Mark I McCarthy

University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (343)4618.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The past five years have seen many scientific and biological discoveries made through the experimental design of genome-wide association studies (GWASs). These studies were aimed at detecting variants at genomic loci that are associated with complex traits in the population and, in particular, at detecting associations between common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and common diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, auto-immune diseases, and psychiatric disorders. We start by giving a number of quotes from scientists and journalists about perceived problems with GWASs. We will then briefly give the history of GWASs and focus on the discoveries made through this experimental design, what those discoveries tell us and do not tell us about the genetics and biology of complex traits, and what immediate utility has come out of these studies. Rather than giving an exhaustive review of all reported findings for all diseases and other complex traits, we focus on the results for auto-immune diseases and metabolic diseases. We return to the perceived failure or disappointment about GWASs in the concluding section.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/2012; 90(1):7-24. DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.11.029 · 10.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear magnetic resonance assays allow for measurement of a wide range of metabolic phenotypes. We report here the results of a GWAS on 8,330 Finnish individuals genotyped and imputed at 7.7 million SNPs for a range of 216 serum metabolic phenotypes assessed by NMR of serum samples. We identified significant associations (P < 2.31 × 10(-10)) at 31 loci, including 11 for which there have not been previous reports of associations to a metabolic trait or disorder. Analyses of Finnish twin pairs suggested that the metabolic measures reported here show higher heritability than comparable conventional metabolic phenotypes. In accordance with our expectations, SNPs at the 31 loci associated with individual metabolites account for a greater proportion of the genetic component of trait variance (up to 40%) than is typically observed for conventional serum metabolic phenotypes. The identification of such associations may provide substantial insight into cardiometabolic disorders.
    Nature Genetics 01/2012; 44(3):269-76. DOI:10.1038/ng.1073 · 29.65 Impact Factor
  • Nature Genetics 01/2012; 44(6):732. DOI:10.1038/ng0612-732c · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8)). SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9), OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.67-0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5)) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29202. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Defining the genetic contribution of rare variants to common diseases is a major basic and clinical science challenge that could offer new insights into disease etiology and provide potential for directed gene- and pathway-based prevention and treatment. Common and rare nonsynonymous variants in the GCKR gene are associated with alterations in metabolic traits, most notably serum triglyceride levels. GCKR encodes glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP), a predominantly nuclear protein that inhibits hepatic glucokinase (GCK) and plays a critical role in glucose homeostasis. The mode of action of rare GCKR variants remains unexplored. We identified 19 nonsynonymous GCKR variants among 800 individuals from the ClinSeq medical sequencing project. Excluding the previously described common missense variant p.Pro446Leu, all variants were rare in the cohort. Accordingly, we functionally characterized all variants to evaluate their potential phenotypic effects. Defects were observed for the majority of the rare variants after assessment of cellular localization, ability to interact with GCK, and kinetic activity of the encoded proteins. Comparing the individuals with functional rare variants to those without such variants showed associations with lipid phenotypes. Our findings suggest that, while nonsynonymous GCKR variants, excluding p.Pro446Leu, are rare in individuals of mixed European descent, the majority do affect protein function. In sum, this study utilizes computational, cell biological, and biochemical methods to present a model for interpreting the clinical significance of rare genetic variants in common disease.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 12/2011; 122(1):205-17. DOI:10.1172/JCI46425 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in east Asian populations. We followed our stage 1 meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases with T2D and 11,865 controls) with a stage 2 in silico replication analysis (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo replication analysis (12,284 cases and 13,172 controls). The combined analysis identified eight new T2D loci reaching genome-wide significance, which mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6 and ZFAND3. GLIS3, which is involved in pancreatic beta cell development and insulin gene expression, is known for its association with fasting glucose levels. The evidence of an association with T2D for PEPD and HNF4A has been shown in previous studies. KCNK16 may regulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion in the pancreas. These findings, derived from an east Asian population, provide new perspectives on the etiology of T2D.
    Nature Genetics 12/2011; 44(1):67-72. DOI:10.1038/ng.1019 · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have been extremely successful in identifying novel loci contributing effects to a wide range of complex human traits. However, despite this success, the joint marginal effects of these loci account for only a small proportion of the heritability of these traits. Interactions between variants in different loci are not typically modelled in traditional GWA analysis, but may account for some of the missing heritability in humans, as they do in other model organisms. One of the key challenges in performing gene-gene interaction studies is the computational burden of the analysis. We propose a two-stage interaction analysis strategy to address this challenge in the context of both quantitative traits and dichotomous phenotypes. We have performed simulations to demonstrate only a negligible loss in power of this two-stage strategy, while minimizing the computational burden. Application of this interaction strategy to GWA studies of T2D and obesity highlights potential novel signals of association, which warrant follow-up in larger cohorts.
    Genetic Epidemiology 12/2011; 35(8):800-8. DOI:10.1002/gepi.20629 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To understand how miRNAs contribute to the molecular phenotype of adipose tissues and related traits, we performed global miRNA expression profiling in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue of 70 human subjects and characterised which miRNAs were differentially expressed between these tissues. We found that 12% of the miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue (FDR adjusted p<0.05) in the primary study, of which 59 replicated in a follow-up study of 40 additional subjects. Further, 14 miRNAs were found to be associated with metabolic syndrome case-control status in abdominal tissue and three of these replicated (primary study: FDR adjusted p<0.05, replication: p<0.05 and directionally consistent effect). Genome-wide genotyping was performed in the 70 subjects to enable miRNA expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis. Candidate miRNA eQTLs were followed-up in the additional 40 subjects and six significant, independent cis-located miRNA eQTLs (primary study: p<0.001; replication: p<0.05 and directionally consistent effect) were identified. Finally, global mRNA expression profiling was performed in both tissues to enable association analysis between miRNA and target mRNA expression levels. We find 22% miRNAs in abdominal and 9% miRNAs in gluteal adipose tissue with expression levels significantly associated with the expression of corresponding target mRNAs (FDR adjusted p<0.05). Taken together, our results indicate a clear difference in the miRNA molecular phenotypic profile of abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue, that the expressions of some miRNAs are influenced by cis-located genetic variants and that miRNAs are associated with expression levels of their predicted mRNA targets.
    PLoS ONE 11/2011; 6(11):e27338. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0027338 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190)). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, including genes involved in biliary transport (ATP8B1 and ABCB11), glucose, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (FADS1, FADS2, GCKR, JMJD1C, HNF1A, MLXIPL, PNPLA3, PPP1R3B, SLC2A2 and TRIB1), glycoprotein biosynthesis and cell surface glycobiology (ABO, ASGR1, FUT2, GPLD1 and ST3GAL4), inflammation and immunity (CD276, CDH6, GCKR, HNF1A, HPR, ITGA1, RORA and STAT4) and glutathione metabolism (GSTT1, GSTT2 and GGT), as well as several genes of uncertain or unknown function (including ABHD12, EFHD1, EFNA1, EPHA2, MICAL3 and ZNF827). Our results provide new insight into genetic mechanisms and pathways influencing markers of liver function.
    Nature Genetics 11/2011; 43(11):1131-8. DOI:10.1038/ng.970 · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies described 95 loci controlling serum lipid levels. These common variants explain ∼25% of the heritability of the phenotypes. To date, no unbiased screen for gene-environment interactions for circulating lipids has been reported. We screened for variants that modify the relationship between known epidemiological risk factors and circulating lipid levels in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) data from 18 population-based cohorts with European ancestry (maximum N = 32,225). We collected 8 further cohorts (N = 17,102) for replication, and rs6448771 on 4p15 demonstrated genome-wide significant interaction with waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) on total cholesterol (TC) with a combined P-value of 4.79×10(-9). There were two potential candidate genes in the region, PCDH7 and CCKAR, with differential expression levels for rs6448771 genotypes in adipose tissue. The effect of WHR on TC was strongest for individuals carrying two copies of G allele, for whom a one standard deviation (sd) difference in WHR corresponds to 0.19 sd difference in TC concentration, while for A allele homozygous the difference was 0.12 sd. Our findings may open up possibilities for targeted intervention strategies for people characterized by specific genomic profiles. However, more refined measures of both body-fat distribution and metabolic measures are needed to understand how their joint dynamics are modified by the newly found locus.
    PLoS Genetics 10/2011; 7(10):e1002333. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002333 · 8.17 Impact Factor
  • Nature Genetics 09/2011; 43(10):1040. DOI:10.1038/ng1011-1040c · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have performed a metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL) study of the (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) metabolome in humans, building on recent targeted knowledge of genetic drivers of metabolic regulation. Urine and plasma samples were collected from two cohorts of individuals of European descent, with one cohort comprised of female twins donating samples longitudinally. Sample metabolite concentrations were quantified by (1)H NMR and tested for association with genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Four metabolites' concentrations exhibited significant, replicable association with SNP variation (8.6×10(-11)<p<2.8×10(-23)). Three of these-trimethylamine, 3-amino-isobutyrate, and an N-acetylated compound-were measured in urine. The other-dimethylamine-was measured in plasma. Trimethylamine and dimethylamine mapped to a single genetic region (hence we report a total of three implicated genomic regions). Two of the three hit regions lie within haplotype blocks (at 2p13.1 and 10q24.2) that carry the genetic signature of strong, recent, positive selection in European populations. Genes NAT8 and PYROXD2, both with relatively uncharacterized functional roles, are good candidates for mediating the corresponding mQTL associations. The study's longitudinal twin design allowed detailed variance-components analysis of the sources of population variation in metabolite levels. The mQTLs explained 40%-64% of biological population variation in the corresponding metabolites' concentrations. These effect sizes are stronger than those reported in a recent, targeted mQTL study of metabolites in serum using the targeted-metabolomics Biocrates platform. By re-analysing our plasma samples using the Biocrates platform, we replicated the mQTL findings of the previous study and discovered a previously uncharacterized yet substantial familial component of variation in metabolite levels in addition to the heritability contribution from the corresponding mQTL effects.
    PLoS Genetics 09/2011; 7(9):e1002270. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both obesity and being underweight have been associated with increased mortality. Underweight, defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18.5 kg per m(2) in adults and ≤ -2 standard deviations from the mean in children, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions including failure to thrive, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa. In contrast to obesity, few genetic variants underlying these clinical conditions have been reported. We previously showed that hemizygosity of a ∼600-kilobase (kb) region on the short arm of chromosome 16 causes a highly penetrant form of obesity that is often associated with hyperphagia and intellectual disabilities. Here we show that the corresponding reciprocal duplication is associated with being underweight. We identified 138 duplication carriers (including 132 novel cases and 108 unrelated carriers) from individuals clinically referred for developmental or intellectual disabilities (DD/ID) or psychiatric disorders, or recruited from population-based cohorts. These carriers show significantly reduced postnatal weight and BMI. Half of the boys younger than five years are underweight with a probable diagnosis of failure to thrive, whereas adult duplication carriers have an 8.3-fold increased risk of being clinically underweight. We observe a trend towards increased severity in males, as well as a depletion of male carriers among non-medically ascertained cases. These features are associated with an unusually high frequency of selective and restrictive eating behaviours and a significant reduction in head circumference. Each of the observed phenotypes is the converse of one reported in carriers of deletions at this locus. The phenotypes correlate with changes in transcript levels for genes mapping within the duplication but not in flanking regions. The reciprocal impact of these 16p11.2 copy-number variants indicates that severe obesity and being underweight could have mirror aetiologies, possibly through contrasting effects on energy balance.
    Nature 08/2011; 478(7367):97-102. DOI:10.1038/nature10406 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) is increasingly used to measure metabolite concentrations in sets of biological samples for top-down systems biology and molecular epidemiology. For such purposes, knowledge of the sources of human variation in metabolite concentrations is valuable, but currently sparse. We conducted and analysed a study to create such a resource. In our unique design, identical and non-identical twin pairs donated plasma and urine samples longitudinally. We acquired 1H NMR spectra on the samples, and statistically decomposed variation in metabolite concentration into familial (genetic and common-environmental), individual-environmental, and longitudinally unstable components. We estimate that stable variation, comprising familial and individual-environmental factors, accounts on average for 60% (plasma) and 47% (urine) of biological variation in 1H NMR-detectable metabolite concentrations. Clinically predictive metabolic variation is likely nested within this stable component, so our results have implications for the effective design of biomarker-discovery studies. We provide a power-calculation method which reveals that sample sizes of a few thousand should offer sufficient statistical precision to detect 1H NMR-based biomarkers quantifying predisposition to disease.
    08/2011; 7(1). DOI:10.1038/msb.2011.57
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out a genome-wide association study of type-2 diabetes (T2D) in individuals of South Asian ancestry. Our discovery set included 5,561 individuals with T2D (cases) and 14,458 controls drawn from studies in London, Pakistan and Singapore. We identified 20 independent SNPs associated with T2D at P < 10(-4) for testing in a replication sample of 13,170 cases and 25,398 controls, also all of South Asian ancestry. In the combined analysis, we identified common genetic variants at six loci (GRB14, ST6GAL1, VPS26A, HMG20A, AP3S2 and HNF4A) newly associated with T2D (P = 4.1 × 10(-8) to P = 1.9 × 10(-11)). SNPs at GRB14 were also associated with insulin sensitivity (P = 5.0 × 10(-4)), and SNPs at ST6GAL1 and HNF4A were also associated with pancreatic beta-cell function (P = 0.02 and P = 0.001, respectively). Our findings provide additional insight into mechanisms underlying T2D and show the potential for new discovery from genetic association studies in South Asians, a population with increased susceptibility to T2D.
    Nature Genetics 08/2011; 43(10):984-9. DOI:10.1038/ng.921 · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proinsulin is a precursor of mature insulin and C-peptide. Higher circulating proinsulin levels are associated with impaired β-cell function, raised glucose levels, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies of the insulin processing pathway could provide new insights about T2D pathophysiology. We have conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association tests of ∼2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and fasting proinsulin levels in 10,701 nondiabetic adults of European ancestry, with follow-up of 23 loci in up to 16,378 individuals, using additive genetic models adjusted for age, sex, fasting insulin, and study-specific covariates. Nine SNPs at eight loci were associated with proinsulin levels (P < 5 × 10(-8)). Two loci (LARP6 and SGSM2) have not been previously related to metabolic traits, one (MADD) has been associated with fasting glucose, one (PCSK1) has been implicated in obesity, and four (TCF7L2, SLC30A8, VPS13C/C2CD4A/B, and ARAP1, formerly CENTD2) increase T2D risk. The proinsulin-raising allele of ARAP1 was associated with a lower fasting glucose (P = 1.7 × 10(-4)), improved β-cell function (P = 1.1 × 10(-5)), and lower risk of T2D (odds ratio 0.88; P = 7.8 × 10(-6)). Notably, PCSK1 encodes the protein prohormone convertase 1/3, the first enzyme in the insulin processing pathway. A genotype score composed of the nine proinsulin-raising alleles was not associated with coronary disease in two large case-control datasets. We have identified nine genetic variants associated with fasting proinsulin. Our findings illuminate the biology underlying glucose homeostasis and T2D development in humans and argue against a direct role of proinsulin in coronary artery disease pathogenesis.
    Diabetes 08/2011; 60(10):2624-34. DOI:10.2337/db11-0415 · 8.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic association analyses of complex traits demand statistical tools that are capable of detecting small effects of common and rare variants and modeling complex interaction effects and yet are computationally feasible. In this work, we introduce a similarity-based regression method for assessing the main genetic and interaction effects of a group of markers on quantitative traits. The method uses genetic similarity to aggregate information from multiple polymorphic sites and integrates adaptive weights that depend on allele frequencies to accomodate common and uncommon variants. Collapsing information at the similarity level instead of the genotype level avoids canceling signals that have the opposite etiological effects and is applicable to any class of genetic variants without the need for dichotomizing the allele types. To assess gene-trait associations, we regress trait similarities for pairs of unrelated individuals on their genetic similarities and assess association by using a score test whose limiting distribution is derived in this work. The proposed regression framework allows for covariates, has the capacity to model both main and interaction effects, can be applied to a mixture of different polymorphism types, and is computationally efficient. These features make it an ideal tool for evaluating associations between phenotype and marker sets defined by linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks, genes, or pathways in whole-genome analysis.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/2011; 89(2):277-88. DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.07.007 · 10.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many genetic variants have been associated with glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is important for β-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that zinc intake could influence the glucose-raising effect of specific variants. We conducted a 14-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction of 20 genetic variants known to be related to glycemic traits and zinc metabolism with dietary zinc intake (food sources) and a 5-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction with total zinc intake (food sources and supplements) on fasting glucose levels among individuals of European ancestry without diabetes. We observed a significant association of total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels (β-coefficient ± SE per 1 mg/day of zinc intake: -0.0012 ± 0.0003 mmol/L, summary P value = 0.0003), while the association of dietary zinc intake was not significant. We identified a nominally significant interaction between total zinc intake and the SLC30A8 rs11558471 variant on fasting glucose levels (β-coefficient ± SE per A allele for 1 mg/day of greater total zinc intake: -0.0017 ± 0.0006 mmol/L, summary interaction P value = 0.005); this result suggests a stronger inverse association between total zinc intake and fasting glucose in individuals carrying the glucose-raising A allele compared with individuals who do not carry it. None of the other interaction tests were statistically significant. Our results suggest that higher total zinc intake may attenuate the glucose-raising effect of the rs11558471 SLC30A8 (zinc transporter) variant. Our findings also support evidence for the association of higher total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels.
    Diabetes 08/2011; 60(9):2407-16. DOI:10.2337/db11-0176 · 8.47 Impact Factor
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    Mary E Travers, Mark I McCarthy
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity represent major challenges for global public health. They are at the forefront of international efforts to identify the genetic variation contributing to complex disease susceptibility, and recent years have seen considerable success in identifying common risk-variants. Given the clinical impact of molecular diagnostics in rarer monogenic forms of these diseases, expectations have been high that genetic discoveries will transform the prospects for risk stratification, development of novel therapeutics and personalised medicine. However, so far, clinical translation has been limited. Difficulties in defining the alleles and transcripts mediating association effects have frustrated efforts to gain early biological insights, whilst the fact that variants identified account for only a modest proportion of observed familiarity has limited their value in guiding treatment of individual patients. Ongoing efforts to track causal variants through fine-mapping and to illuminate the biological mechanisms through which they act, as well as sequence-based discovery of lower-frequency alleles (of potentially larger effect), should provide welcome acceleration in the capacity for clinical translation. This review will summarise recent advances in identifying risk alleles for T2D and obesity, and existing contributions to understanding disease pathology. It will consider the progress made in translating genetic knowledge into clinical utility, the challenges remaining, and the realistic potential for further progress.
    Human Genetics 06/2011; 130(1):41-58. DOI:10.1007/s00439-011-1023-8 · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether associations of common genetic variants recently identified for fasting glucose or insulin levels in nondiabetic adults are detectable in healthy children and adolescents. A total of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fasting glucose were genotyped in six studies of children and adolescents of European origin, including over 6,000 boys and girls aged 9-16 years. We performed meta-analyses to test associations of individual SNPs and a weighted risk score of the 16 loci with fasting glucose. Nine loci were associated with glucose levels in healthy children and adolescents, with four of these associations reported in previous studies and five reported here for the first time (GLIS3, PROX1, SLC2A2, ADCY5, and CRY2). Effect sizes were similar to those in adults, suggesting age-independent effects of these fasting glucose loci. Children and adolescents carrying glucose-raising alleles of G6PC2, MTNR1B, GCK, and GLIS3 also showed reduced β-cell function, as indicated by homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Analysis using a weighted risk score showed an increase [β (95% CI)] in fasting glucose level of 0.026 mmol/L (0.021-0.031) for each unit increase in the score. Novel fasting glucose loci identified in genome-wide association studies of adults are associated with altered fasting glucose levels in healthy children and adolescents with effect sizes comparable to adults. In nondiabetic adults, fasting glucose changes little over time, and our results suggest that age-independent effects of fasting glucose loci contribute to long-term interindividual differences in glucose levels from childhood onwards.
    Diabetes 06/2011; 60(6):1805-12. DOI:10.2337/db10-1575 · 8.47 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

38k Citations
4,618.25 Total Impact Points

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Institutions

  • 2003–2015
    • University of Oxford
      • • Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism (OCDEM)
      • • Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Cardiovascular Sciences
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
      Maryland, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002–2013
    • University of Exeter
      • Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry
      Exeter, England, United Kingdom
    • St. Mary’s Hospital for Children
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • Queensland Institute of Medical Research
      • Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Queensland
      • Queensland Brain Institute
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • McGill University
      • Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Churchill College
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • University of Bristol
      • School of Social and Community Medicine
      Bristol, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University Hospital of Lausanne
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 2007–2011
    • University of Helsinki
      • Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM)
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
  • 2010
    • University Hospital Regensburg
      Ratisbon, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2001–2010
    • Imperial College London
      • • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • MRC Clinical Sciences Centre
      London Borough of Harrow, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • IDIBAPS August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2006
    • Newcastle University
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Oulu
      Uleoborg, Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland
  • 2004
    • Wellcome Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001–2003
    • Imperial Valley College
      IPL, California, United States