[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: While exercise-induced ST segment depression (STD) and the heart rate (HR) adjusted ST/HR index have each been used to assess the severity of coronary artery disease, their functional correlates with SPECT-evidenced ischemia are not well understood.Methods: We compared indices of ECG and SPECT evidenced ischemia in 129 consecutive subjects with exercise induced STD > 0.1 mV and reversible perfusion abnormalities. ECG variables included the heart rate adjusted ST/HR index (stratified according to a previously validated partition of 3.4 uV/bpm) and unadjusted STD (stratified according to a 0.2 mV partition). SPECT ischemic severity was measured on the basis of a summed stress score (SSS) calculated using a 20 segment model and a 5 point segmental score. As our prior investigations have found that the anatomic distribution of SPECT perfusion defects is a determinant of ST depression, subjects were grouped according to the presence of either single (anterior or inferior, n=68) or multiple (n=61) defects.Results: Patients stratified by STD and ST/HR partitions did not differ in mean age or peak exercise stage achieved. In the overall population, regression analysis (R = 0.36; p < 0.001) demonstrated that SSS was independently predicted by both ST depression magnitude (B = 0.28; p = 0.001) and exercise induced HR change (B = −0.22; p = 0.003). Among subjects with single SPECT defects, significant differences in mean SSS were seen with stratification by both STD (11.5 ± 4.6 vs 8.1 ± 3.7, p = 0.001) and ST/HR (11.5 ± 4.9 vs 7.7 ± 2.9, p < 0.001). Among subjects with multiple SPECT defects, stratification on the basis of STD was not associated with significant differences in mean SSS (20.1 ± 8.5 vs 17.6 ± 12.1; p = 0.4) while stratification on the basis of the ST/HR index yielded significant differences in mean SSS (ST/HR: 21.9 ± 9.6 vs 15.1 ± 9.0, p= 0.007).Conclusions: In subjects with diffuse SPECT perfusion abnormalities, HR adjustment of ST segment depression offers a more accurate reflection of ischemic severity and provides incremental diagnostic capabilities over standard ST segment depression criteria for the evaluation of myocardial ischemia.
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 01/2004; 11(4). · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous occurrence of an interpolated atrial premature complex, an unusual finding outside of the experimental electrophysiology laboratory, was detected and confirmed by evaluation of P-wave morphology in a patient who underwent 12-lead ambulatory electrocardiography.
The American Journal of Cardiology 08/2001; 88(2):199-200, A7. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinically useful prognostic value of precordial QT dispersion in patients with heart disease is generally attributed to its measurement of regional heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization. However, when repolarization is abnormal, differences in measured QT intervals might result simply from variation in projection of the T-wave loop. To provide insight into the mechanism of QT dispersion, we used an analog device to transform conventional 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 78 patients to derived 12-lead ECGs based on the heart vector. Because the electrical activity of the heart is represented by a single dipole, all QT dispersion in the transformed ECGs results from variation in projection of the T-wave loop and cannot be due to local heterogeneity of repolarization. Measured as the difference between the longest and shortest precordial QT intervals, QT dispersion in the derived ECGs, with no local heterogeneity of repolarization, was 53 +/- 49 ms (mean +/- SD). QT dispersion in these derived ECGs was similar in magnitude to that measured from the original standard 12-lead ECGs in these patients (49 +/- 23 ms, p = NS). Therefore, the precordial QT dispersion measured from standard ECGs of patients with coronary artery disease can be explained by interlead variation in precordial projection of the T-wave loop. Although regional heterogeneity might still contribute to precordial repolarization findings and to prognosis, this is not required to explain the QT dispersion observed in patients with coronary artery disease. Therefore, QT interval dispersion is not equivalent to heterogeneity of repolarization.
The American Journal of Cardiology 02/2001; 87(2):148-51. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among patients with chronic nonischemic mitral regurgitation (MR), high short-term mortality risk can be identified by left (LV) and/or right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (EF) criteria (LVEF </=45% and/or RVEF </=30%). Mitral valve replacement or repair (MVR) significantly improves outcome in this subgroup, but predictors of late postoperative survival are not known, and the benefit of MVR has not been defined in patients matched for severity of LV and RV dysfunction. Therefore, prospective assessment of 14 consecutive high risk MR patients was performed before MVR and during 9 years (average) postoperatively to define echocardiographic and radionuclide angiographic predictors of survival; survival also was evaluated in a contemporaneous series of 9 high risk unoperated MR patients, and in subgroups of operated and unoperated patients matched for EF. Of 14 MVR patients, 4 died (3 cardiac: 1 sudden, 2 congestive heart failure). Only preoperative RVEF </=20% significantly predicted postoperative deaths (rest p = 0.032; exercise p = 0.05). Of 9 unoperated patients, 8 died. Mortality risk of unoperated patients remained higher than that of MVR patients when groups were matched for preoperative LVEF (p = 0.0001). Among patients with RVEF >20%, MVR significantly improved survival versus medical treatment (rest: p < 0.0001, exercise: p = 0.0003). In high risk MR patients, MVR improves survival; preoperative RV performance can define subgroups with different long-term postoperative survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) may develop severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and require valve surgery. Preliminary data suggest that high body weight and blood pressure might add to the irreversible factors of older age and male gender in increasing risk of these complications. Fifty-four patients with severe MR due to MVP were compared with 117 control subjects with uncomplicated MVP to elucidate factors independently associated with severe MR: the need for valve surgery and the cumulative risk of requiring mitral valve surgery. Patients with severe MR were older (p<0.00005), more overweight (p = 0.002), had higher systolic (p = 0.0003) and diastolic (p = 0.007) blood pressures, and were more likely to have hypertension (p = 0.0001) and to be men (p<0.001). In both groups, men had higher blood pressure and relative body weight than women. In multivariate analysis, older age was most strongly associated with MR; higher body mass index, hypertension, and gender were independent predictors of severe MR in analyses that excluded age. Among the 54 patients with severe MR, the 32 (59%) who underwent mitral valve surgery during 11 years of follow-up were older, more overweight, and more likely to be hypertensive than those not requiring surgery. Among patients undergoing mitral valve surgery in 3 centers, mitral prolapse was the etiology in 25%, 67% of whom were men. Using these data and national statistics, we estimate that the gender-specific cumulative risk for requiring valvular surgery for severe MR in subjects with MVP is 0.8% in women and 2.6% in men before age 65, and 1.4% and 5.5% by age 75. Thus, subjects with MVP who are older, more overweight, and hypertensive are at greater risk for severe MR and valve surgery. Higher blood pressure and relative weight in men with MVP appear to contribute to the gender difference in risk for severe MR.
The American Journal of Cardiology 01/2000; 85(2):193-8. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart rate (HR) adjustment of ST depression (STD) has been shown to correctly classify exercise test findings in up to 85% of normal subjects and patients with "equivocal" electrocardiographic (ECG) responses (> or =100 microV upsloping STD), but the performance of these methods in patients with truly negative ECG responses (<100 microV STD) has not been examined in detail. We reviewed negative standard exercise ECGs in 54 men and women (mean age 61 years) with coronary disease, comprising 16% of consecutive treadmill tests that were performed in 337 patients with angiographic coronary artery disease or stable angina. Mean STD was only 63 +/- 21 microV (0.63 mm) in these negative tests. Despite these subthreshold values for STD, the ST/HR index was abnormal (> or =1.6 microV/bpm) in 27 of 54 patients (50%) when STD was adjusted for the change in HR during exercise. Compared with patients with normal values for HR-adjusted STD, patients with an abnormal ST/HR index were slightly older (64 vs. 58 years, P < 0.05) and demonstrated a trend toward lower exercise duration (10.0 vs. 11.8 min). An abnormal ST/HR index was associated with greater subthreshold STD (73 vs. 53 microV, P < 0.0005) and smaller HR change (35 vs. 56 bpm, P < 0.0001) with exercise. Among the 27 patients with a normal ST/HR index by simple HR adjustment, 11 (44%) had abnormal ST/HR slopes (> or =2.4 microV/bpm) by the more complex linear regression method. Therefore, HR adjustment of STD contributes to the improved sensitivity of the exercise ECG by correct classification of some patients with truly negative standard tests. The magnitude of subthreshold STD and the extent of HR change with exercise both contribute to improved test performance. The increased sensitivity afforded by HR adjustment of STD highlights the importance of the precise measurement of subthreshold STD that is afforded by computerized ECG during exercise testing.
Journal of Electrocardiology 01/1999; 32 Suppl:193-7. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) using 12-lead ECG criteria based primarily on QRS amplitudes has been limited by poor sensitivity at acceptable levels of specificity. Because the product of QRS voltage and duration, as an approximation of the time-voltage area of the QRS complex, can improve accuracy of the 12-lead ECG for LVH, we examined the diagnostic value of true time-voltage area measurements of QRS complexes from the standard 12-lead ECG. Standard 12-lead ECGs and echocardiograms were obtained in 175 control subjects without LVH and in 74 patients with regurgitant valvular heart disease and LVH defined by echocardiographic criteria (indexed LV mass >110 g/m2 in women and >125 g/m2 in men). Standard voltage criteria, voltage-duration products (voltage multiplied by QRS duration), and true time-voltage areas of the QRS were calculated for Sokolow-Lyon criteria (SV1 +RV(5/6)) and the 12-lead sum of voltage criteria. Test sensitivities were compared using gender-specific partitions with matched specificity of 98% in the 175 subjects without LVH. Measurement of the time-voltage area significantly improved sensitivity for both criteria. The 76% sensitivity of the 12-lead sum area and 65% sensitivity of Sokolow-Lyon area were significantly greater than the 54% sensitivity of the approximation of QRS area provided by each voltage-duration product (P<.001 and P=.021) and than the 46% and 43% sensitivities of the respective simple voltage criteria (each P<.001). Comparison of receiver operating characteristic curves confirmed the superior overall performance of time-voltage area criteria compared with both voltage-duration products and simple voltage criteria. These results suggest that use of time-voltage areas can dramatically improve identification of LVH by 12-lead ECG. Further study of this approach is needed to identify optimal criteria for LVH based on the time-voltage area measurements from the 12-lead ECG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimal criteria for valve replacement are unclear in asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic patients with aortic regurgitation (AR) and normal left ventricular (LV) performance at rest. Moreover, previous studies have not assessed the prognostic capacity of load-adjusted LV performance ("contractility") variables, which may be fundamentally related to clinical state. Therefore, 18 years ago, we set out to test prospectively the hypothesis that objective noninvasive measures of LV size and performance and, specifically, of load-adjusted variables, assessed at rest and during exercise (ex), could predict the development of currently accepted indications for operation for AR.
Clinical variables and measures of LV size, performance, and end-systolic wall stress (ESS) were assessed annually in 104 patients by radionuclide cineangiography at rest and maximal ex and by echocardiography at rest; ESS was derived during ex. During an average 7.3-year follow-up among patients who had not been operated on, 39 of 104 patients either died suddenly (n = 4) or developed operable symptoms only (n = 22) or subnormal LV performance with or without symptoms (n = 13) (progression rate=6.2%/y). By multivariate Cox model analysis, change (delta) in LV ejection fraction (EF) from rest to ex, normalized for deltaESS from rest to ex (deltaLVEF-deltaESS index), was the strongest predictor of progression to any end point or to sudden cardiac death alone. Unadjusted deltaLVEF was almost as efficient. Symptom status modified prediction on the basis of the deltaLVEF-deltaESS index. The population tercile at highest risk by deltaLVEF-deltaESS progressed to end points at a rate of 13.3%/y, and the lowest-risk tercile progressed at 1.8%/y.
Currently accepted symptom and LV performance indications for valve replacement, as well as sudden cardiac death, can be predicted in asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic patients with AR by load-adjusted deltaLVEF-deltaESS index, which includes data obtained during exercise.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dispersion of precordial QT intervals has been attributed to delay in the recovery process in the myocardium under the exploring electrode, a local effect. However, the phenomenon also could be explained by different projections of the heart vector, in which case the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) derived from the heart vector would show similar dispersion that could not be local in nature because the electrical activity of the heart is represented by a single dipole. Using an analog device that switched between the two, conventional and derived ECGs were obtained from 129 normal subjects. Measured as the difference between the longest and shortest precordial QT intervals, QT dispersion from the derived ECGs (mean +/- SD, 40 +/- 20 ms) was nearly identical in magnitude to that from the standard ECGs (41 +/- 18 ms, P = NS). Further analysis of the derived ECGs revealed nonuniform distributions of both the maximal and minimal QT intervals across the precordial leads. In addition, a weak correlation was found between the QT interval and the T wave amplitude in the two precordial leads with the lowest T-wave amplitudes (r = -0.303 in V1, P = .001, and r = 0.253 in V6, P = .005). While findings in patients with disease or with abnormal ECGs may differ and require separate examination, these data suggest that the observed magnitude of precordial QT dispersion in normal subjects can be explained by differences in precordial projection of the end of the T wave rather than by local effect.
Journal of Electrocardiology 02/1998; 31 Suppl:128-33. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the performance of precordial QT dispersion, late potentials on the signal-averaged electrocardiogram (ECG), and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction for identification of inducible ventricular tachycardia (VT) in 162 patients undergoing electrophysiologic study (EPS). QT(apex) dispersion in 56 patients with inducible VT (72 +/- 55 msec) was greater than that in 106 patients without inducible VT (55 +/- 36 msec, p < 0.01); dispersion was greater in both groups than in 144 normal subjects (33 +/- 19 msec). A QT(apex) dispersion partition of more than 68 msec, the upper ninety-fifth percentile in normal subjects, identified inducible VT with a specificity of 75% and a sensitivity of 45%. Although the performances of late potentials (specificity 82%, sensitivity 59%) and reduced ejection fraction (specificity 86%, sensitivity 54%) were each stronger than QT dispersion alone for identification of inducible VT, abnormal QT(apex) dispersion remained a significant additional predictor of inducible VT in a logistic regression model that included the three variables (specificity 78%, sensitivity 75%).
American Heart Journal 12/1997; 134(6):1005-13. · 4.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether subjects identified as being at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) death by heart rate adjustment of exercise-induced ST-segment depression will benefit from therapy aimed at reducing risk factors has not been examined.
Exercise ECGs were performed in 11,880 men from the Usual Care (UC) and Special Intervention (SI) groups of the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. UC men were referred to customary sources of care in the community; SI men received counseling on smoking cessation and dietary reduction of cholesterol, and stepped-care therapy for hypertension. An abnormal ST-segment response to exercise was defined according to standard criteria as > or = 100 microV of additional horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression and by an ST-segment/heart rate (ST/HR) index >1.60 microV/bpm. After 7 years of follow-up, CHD mortality was significantly lower in SI than UC men with an abnormal ST/HR index (2.4%, 19/786 versus 5.3%, 39/729, P=.005) but was comparable in SI and UC men with a normal ST/HR index (1.6%, 84/5154 versus 1.3%, 70/5211, P=NS). Risk reduction in SI men with an abnormal ST/HR index was independent of age and other cardiac risk factors. In contrast, there was no significant difference in CHD death rate between the smaller groups of SI and UC men with an abnormal test by standard criteria (3.6%, 7/192 versus 2.7%, 5/186, P=NS).
An abnormal ST/HR index identifies men in whom therapy aimed at reducing CHD risk factors reduces the risk of CHD death by 61%. These findings support the application of heart rate adjustment of ST depression for screening of asymptomatic subjects at increased risk of CHD to identify those who will benefit most from risk factor-reduction programs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the relation of the standard deviation of the 5-minute mean RR intervals over 24 hours (SDANN), a measure of ultra-low frequency heart rate variability (HRV) (<0.0033 Hz), and other measures of HRV to clinical outcome events in 50 asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with chronic severe aortic regurgitation (AR) who underwent ambulatory electrocardiography as part of a prospective study of the natural history of regurgitant valvular diseases. At entry, all patients were in sinus rhythm and had New York Heart Association functional class I or minimal II congestive heart failure, with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction > or = 45% and LV end-diastolic dimension > or = 5.5 cm in women and > or = 5.9 cm in men. End points were defined as progression to aortic valve replacement (n = 19) or sudden cardiac death (n = 1) during the mean follow-up period of 8.1 +/- 3.8 years. With the median SDANN of 145 ms as a partition value, the average annual risk of end-point events in patients with low SDANN was significantly greater than the event rate in patients with high SDANN (11%/year vs 2%/year, p <0.0003). In multivariate analysis, reduced SDANN was associated with end-point events independent of LV function, LV end-systolic dimension, and symptom status (p = 0.001). We conclude that reduced ultra-low frequency HRV measured as SDANN is strongly related to progression to valve surgery in asymptomatic and minimally symptomatic patients with chronic AR.
The American Journal of Cardiology 07/1997; 79(11):1482-7. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart rate (HR) response to exercise plays an important role in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Adjustment of ST-segment depression for the change in HR with exercise increases the accuracy of the exercise ECG in the detection of CAD. In addition, an attenuated HR response to exercise, a manifestation of chronotropic incompetence, may have independent diagnostic value for CAD.
The diagnostic value of adjusting the magnitude of ST-segment depression, the ST-segment (ST)/HR index, and the ST/HR slope for chronotropic response to exercise was assessed in 283 control subjects and 337 patients with CAD by dividing each ST measurement by the fraction of HR reserve achieved. At a matched specificity of 96%, ST-segment depression of > 160 microV identified CAD with a sensitivity of 52%, an ST/HR index of > 1.69 microV/bpm identified CAD with a sensitivity of 90%, and an ST/HR slope of > 2.96 microV/bpm identified CAD with a sensitivity of 88%. Adjustment for HR reserve improved the sensitivity of each method: adjusted ST-segment depression of > 176 had a sensitivity of 87% (P < .0001), an adjusted ST/HR index of > 2.14 had a sensitivity of 94% (P = .005), and an adjusted ST/HR slope of > 3.47 had a sensitivity of 93% (P = .0001). In addition, the 94% and 93% sensitivities of the adjusted ST/HR index and ST/HR slope were significantly greater than the 87% sensitivity of adjusted ST-segment depression (P < .0001).
Correction for an attenuated HR response to exercise improves performance of the simple and HR-adjusted ST-segment depression criteria for the identification of CAD. These findings support assessment of the degree of chronotropic reserve in routine evaluation of the exercise ECG.