[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) has a pivotal role in innate immune responses, and the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPδ, Cebpd) is a Tlr4-induced gene. Here we identify a positive feedback loop in which C/EBPδ activates Tlr4 gene expression in macrophages and tumour cells. In addition, we discovered a negative feedback loop whereby the tumour suppressor FBXW7α (FBW7, Cdc4), whose gene expression is inhibited by C/EBPδ, targets C/EBPδ for degradation when C/EBPδ is phosphorylated by GSK-3β. Consequently, FBXW7α suppresses Tlr4 expression and responses to the ligand lipopolysaccharide. FBXW7α depletion alone is sufficient to augment pro-inflammatory signalling in vivo. Moreover, as inflammatory pathways are known to modulate tumour biology, Cebpd null mammary tumours, which have reduced metastatic potential, show altered expression of inflammation-associated genes. Together, these findings reveal a role for C/EBPδ upstream of Tlr4 signalling and uncover a function for FBXW7α as an attenuator of inflammatory signalling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBPδ, CEBPD) is a tumor suppressor that is downregulated during breast cancer progression but may also promote metastasis. Here, we have investigated the mechanism(s) regulating C/EBPδ expression and its role in human breast cancer cells. We describe a novel pathway by which the tyrosine kinase Src downregulates C/EBPδ through the SIAH2 E3 ubiquitin ligase. Src phosphorylates SIAH2 in vitro and leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of SIAH2 in breast tumor cell lines. SIAH2 interacts with C/EBPδ, but not C/EBPβ, and promotes its polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Src/SIAH2-mediated inhibition of C/EBPδ expression supports elevated cyclin D1 levels, phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb), motility, invasive properties, and survival of transformed cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Src family kinases by SKI-606 (bosutinib) induces C/EBPδ expression in an SIAH2-dependent manner, which is necessary for "therapeutic" responses to SKI-606 in vitro. Ectopic expression of degradation-resistant mutants of C/EBPδ, which do not interact with SIAH2 and/or cannot be polyubiquitinated, prevents full transformation of MCF-10A cells by activated Src (Src truncated at amino acid 531 [Src-531]) in vitro. These data reveal that C/EBPδ expression can be regulated at the protein level by oncogenic Src kinase signals through SIAH2, thus contributing to breast epithelial cell transformation.
Molecular and cellular biology 01/2012; 32(2):320-32. · 6.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation and hypoxia are known to promote the metastatic progression of tumours. The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-δ (C/EBPδ, CEBPD) is an inflammatory response gene and candidate tumour suppressor, but its physiological role in tumourigenesis in vivo is unknown. Here, we demonstrate a tumour suppressor function of C/EBPδ using transgenic mice overexpressing the Neu/Her2/ERBB2 proto-oncogene in the mammary gland. Unexpectedly, this study also revealed that C/EBPδ is necessary for efficient tumour metastasis. We show that C/EBPδ is induced by hypoxia in tumours in vivo and in breast tumour cells in vitro, and that C/EBPδ-deficient cells exhibit reduced glycolytic metabolism and cell viability under hypoxia. C/EBPδ supports CXCR4 expression. On the other hand, C/EBPδ directly inhibits expression of the tumour suppressor F-box and WD repeat-domain containing 7 gene (FBXW7, FBW7, AGO, Cdc4), encoding an F-box protein that promotes degradation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Consequently, C/EBPδ enhances mTOR/AKT/S6K1 signalling and augments translation and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which is necessary for hypoxia adaptation. This work provides new insight into the mechanisms by which metastasis-promoting signals are induced specifically under hypoxia.
The EMBO Journal 11/2010; 29(24):4106-17. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maintenance of genomic integrity is an essential cellular function. We previously reported that the transcription factor and tumor suppressor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ (C/EBPδ, CEBPD; also known as "NFIL-6β") promotes genomic stability. However, the molecular mechanism was not known. Here, we show that C/EBPδ is a DNA damage-induced gene, which supports survival of mouse bone marrow cells, mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF), human fibroblasts, and breast tumor cells in response to the DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C (MMC). Using gene knockout, protein depletion, and overexpression studies, we found that C/EBPδ promotes monoubiquitination of the Fanconi anemia complementation group D2 protein (FANCD2), which is necessary for its function in replication-associated DNA repair. C/EBPδ interacts with FANCD2 and importin 4 (IPO4, also known as "Imp4" and "RanBP4") via separate domains, mediating FANCD2-IPO4 association and augmenting nuclear import of FANCD2, a prerequisite for its monoubiquitination. This study identifies a transcription-independent activity of C/EBPδ in the DNA damage response that may in part underlie its tumor suppressor function. Furthermore, we report a function of IPO4 and nuclear import in the Fanconi anemia pathway of DNA repair.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2010; 107(37):16131-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ (C/EBPδ, CEBPD, NFIL-6β) has tumor suppressor function; however,
the molecular mechanism(s) by which C/EBPδ exerts its effect are largely unknown. Here, we report that C/EBPδ induces expression
of the Cdc27 (APC3) subunit of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which results in the polyubiquitination and
degradation of the prooncogenic cell cycle regulator cyclin D1, and also down-regulates cyclin B1, Skp2, and Plk-1. In C/EBPδ
knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) Cdc27 levels were reduced, whereas cyclin D1 levels were increased even in the presence
of activated GSK-3β. Silencing of C/EBPδ, Cdc27, or the APC/C coactivator Cdh1 (FZR1) in MCF-10A breast epithelial cells increased
cyclin D1 protein expression. Like C/EBPδ, and in contrast to cyclin D1, Cdc27 was down-regulated in several breast cancer
cell lines, suggesting that Cdc27 itself may be a tumor suppressor. Cyclin D1 is a known substrate of polyubiquitination complex
SKP1/CUL1/F-box (SCF), and our studies show that Cdc27 directs cyclin D1 to alternative degradation by APC/C. These findings
shed light on the role and regulation of APC/C, which is critical for most cellular processes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2010; 107(20):9210-9215. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP) family of transcription factors includes five genes. In the ovary, both Cebpa and Cebpb are essential for granulosa cell function. In this study we have explored the role of the Cebpd gene in ovarian physiology by expression and functional studies. Here we report that Cebpd (C/EBPdelta) is expressed in the mouse ovary in a highly restricted temporal and spatial pattern. In response to luteinizing hormone (LH/hCG), CEBPD expression is transiently induced in interstitial cells and in theca cells of follicles from the primary to pre-ovulatory stage, and overlaps in part with expression of the alpha-smooth muscle actin protein. Efficient down-regulation of CEBPD was dependent on a functional Cebpb gene. Proliferating human theca cells in culture also express Cebpd. Cells from patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) exhibited higher Cebpd expression levels. However, deletion of Cebpd in mice had no overt effect on ovarian physiology and reproductive function. Very little is known at present about the molecular mechanisms underlying theca/interstitial cell functions. The expression pattern of CEBPD reported here identifies a novel functional unit of mouse theca cells of primary through tertiary follicles responding to LH/hCG together with a subset of interstitial cells. This acute stimulation of CEBPD expression may be exploited to further characterize the hormonal regulation and function of theca and interstitial cells.
PLoS ONE 02/2007; 2(12):e1334. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The STAT3 transcription factor is an important initiator of mammary gland involution in the mouse. This work shows that the STAT3 target gene CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPdelta) is a crucial mediator of pro-apoptotic gene expression events in mammary epithelial cells. In the absence of C/EBPdelta, involution is delayed, the pro-apoptotic genes encoding p53, BAK, IGFBP5 and SGP2/clusterin are not activated, while the anti-apoptotic genes coding for BFL1 and Cyclin D1 are not repressed. Consequently, p53 targets such as survivin, BRCA1, BRCA2 and BAX are not regulated appropriately and protease activation is delayed. Furthermore, expression of MMP3 and C/EBPdelta during the second phase of involution is perturbed in the absence of C/EBPdelta. In HC11 cells, C/EBPdelta alone is sufficient to induce IGFBP5 and SGP2. It also suppresses Cyclin D1 expression and cooperates with p53 to elicit apoptosis. This study places C/EBPdelta between STAT3 and several pro- and anti-apoptotic genes promoting the physiological cell death response in epithelial cells at the onset of mammary gland involution.
Development 12/2005; 132(21):4675-85. · 6.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic engineering has made the mouse an invaluable tool to address the function of individual genes in a targeted manner. Over the last decade it has become apparent that the genetic mouse strain background can significantly influence the phenotype of an engineered mouse. Therefore, it is essential to characterize the biology of the different wild-type background strains. In this study, we have compared mouse mammary gland involution in the 129S1 and C57BL/6 inbred strains and report significant differences at the molecular level with differential expression of Bcl2a1 (Bfl1), Trp53 (p53), Cebpb (C/EBP beta), and Cebpd (C/EBP delta). The C57BL/6 strain exhibits dynamic responses with induction of Trp53 and Cebpd and concomitant downregulation of Bcl2a1 during the first phase of involution. In contrast, expression of these genes does not change significantly in 129S1 mice. During the second phase, C57BL/6 glands contain more Cebpb than 129S1 glands. Nevertheless, involution proceeds morphologically with similar kinetics in both strains. The data demonstrate that the genetic response of mammary tissue varies significantly between 129S1 and C57BL/6. These results may provide a basis for the interpretation of strain-specific phenotypes in engineered mice and underline the importance of pure strains for large-scale expression studies with mutant mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (Cebpd, also known as C/EBPdelta, CRP3, CELF, NF-IL6beta) is implicated in diverse cellular functions such as the acute phase response, adipocyte differentiation, learning and memory, and mammary epithelial cell growth control. Here, we report that lack of Cebpd causes genomic instability and centrosome amplifications in primary embryonic fibroblasts derived from 129S1 mice. Upon spontaneous immortalization, Cebpd-deficient fibroblasts acquire transformed features such as impaired contact inhibition and reduced serum dependence. These data identify a novel role for Cebpd in the maintenance of chromosomal stability and suggest a potential tumor suppressor function in vivo.