. This successful rescue demonstrates that the human HIP1 protein shares some interchangeable functions with both HIP1 and HIP1r in vivo. In addition, we conclude that the degenerative phenotypes seen in the DKO mice are due mainly to HIP1 and HIP1r protein deficiency rather than altered expression of neighboring genes or disrupted intronic elements.
Human Molecular Genetics 07/2007; 16(11):1279-92. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddm076 · 6.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is a multidomain oncoprotein whose expression correlates with increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) levels in certain tumors. For example, HIP1-transformed fibroblasts and HIP1-positive breast cancers have elevated EGFR protein levels. The combined association of HIP1 with huntingtin, the protein that is mutated in Huntington's disease, and the known overexpression of EGFR in glial brain tumors prompted us to explore HIP1 expression in a group of patients with different types of brain cancer. We report here that HIP1 is overexpressed with high frequency in brain cancers and that this overexpression correlates with EGFR and platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor expression. Furthermore, serum samples from patients with brain cancer contained anti-HIP1 antibodies more frequently than age-matched brain cancer-free controls. Finally, we report that HIP1 physically associates with EGFR and that this association is independent of the lipid, clathrin, and actin interacting domains of HIP1. These findings suggest that HIP1 may up-regulate or maintain EGFR overexpression in primary brain tumors by directly interacting with the receptor. This novel HIP1-EGFR interaction may work with or independent of HIP1 modulation of EGFR degradation via clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking pathways. Further investigation of HIP1 function in brain cancer biology and validation of its use as a prognostic or predictive brain tumor marker are now warranted.
Cancer Research 05/2007; 67(8):3609-15. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-4803 · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is frequently overexpressed in prostate cancer. HIP1 is a clathrin-binding protein involved in growth factor receptor trafficking that transforms fibroblasts by prolonging the half-life of growth factor receptors. In addition to human cancers, HIP1 is also overexpressed in prostate tumors from the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mouse model. Here we provide evidence that HIP1 plays an important role in mouse tumor development, as tumor formation in the TRAMP mice was impaired in the Hip1null/null background. In addition, we report that autoantibodies to HIP1 developed in the sera of TRAMP mice with prostate cancer as well as in the sera from human prostate cancer patients. This led to the development of an anti-HIP1 serum test in humans that had a similar sensitivity and specificity to the anti-alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase (AMACR) and prostate-specific antigen tests for prostate cancer and when combined with the anti-AMACR test yielded a specificity of 97%. These data suggest that HIP1 plays a functional role in tumorigenesis and that a positive HIP1 autoantibody test may be an important serum marker of prostate cancer.
Cancer Research 06/2005; 65(10):4126-33. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-4658 · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mice and humans, there are two known members of the Huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1) family, HIP1 and HIP1-related (HIP1r). Based on structural and functional data, these proteins participate in the clathrin trafficking network. The inactivation of Hip1 in mice leads to spinal, hematopoietic, and testicular defects. To investigate the biological function of HIP1r, we generated a Hip1r mutant allele in mice. Hip1r homozygous mutant mice are viable and fertile without obvious morphological abnormalities. In addition, embryonic fibroblasts derived from these mice do not have gross abnormalities in survival, proliferation, or clathrin trafficking pathways. Altogether, this demonstrates that HIP1r is not necessary for normal development of the embryo or for normal adulthood and suggests that HIP1 or other functionally related members of the clathrin trafficking network can compensate for HIP1r absence. To test the latter, we generated mice deficient in both HIP1 and HIP1r. These mice have accelerated development of abnormalities seen in Hip1 -deficient mice, including kypholordosis and growth defects. The severity of the Hip1r/Hip1 double-knockout phenotype compared to the Hip1 knockout indicates that HIP1r partially compensates for HIP1 function in the absence of HIP1 expression, providing strong evidence that HIP1 and HIP1r have overlapping roles in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related (HIP1r) is the only known mammalian relative of huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1), a protein that transforms fibroblasts via undefined mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that both HIP1r and HIP1 bind inositol lipids via their epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domains. In contrast to other ENTH domain-containing proteins, lipid binding is preferential to the 3-phosphate-containing inositol lipids, phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate. Furthermore, the HIP1r ENTH domain, like that of HIP1, is necessary for lipid binding, and expression of an ENTH domain-deletion mutant, HIP1r/deltaE, induces apoptosis. Consistent with the ability of HIP1r and HIP1 to affect cell survival, full-length HIP1 and HIP1r stabilize pools of growth factor receptors by prolonging their half-life following ligand-induced endocytosis. Although HIP1r and HIP1 display only a partially overlapping pattern of protein interactions, these data suggest that both proteins share a functional homology by binding 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids and stabilizing receptor tyrosine kinases in a fashion that may contribute to their ability to alter cell growth and survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clathrin-associated protein, Huntingtin Interacting Protein 1 (HIP1), is overexpressed in multiple human epithelial tumors. Here, we report that HIP1 is a novel oncoprotein that transforms cells. HIP1-transformed cells, in contrast to RasV12-transformed cells, have dysregulation of multiple receptors involved in clathrin trafficking. Examples include upregulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the transferrin receptor. Furthermore, accumulation of transferrin and EGF in the HIP1-transformed cells was increased, and breast tumors that had EGFR expressed also had HIP1 upregulated. Thus, HIP1 overexpression promotes tumor formation and is associated with a general alteration in receptor trafficking. HIP1 is the first endocytic protein to be directly implicated in tumor formation.
Cancer Cell 06/2003; 3(5):471-82. DOI:10.1016/S1535-6108(03)00107-7 · 23.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) interacts with huntingtin, the protein whose gene is mutated in Huntington's disease. In addition, a fusion between HIP1 and platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor causes chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. The HIP1 proteins, including HIP1 and HIP1-related (HIP1r), have an N-terminal polyphosphoinositide-interacting epsin N-terminal homology, domain, which is found in proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. HIP1 and HIP1r also share a central leucine zipper and an actin binding TALIN homology domain. Here we show that HIP1, like HIP1r, colocalizes with clathrin coat components. We also show that HIP1 physically associates with clathrin and AP-2, the major components of the clathrin coat. To further understand the putative biological role(s) of HIP1, we have generated a targeted deletion of murine HIP1. HIP1(-/-) mice developed into adulthood, did not develop overt neurologic symptoms in the first year of life, and had normal peripheral blood counts. However, HIP1-deficient mice exhibited testicular degeneration with increased apoptosis of postmeiotic spermatids. Postmeiotic spermatids are the only cells of the seminiferous tubules that express HIP1. These findings indicate that HIP1 is required for differentiation, proliferation, and/or survival of spermatogenic progenitors. The association of HIP1 with clathrin coats and the requirement of HIP1 for progenitor survival suggest a role for HIP1 in the regulation of endocytosis.