Larry W Kraiss

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States

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Publications (57)210.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Diabetics patients who undergo lower extremity surgical revascularization for critical limb ischemia (CLI) are at high-risk for amputation or death, even when their inpatient procedures are successful. We hypothesized that post-operative outcomes might be improved in regions where diabetics with CLI receive more frequent high-quality outpatient care.
    Annals of Vascular Surgery 06/2014; · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Diabetics patients who undergo lower extremity surgical revascularization for critical limb ischemia (CLI) are at high-risk for amputation or death, even when their inpatient procedures are successful. We hypothesized that post-operative outcomes might be improved in regions where diabetics with CLI receive more frequent high-quality outpatient care. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed among 172,134 patients with CLI (52% male, 15% black, mean age 76 years) who underwent open and endovascular lower extremity revascularization procedures using Medicare claims (2004-2007), which included 84,653 (49%) beneficiaries who were diabetic. Regional utilization of annual serum cholesterol and hemoglobin A1c testing were used to assess the quality of outpatient diabetic care. We examined relationships between frequency of diabetic testing with amputation-free survival (AFS), major adverse limb events (MALE), and rates of readmission across all U.S. hospital referral regions. Results There was significant regional variation in annual serum cholesterol and hemoglobin A1c testing across the U.S. (87% highest quartile vs. 59% lowest quartile, p<0.01). Compared with the lowest quartile of diabetic testing, diabetic patients undergoing lower extremity revascularization in regions with the highest quartile of diabetic testing had significantly improved AFS [HR:0.94 (95%CI:0.90-0.97);P<0.01] and MALE [HR:0.92 (95%CI:0.89-0.96);P<0.01] persisting up to two years after lower extremity revascularization, even after adjusting for procedure type, gender, age, race and comorbidities. Moreover, the risk of 30-day readmission was significant reduced in regions with the highest vs. lowest quartile of diabetic testing [OR:0.91 (95%CI:0.85-0.97);P<0.01]. Non-diabetic patients with CLI, in comparison, did not benefit to the same extent from undergoing revascularization in regions with high quality outpatient diabetic care. Conclusions Diabetic patients undergoing lower extremity revascularization in regions with higher utilization of diabetic care quality measures have significantly better long-term limb-salvage and readmission outcomes. Our study underscores the importance of providing optimal outpatient care to diabetics following vascular surgery and outlines a potential strategy for quality improvement in these high-risk patients.
    Annals of Vascular Surgery 01/2014; · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The autogenous vein is the preferred conduit in below-knee vascular reconstructions. However, many argue that prosthetic grafts can perform well in crural bypass with adjunctive antithrombotic therapy. We therefore compared outcomes of below-knee prosthetic versus autologous vein bypass grafts for critical limb ischemia and the use of adjunctive antithrombotic therapy in both settings. Utilizing the registry of the Vascular Study Group of New England (2003-2009), we studied 1227 patients who underwent below-knee bypass for critical limb ischemia, 223 of whom received a prosthetic graft to the below-knee popliteal artery (70%) or more distal target (30%). We used propensity matching to identify a patient cohort receiving single-segment saphenous vein yet had remained similar to the prosthetic cohort in terms of characteristics, graft origin/target, and antithrombotic regimen. Main outcome measures were graft patency and major limb amputation within 1 year. Secondary outcomes were bleeding complications (reoperation or transfusion) and mortality. We performed comparisons by conduit type and by antithrombotic therapy. Patients receiving prosthetic conduit were more likely to be treated with warfarin than those with greater saphenous vein (57% vs. 24%, P < 0.001). After propensity score matching, we found no significant difference in primary graft patency (72% vs. 73%, P = 0.81) or major amputation rates (17% vs. 13%, P = 0.31) between prosthetic and single-segment saphenous vein grafts. In a subanalysis of grafts to tibial versus popliteal targets, we noted equivalent primary patency and amputation rates between prosthetic and venous conduits. Whereas overall 1-year prosthetic graft patency rates varied from 51% (aspirin + clopidogrel) to 78% (aspirin + warfarin), no significant differences were seen in primary patency or major amputation rates by antithrombotic therapy (P = 0.32 and 0.17, respectively). Further, the incidence of bleeding complications and 1-year mortality did not differ by conduit type or antithrombotic regimen in the propensity-matched analysis. Although limited in size, our study demonstrates that, with appropriate patient selection and antithrombotic therapy, 1-year outcomes for below-knee prosthetic bypass grafting can be comparable to those for greater saphenous vein conduit.
    Annals of Vascular Surgery 09/2013; · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the overall goal of enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of vascular care, the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) recently completed a process by which it identified its top clinical research priorities to address critical gaps in knowledge guiding practitioners in prevention and treatment of vascular disease. After a survey of the SVS membership, a panel of SVS committee members and opinion leaders considered 53 distinct research questions through a structured process that resulted in identification of nine clinical issues that were felt to merit immediate attention by vascular investigators and external funding agencies. These are, in order of priority: (1) define optimal management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis, (2) compare the effectiveness of medical vs invasive treatment (open or endovascular) of vasculogenic claudication, (3) compare effectiveness of open vs endovascular infrainguinal revascularization as initial treatment of critical limb ischemia, (4) develop and compare the effectiveness of clinical strategies to reduce cardiovascular and other perioperative complications (eg, wound) after vascular intervention, (5) compare the effectiveness of strategies to enhance arteriovenous fistula maturation and durability, (6) develop best practices for management of chronic venous ulcer, (7) define optimal adjunctive medical therapy to enhance the success of lower extremity revascularization, (8) identify and evaluate medical therapy to prevent abdominal aortic aneurysm growth, and (9) evaluate ultrasound vs computed tomographic angiography surveillance after endovascular aneurysm repair.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 02/2013; 57(2):493-500. · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 02/2013; 57(2):501-7. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stimulated endothelial cells (EC) assume an activated phenotype with pro-inflammatory and prothrombotic features, requiring new gene and protein expression. New protein synthesis in activated EC is largely regulated by transcriptional events controlled by a variety of transcription factors. However, post-transcriptional control of gene expression also influences phenotype and allows the cell to alter protein expression in a faster and more direct way than is typically possible with transcriptional mechanisms. We sought to demonstrate that post-transcriptional control of gene expression occurs during EC activation. Using thrombin-activated EC and a high-throughput, microarray-based approach, we identified a number of gene products that may be regulated through post-transcriptional mechanisms, including the AP-1 transcription factor JunB. Using polysome profiling, cytoplasts and other standard cell biologic techniques, JunB is shown to be regulated at a post-transcriptional level during EC activation. In activated EC, the AP-1 transcription factor JunB, is regulated on a post-transcriptional level. Signal-dependent control of translation may regulate transcription factor expression and therefore subsequent transcriptional events in stimulated EC. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 01/2013; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: F-FDG PET has been used for vascular disease, but its role in deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains prospectively unexplored. Whole-body F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed in patients 1 to 10 weeks after onset of symptomatic DVT (n = 12) and in control subjects without DVT (n = 24). The metabolic activity (SUVmax) of thrombosed and contralateral nonthrombosed vein segments was determined. The sensitivity and specificity of F-FDG PET/CT for the diagnosis of DVT were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. In 2 patients with DVT, changes in the metabolic activity of thrombosed vein segments in serial F-FDG PET scans. The metabolic activity in thrombosed veins [SUVmax, 2.41 (0.75)] was visually appreciable and significantly higher than in nonthrombosed veins in either the contralateral extremity of patients with DVT [SUVmax, 1.09 (0.25), P = 0.007] or control subjects [1.21 (0.22), P < 0.001]. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for SUVmax was 0.9773 (P < 0.001), indicating excellent accuracy. An SUVmax threshold of greater than 1.645 was 87.5% sensitive and 100% specific for DVT. Metabolic activity in thrombosed veins correlated significantly with time from DVT symptom onset (decrease in SUVmax of 0.02/d, P < 0.05). Best-fit-line analyses suggested that approximately 84 to 91 days after acute DVT, the maximum metabolic activity of thrombosed veins would return to normal levels. F-FDG PET/CT is accurate for detecting acute symptomatic, proximal DVT. Metabolic activity in thrombosed veins decreases with time, suggesting that F-FDG PET may be helpful in assessing the age of the clot.
    Clinical nuclear medicine 12/2012; 37(12):1139-45. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) is designed to improve the quality, safety, effectiveness, and cost of vascular health care. It uses the structure of a Patient Safety Organization to permit collection of patient-identified information but protect benchmarked comparisons from legal discovery. The SVS VQI is uniquely organized as a distributed network of regional quality groups to facilitate local translation of registry data into practice change while maintaining the power of a national registry. Detailed data specific to each commonly performed open and endovascular procedure are collected, both in-hospital and at ≥ 1 year of follow-up. Quality measures are reported to physicians and hospitals, which allow anonymous risk-adjusted benchmarking within regions or nationally. All specialties that perform vascular procedures are included, and international participation is encouraged. This review describes the current status of the SVS VQI.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 05/2012; 55(5):1529-37. · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • David S Kauvar, Mark R Sarfati, Larry W Kraiss
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    ABSTRACT: The resuscitation of patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs) has not been well studied, and the potential benefit of autotransfusion (AT) is unknown. The increased use of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) has been associated with decreased mortality rates in trauma patients and may also improve RAAA survival. We explored the influence of intraoperative AT and FFP resuscitation on mortality rates in massively transfused RAAA patients. A single-center review of RAAA patient records from April 1989 to October 2009 was undertaken. Clinical data and outcomes were studied. Operative and anesthesia records were queried for intraoperative transfusion totals. Massive transfusion was defined as ≥10 units of red blood cells (RBCs) inclusive of AT units. We identified 151 RAAA patients, of which 89 (60%) received a massive transfusion and comprised the study population. These 89 patients had an in-hospital mortality rate of 44%. Univariate predictors of mortality included increased age, preoperative hypotension, operative blood loss, and crystalloid, RBCs, and FFP volume. AT was used in 85 patients, with an increased ratio of AT:RBC units associated with survival. Mortality was 34% with AT:packed RBCs (PRBC) ≥1 (high AT) and 55% with AT:PRBC of <1 (low AT; P = .04). On multivariate analysis, age > 74 years (P = .03), lowest preoperative systolic blood pressure (SBP) <90 mm Hg (P = .06), blood loss >6 liters (P = .06), and low AT (P = .02) independently predicted mortality. The mean RBC:FFP ratio was similar in those that died (2.7) and in those that lived (2.9; P = .66). RBC:FFP ≤2 (high FFP) was present in 38 (43%) patients, with mortality of 49%. RBC:FFP >2 (low FFP) had 40% mortality (P = .39). RBC:FFP ratios decreased over time from 3.6 (years 1989 to 1999) to 2.2 (years 2000 to 2009; P < .001), but more liberal use of FFP was not associated with decreased mortality (47% vs 41%; P = .56). AT:PRBC ratios were stable over time (range, 1.4-1.2; P = .18). Greater use of AT but not of FFP was associated with survival in massively transfused RAAA patients. No mortality benefit was seen with increased FFP, but few patients had high FFP transfusion ratios. Further study to identify RAAA patients at risk for massive transfusion should be undertaken and a potentially greater role for AT in RAAA resuscitation investigated.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 03/2012; 55(3):688-92. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Translation initiation of eukaryotic mRNAs typically occurs by cap-dependent ribosome scanning mechanism. However, certain mRNAs are translated by ribosome assembly at internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs). Whether IRES-mediated translation occurs in stressed primary human endothelial cells (ECs) is unknown. We performed microarray analysis of polyribosomal mRNA from ECs to identify IRES-containing mRNAs. Cap-dependent translation was disabled by poliovirus (PV) infection and confirmed by loss of polysome peaks, detection of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G cleavage, and decreased protein synthesis. We found that 87.4% of mRNAs were dissociated from polysomes in virus-infected ECs. Twelve percent of mRNAs remained associated with polysomes, and 0.6% were enriched ≥2-fold in polysome fractions from infected ECs. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction confirmed the microarray findings for 31 selected mRNAs. We found that enriched polysome associations of programmed cell death 8 (PDCD8) and JunB mRNA resulted in increased protein expression in PV-infected ECs. The presence of IRESs in the 5' untranslated region of PDCD8 mRNA, but not of JunB mRNA, was confirmed by dicistronic analysis. We show that microarray profiling of polyribosomal mRNA transcripts from PV-infected ECs successfully identifies mRNAs whose translation is preserved in the face of stress-induced, near complete cessation of cap-dependent initiation. Nevertheless, internal ribosome entry is not the only mechanism responsible for this privileged translation.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 02/2012; 32(4):997-1004. · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Vascular Surgery. 02/2012; 55(2):619.
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    ABSTRACT: Some patients who undergo lower extremity bypass (LEB) for critical limb ischemia ultimately require amputation. The functional outcome achieved by these patients after amputation is not well known. Therefore, we sought to characterize the functional outcome of patients who undergo amputation after LEB, and to describe the pre- and perioperative factors associated with independent ambulation at home after lower extremity amputation. Within a cohort of 3,198 patients who underwent an LEB between January, 2003 and December, 2008, we studied 436 patients who subsequently received an above-knee (AK), below-knee (BK), or minor (forefoot or toe) ipsilateral or contralateral amputation. Our main outcome measure consisted of a "good functional outcome," defined as living at home and ambulating independently. We calculated univariate and multivariate associations among patient characteristics and our main outcome measure, as well as overall survival. Of the 436 patients who underwent amputation within the first year following LEB, 224 of 436 (51.4%) had a minor amputation, 105 of 436 (24.1%) had a BK amputation, and 107 of 436 (24.5%) had an AK amputation. The majority of AK (75 of 107, 72.8%) and BK amputations (72 of 105, 70.6%) occurred in the setting of bypass graft thrombosis, whereas nearly all minor amputations (200 of 224, 89.7%) occurred with a patent bypass graft. By life-table analysis at 1 year, we found that the proportion of surviving patients with a good functional outcome varied by the presence and extent of amputation (proportion surviving with good functional outcome = 88% no amputation, 81% minor amputation, 55% BK amputation, and 45% AK amputation, p = 0.001). Among those analyzed at long-term follow-up, survival was slightly lower for those who had a minor amputation when compared with those who did not receive an amputation after LEB (81 vs. 88%, p = 0.02). Survival among major amputation patients did not significantly differ compared with no amputation (BK amputation 87%, p = 0.14, AK amputation 89%, p = 0.27); however, this part of the analysis was limited by its sample size (n = 212). In multivariable analysis, we found that the patients most likely to remain ambulatory and live independently despite undergoing a lower extremity amputation were those living at home preoperatively (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-49, p = 0.058) and those with preoperative statin use (HR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1, p = 0.003), whereas the presence of several comorbidities identified patients less likely to achieve a good functional outcome: coronary disease (HR: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9, p = 0.003), dialysis (HR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9, p = 0.02), and congestive heart failure (HR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8, p = 0.005). A postoperative amputation at any level impacts functional outcomes following LEB surgery, and the extent of amputation is directly related to the effect on functional outcome. It is possible, based on preoperative patient characteristics, to identify patients undergoing LEB who are most or least likely to achieve good functional outcomes even if a major amputation is ultimately required. These findings may assist in patient education and surgical decision making in patients who are poor candidates for lower extremity bypass.
    Annals of Vascular Surgery 01/2012; 26(1):67-78. · 0.99 Impact Factor
  • David S Kauvar, Larry W Kraiss
    Perspectives in Vascular Surgery 08/2011; 23(1):64-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 7-10% of patients with unprovoked VTE will be diagnosed with cancer within 12 months. Although cancer screening has been proposed in these patients, the optimal strategy remains unclear. In a pilot study, we prospectively investigated the use of FDG-PET/CT to screen for occult malignancy in 40 patients with unprovoked VTE. Patients were initially screened for occult malignancy with a focused history, physical, and laboratory evaluation. Patients underwent whole body FDG-PET/CT and were followed for up to two years for a new diagnosis of cancer. The total costs of using FDG-PET/CT as a comprehensive screening strategy were determined using 2010 Medicare reimbursement rates. Completion of FDG-PET/CT imaging was feasible and identified abnormal findings requiring additional evaluations in 62.5% of patients. Occult malignancy was evident in only one patient (cancer incidence 2.5%) and FDG-PET/CT imaging excluded malignancy in the remainder of patients. No patients with a negative FDG-PET/CT were diagnosed with malignancy during an average (±SD) follow-up of 449 (±311) days. The use of FDG-PET/CT to screen for occult malignancy added $59,151 in total costs ($1,479 per patient). The majority of these costs were due to the cost of the FDG-PET/CT ($1,162 per patient or 78.5% of total per-patient costs). FDG-PET/CT may have utility for excluding occult malignancy in patients with unprovoked VTE. The costs of this comprehensive screening strategy were comparable to other screening approaches. Larger studies are needed to further evaluate the utility and cost-effectiveness of FDG-PET/CT as a cancer screening strategy in patients with unprovoked VTE.
    Thrombosis Research 07/2011; 129(1):22-7. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    David S Kauvar, Mark R Sarfati, Larry W Kraiss
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    ABSTRACT: Lower extremity injury is common in trauma patients; however, the influence of arterial injury on devastating patient and limb outcomes can be confounded by the presence and physiological derangement of concomitant head or thoracoabdominal injuries. We analyzed isolated lower extremity injuries with an arterial component. Our aim was to elucidate factors associated with mortality and limb loss in this selected population. We reviewed trauma incidents from the National Trauma Data Bank (2002-2006) containing isolated lower extremity injury codes and a specified infrainguinal arterial injury. Demographics, injury patterns, clinical characteristics, and adverse outcomes (death, amputation) during initial hospitalization were collected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for limb loss. There were 651 isolated infrainguinal arterial injuries. Death (18) and early limb loss (42) were studied by mechanism (penetrating, n = 431; blunt, n = 220). Half of the deaths involved injury to the common femoral artery (CFA), and over 80% had injury to the CFA or superficial femoral artery (SFA). Death was three times as frequent in the CFA/SFA than in the popliteal/tibial injuries (P = .02). Penetrating injuries were present in almost 80% of deaths, and most of these were gunshot wounds. Patients who died had mean initial systolic blood pressure of 59.7 mm Hg, and almost 40% had no blood pressure on arrival. Mean initial Glasgow Coma Score was 4.5, and almost 80% arrived with a Glasgow Coma Score of 3 despite the absence of head injury. Twenty-seven above- and 15 below-the-knee amputations were performed. The popliteal artery was injured in half of the amputations, with injury isolated to the popliteal or tibial arteries in about three-quarters. Amputation was twice as frequent in popliteal/tibial than CFA/SFA injury (P = .03) and twice as frequent in blunt than penetrating injury (P = .05). Multiple arterial injuries (odds ratio, 5.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-15.6; P = .003), and fracture (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.2; P = .02) independently predicted amputation, while the presence of nerve injury and soft tissue disruption did not. Isolated lower extremity trauma with vascular injury has a nearly 10% rate of mortality or limb loss. Mortality is associated with penetrating mechanism and early shock, likely resulting from prehospital proximal arterial hemorrhage. In contrast, early limb loss is more common with blunt distal vascular injury, especially to the popliteal and tibial arteries. Neither nerve nor soft tissue injury predicted limb loss but may result in delayed amputations not captured in this acute outcomes dataset.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 06/2011; 53(6):1598-603. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Achieving perioperative hemostasis is vital to surgical success. Inadequate control of bleeding is associated with serious adverse outcomes, including extended duration of surgery, unanticipated blood transfusions, shock, infection, impaired wound healing, longer hospital stays, and mortality. Appropriate clinical management of bleeding in the surgical and trauma settings requires careful collaborative planning and coordination by the entire perioperative team. Perioperative nurses, because of their strategic role in patient care, must be familiar with risk factors for excessive bleeding and the fundamental roles of hemostatic agents, environmental temperature, and blood transfusion in controlling bleeding in the surgical patient. Knowledge of the characteristics, safety, efficacy, and costs of available topical hemostatic agents promotes their appropriate selection in the OR. By incorporating evidence-based approaches into practice, perioperative nurses can support effective intraoperative hemostasis, thereby improving patient outcomes.
    AORN journal 11/2010; 92(5):S1-15.
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    ABSTRACT: In July 2007, our group began to use a modified conical inferior vena cava filter with additional stabilizing struts designed to reduce tilting of retrievable filters. We analyzed our experience with this modified filter (Cook Medical, Bloomington, Ind) from July 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008 and compared it to our experience with the standard filter (Günther Tulip, Cook Medical, Bloomington, Ind) from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2008 to determine if adoption of the modified filter reduced tilting and delivered a discernible clinical benefit. The primary outcome measure was tilt angle after deployment. Secondary outcomes were change in tilt angle between deployment and retrieval (self-centering) and retrieval failure due to inability to engage the filter hook. Measurements were retrospectively determined using the anteroposterior venogram at the time of placement and removal. Tilt angle was defined by the center line of the filter relative to the center line of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Statistical significance was assumed for P ≤ .05. During the study period, a total of 302 IVC filters were placed. Retrieval was attempted for 85 of 194 (44%) standard filters and 52 of 108 (48%) modified filters. The overall difference in tilt angle (degrees) between the standard (median [interquartile range] = 5 [3, 8]) and modified (5 [3, 8]) filters at the time of placement was not statistically significant (P = .44). Modified filters deployed through a femoral route (8 [4, 11]) had significantly greater tilt angles than modified filters deployed using jugular access (4 [2, 6]; P < .0001). At the time of retrieval, evidence of self-centering was observed more often with modified (32 of 52 [62%]) than standard (36 of 85 [42%]) filters (P = .03). Overall, there were only four failures to retrieve the filter due to excess tilting (standard, 3 of 85 [4%], modified, 1 of 52 [2%]; P = .59). Overall, tilt angle at insertion did not differ between the modified and standard filters, although more modified filters displayed self-centering. There was no difference between the groups in retrieval failure due to excess tilting. Despite its greater tendency to self-center, we did not recognize a measurable clinical advantage of the modified filter.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 10/2010; 52(4):920-4. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Platelets are classified as terminally differentiated cells that are incapable of cellular division. However, we observe that anucleate human platelets, either maintained in suspension culture or captured in microdrops, give rise to new cell bodies packed with respiring mitochondria and alpha-granules. Platelet progeny formation also occurs in whole blood cultures. Newly formed platelets are structurally indistinguishable from normal platelets, are able to adhere and spread on extracellular matrix, and display normal signal-dependent expression of surface P-selectin and annexin V. Platelet progeny formation is accompanied by increases in biomass, cellular protein levels, and protein synthesis in expanding populations. Platelet numbers also increase during ex vivo storage. These observations indicate that platelets have a previously unrecognized capacity for producing functional progeny, which involves a form of cell division that does not require a nucleus. Because this new function of platelets occurs outside of the bone marrow milieu, it raises the possibility that thrombopoiesis continues in the bloodstream.
    Blood 05/2010; 115(18):3801-9. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recognition that stroke and other ischemic events are manifestations of chronic progressive inflammation has had a great impact on the development of prevention strategies. The most recent American Heart Association guidelines recommend combination aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole over aspirin alone for patients with prior ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Although aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole have long been recognized for their antiplatelet activities, there is now evidence that these drugs also have complementary antiinflammatory properties that contribute to improved outcomes when used to prevent secondary stroke. In the Second European Stroke Prevention Study (ESPS-2), the addition of extended-release dipyridamole to low-dose aspirin significantly reduced the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke without significantly increasing bleeding. Also, in the recent European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischaemia Trial (ESPRIT), a combination of aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole was superior to aspirin alone for reducing the occurrence of the primary combined end point of vascular death, nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and major bleeding complications. The added benefit without worsening bleeding may be attributable, in part, to the antiinflammatory actions of this combination therapy.
    American journal of therapeutics 01/2009; 16(2):164-70. · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Vascular Surgery - J VASC SURG. 01/2009; 49(5).

Publication Stats

1k Citations
210.10 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2014
    • University of Utah
      • • Division of Vascular Surgery
      • • Department of Human Molecular Biology and Genetics
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • 2012
    • San Antonio Military Medical Center
      Texas City, Texas, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Michigan
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2002–2006
    • Salt Lake City Community College
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States