Kenji Yoshida

Iwate Medical University, Morioka-shi, Iwate-ken, Japan

Are you Kenji Yoshida?

Claim your profile

Publications (39)108.83 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) might improve cognitive function. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the cerebral white matter derived from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) correlate with cognitive function in patients with various central nervous system diseases. OBJECTIVE:: To use tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to determine whether postoperative changes of FA values in the cerebral white matter derived from DTI are associated with cognitive improvement after uncomplicated CEA. METHODS:: In 80 patients undergoing CEA for ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (≥70%), FA values in the cerebral white matter were derived from DTI before and 1 month after surgery and were analyzed using TBSS. Neuropsychological testing, consisting of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised, the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure test, was also performed preoperatively and after the first postoperative month. RESULTS:: Based on the neuropsychologic assessments, 11 (14%) patients were defined as having postoperatively improved cognition. The difference between the two mean FA values (postoperative values minus preoperative values) in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to surgery was significantly associated with postoperative cognitive improvement (95% confidence intervals, 2.632-9.877; P=0.0083). White matter FA values in patients with postoperative cognitive improvement were significantly increased after surgery in the whole ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere, in the contralateral anterior cerebral artery territory, and in the watershed zone between the contralateral anterior and middle cerebral arteries. CONCLUSION:: Postoperative increase in cerebral white matter FA on DTI is associated with cognitive improvement after uncomplicated CEA.
    Neurosurgery 06/2013; · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: In patients with unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery (ICA or MCA) occlusive disease, the degree of crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion that is evident within a few months after the onset of stroke may reflect cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in the affected cerebral hemisphere relative to that in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the ratio of blood flow asymmetry in the cerebellar hemisphere to blood flow asymmetry in the cerebral hemisphere on positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) correlates with oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) asymmetry in the cerebral hemisphere on PET in patients with chronic unilateral ICA or MCA occlusive disease and whether this blood flow ratio on SPECT detects misery perfusion in the affected cerebral hemisphere in such patients. METHODS: Brain blood flow and OEF were assessed using (15)O-PET and N-isopropyl-p-[(123)I]iodoamphetamine ((123)I-IMP) SPECT, respectively. All images were anatomically standardized using SPM2. A region of interest (ROI) was automatically placed in the bilateral MCA territories and in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres using a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template, and affected-to-contralateral asymmetry in the MCA territory or contralateral-to-affected asymmetry in the cerebellar hemisphere was calculated. Sixty-three patients with reduced blood flow in the affected cerebral hemisphere on (123)I-IMP SPECT were enrolled in this study. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed between MCA ROI asymmetry of PET OEF and the ratio of cerebellar hemisphere asymmetry of blood flow to MCA ROI asymmetry of blood flow on PET (r = 0.381, p = 0.0019) or SPECT (r = 0.459, p = 0.0001). The correlation coefficient was higher when reanalyzed in a subgroup of 43 patients undergoing a PET study within 3 months after the last ischemic event (r = 0.541, p = 0.0001 for PET; r = 0.609, p < 0.0001 for SPECT). The blood flow ratio on brain perfusion SPECT in all patients provided 100 % sensitivity and 58 % specificity, with 43 % positive and 100 % negative predictive values for detecting abnormally elevated MCA ROI asymmetry of PET OEF. CONCLUSION: The ratio of blood flow asymmetry in the cerebellar hemisphere to blood flow asymmetry in the cerebral hemisphere on PET and SPECT correlates with PET OEF asymmetry in the cerebral hemisphere, and this blood flow ratio on SPECT detects misery perfusion in the affected cerebral hemisphere.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 06/2013; · 4.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective and subjective assessments of changes in cognition after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) were compared between older patients (≥76 years old) and younger patients (<76 years old). Patients underwent subjective cognitive assessment by a neurosurgeon and the patient's next of kin, and neuropsychological testing (five parameters) before and after surgery. Of 37 older patients studied, 4 (11%), 28 (75%), and 5 (14%) patients were defined as having subjectively improved, unchanged, and impaired cognition, respectively, following surgery. Differences in test scores (postoperative test score - preoperative test score: Δ score) in all neuropsychological tests were significantly lower in the older patients than in the 213 younger patients. The Δ score was able to statistically differentiate older patients with subjectively improved, unchanged, and impaired cognition after surgery. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the Δ score cut-off point for detecting subjective improvement (upper cut-off point) and impairment (lower cut-off point) in cognition after surgery in older patients was identical to the mean or the mean +0.5 standard deviation (SD) and the mean -1.5 SD or the mean -1 SD, respectively, of the control value obtained from normal subjects. The upper and lower cut-off points were lower and higher, respectively, than those in younger patients. In conclusion, although neuropsychological test scores reflect the subjective assessment of postoperative change in cognition in older patients, the optimal cut-off points for the test scores to detect subjective improvement and impairment in cognition after CEA are different in older patients compared with younger patients.
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica 01/2013; 53(6):353-359. · 0.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA), even when asymptomatic, often impairs cognitive function. However, conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging rarely demonstrates structural brain damage associated with postoperative cognitive impairment. MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is potentially more sensitive for detection of white matter damage. Among the common parameters derived by DTI, fractional anisotropy (FA) is a marker of tract integrity, and mechanical disruption of axonal cylinders and loss of continuity of myelin sheaths may be responsible for reduced FA in white matter. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether postoperative cerebral white matter damage that can be detected by FA derived by DTI is associated with cerebral hyperperfusion after CEA and correlates with postoperative cognitive impairment. Methods: In 70 patients undergoing CEA for ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (≥70%), cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before and immediately after CEA and on postoperative day 3. FA values in cerebral white matter were assessed using DTI before and 1 month after surgery. These values were normalized and analyzed using statistical parametric mapping 5. In each corresponding voxel in the pre- and postoperative normalized FA maps of each patient, a postoperative FA value minus a preoperative FA value was calculated, and a voxel with postoperatively reduced FA was defined based on data obtained from healthy volunteers. The number of voxels with postoperatively reduced FA was calculated and defined as the volume with postoperatively reduced FA. Neuropsychological testing, consisting of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised, the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure test, was also performed preoperatively and after the first postoperative month. Postoperative cognitive impairment on neuropsychological testing in each patient was defined based on data obtained from patients with asymptomatic unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Results: Post-CEA hyperperfusion on brain perfusion SPECT (CBF increase ≥100% compared with preoperative values) and postoperative cognitive impairment on neuropsychological testing were observed in 11 (16%) and 9 patients (13%), respectively. The volume with postoperatively reduced FA in cerebral white matter ipsilateral to surgery was significantly greater in patients with post-CEA hyperperfusion than in those without (p < 0.0001). This volume in cerebral white matter ipsilateral to surgery was also significantly associated with postoperative cognitive impairment (95% confidence interval, 1.559-8.853; p = 0.0085). Conclusions: Cerebral hyperperfusion after CEA results in postoperative cerebral white matter damage that correlates with postoperative cognitive impairment.
    Cerebrovascular Diseases 11/2012; 34(5-6):358-367. · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We report a case of an uncommon association of pituitary adenoma with neuronal choristoma that usually is diagnosed at initial surgery. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 50-year-old woman with acromegaly and bitemporal hemianopsia underwent removal of a pituitary adenoma via the transsphenoidal approach. Histologic examination of the first surgical specimen demonstrated only adenoma, which was eosinophilic and expressed growth hormone. Fourteen years later, bitemporal hemianopsia recurred, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed regrowth of the residual tumor. DISCUSSION: The patient underwent removal of the regrown tumor via the transsphenoidal approach. Histologic examination of the second surgical specimen revealed gangliocytoma and a small component of pituitary adenoma. CONCLUSIONS: The present case report supports the theory that pituitary adenoma with neuronal choristoma might represent the result of neuronal differentiation from pituitary adenoma.
    World Neurosurgery 06/2012; · 1.77 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine whether central benzodiazepine receptor binding potential (BRBP)/cerebral blood flow (CBF) or a combination of CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) more accurately detects misery perfusion, indicating elevation of absolute value of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) on positron emission tomography (PET), in patients with unilateral major cerebral artery occlusive diseases. In 84 patients, OEF, CBF, CVR to acetazolamide, and BRBP were assessed using ¹⁵O-PET and N-isopropyl-p-[¹²³I]-iodoamphetamine and [¹²³I]-iomazenil SPECT, respectively. A region of interest was automatically placed in the middle cerebral artery territory using a 3-dimensional stereotactic region of interest template. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the affected side-to-contralateral side asymmetry on SPECT-BRBP/CBF to detect the abnormally elevated PET-OEF in the affected hemisphere were 100%, 86.4%, 66.7%, and 100%, respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in detecting the abnormally elevated PET-OEF in the affected hemisphere did not differ between analysis of the combination of SPECT-CBF and SPECT-CVR in the affected hemisphere (0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.94) and that of the affected side-to-contralateral side asymmetry on SPECT-BRBP/CBF (0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.97). The combination of the 3 detected abnormally elevated PET-OEF with 97.0% specificity and 90.0% positive predictive value. The accuracy of central BRBP/CBF asymmetry on SPECT is equivalent to that of the combination of CBF and CVR to acetazolamide on SPECT for detecting misery perfusion in patients with unilateral major cerebral artery occlusive disease.
    Clinical nuclear medicine 03/2012; 37(3):235-40. · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether preoperative cerebral blood flow (CBF) or cortical central benzodiazepine receptor binding potential as measured by brain perfusion or (123)I-iomazenil (IMZ) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, respectively, can predict cognitive improvement after uncomplicated carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Neuropsychological testing was performed preoperatively and after 1 month postoperatively in 140 patients who underwent CEA for unilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis (≥ 70%). Brain perfusion SPECT using N-isopropyl-p-[(123)I]-iodoamphetamine and IMZ SPECT was also performed before surgery. SPECT data were analyzed using a 3-dimensional stereotaxic region-of-interest template. Fourteen patients (10%) showed improved cognitive function postoperatively. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that, among the variables tested, low relative CBF in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to surgery was significantly associated with postoperative cognitive improvement (95% confidence interval: 0.623-0.868; P = 0.0003). The combination of reduced relative CBF and moderately reduced relative uptake of IMZ identified development of postoperative cognitive improvement with 100.0% sensitivity, 84.9% specificity, a positive predictive value of 42.4%, and a negative predictive value of 100%. Further, in a subgroup of patients with reduced relative CBF and moderately reduced relative uptake of IMZ, the difference between these 2 values was significantly greater in patients with postoperative cognitive improvement than in those without (P < 0.0001). The combination of preoperative CBF and cortical central benzodiazepine receptor binding potential as determined by SPECT can predict cognitive improvement after CEA.
    Clinical nuclear medicine 02/2012; 37(2):128-33. · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) occurs in patients with preoperative impairments in cerebral hemodynamics. The aim of the present study was to determine whether late images/early images on preoperative brain (123)I-iomazenil (IMZ) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), which correlate with oxygen extraction fraction images on positron emission tomography, could identify patients at risk for cerebral hyperperfusion following endarterectomy for unilateral cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. In 80 patients, preoperative brain SPECT scans were initiated immediately after (early images) and 180 min after (late images) administration of (123)I-IMZ. A region of interest (ROI) was automatically placed in the middle cerebral artery territory in both the cerebral hemispheres using a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template. Transcranial regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) was monitored using near-infrared spectroscope throughout carotid endarterectomy, and a patient was defined as having cerebral hyperperfusion when a ratio of rSO(2) at the end of the surgery to rSO(2) before ICA clamping was ≥ 1.1. Cerebral hyperperfusion was observed on intraoperative rSO(2) monitoring in eight patients (10%). Preoperative increase in affected side-to-contralateral side asymmetry on late/early (123)I-IMZ value was the only significant independent predictor of cerebral hyperperfusion (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.606 to 8.710; P = 0.0010). The preoperative late/early (123)I-IMZ asymmetry corresponded to an 88% sensitivity and 89% specificity, with 47% positive- and 98% negative-predictive values for the development of cerebral hyperperfusion. Preoperative late/early (123)I-IMZ images can identify patients at risk for cerebral hyperperfusion following endarterectomy for unilateral cervical ICA stenosis.
    American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 01/2012; 2(1):77-87.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective and subjective assessments of postoperative improvement and impairment in cognition were prospectively compared in patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Each patient underwent subjective cognitive assessment by a neurosurgeon and the patient's next of kin, and neuropsychological testing consisting of five test scores within 7 days before surgery and between 1 and 2 months after surgery. Of 213 patients studied, 24 (11%), 166 (78%), and 23 (11%) patients were defined as having subjectively improved, unchanged, and impaired cognition, respectively, following surgery. In all neuropsychological tests, differences in test scores between the two tests (postoperative test score - preoperative test score) significantly differentiated patients with subjectively improved, unchanged, and impaired cognition after surgery. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cut-off point for the differences in neuropsychological test scores in detecting subjective improvement and impairment in cognition after surgery was identical to mean +2 standard deviations (SDs) and mean -2 SDs, respectively, of the control value obtained from normal subjects. Of 27 patients with differences in neuropsychological test scores more than the upper cut-off point and 26 patients with differences in neuropsychological test scores less than the lower cut-off point in one or more neuropsychological tests, 24 (89%) and 23 (88%) exhibited subjectively improved and impaired cognition, respectively, after surgery. The present study indicates that neuropsychological test scores reflect the subjective assessment of postoperative change in cognition, and can detect subjective improvement and impairment in cognition after CEA using the optimal cut-off points for the test scores.
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica 01/2012; 52(3):154-60. · 0.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 74-year-old man with a history of asymptomatic right internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion experienced amaurosis fugax in the left eye. Angiography showed left cervical ICA stenosis in addition to right cervical ICA occlusion. The right anterior and middle cerebral artery (MCA) territories were perfused from the left ICA via the anterior communicating artery. Brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography revealed reduced cerebral blood flow and reduced cerebrovascular reactivity to acetazolamide only in the right cerebral hemisphere. The patient underwent left carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Transcranial Doppler monitoring showed microembolic signals in the left MCA during dissection of the left ICA, but intraoperative monitoring suggested absence of global hypoperfusion or ischemia in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres during left ICA clamping. Transient and slight motor weakness of the left upper extremity was noted on recovery from anesthesia. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the development of new spotty ischemic lesions only in the right cerebral hemisphere. The present case suggests that intraoperative cerebral embolism causing postoperative neurological deficits can develop exclusively in the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to CEA if the hemisphere has preoperative hemodynamic impairment and collateral circulation via the anterior communicating artery from the ICA ipsilateral to CEA.
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica 01/2012; 52(3):161-4. · 0.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine whether early and late/early images on 123I-iomazenil (IMZ) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) correlate with cerebral blood flow (CBF) images and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) images on PET, respectively, in the cerebral cortex of patients with chronic unilateral middle cerebral artery or internal carotid artery occlusive disease. In 20 normal individuals and in 68 patients, CBF and OEF were assessed using 15O-PET, and brain SPECT scans were initiated immediately after (early images) and 180 min after (late images) the administration of 123I-IMZ. A region of interest was automatically placed in the middle cerebral artery territory in both cerebral hemispheres using a three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest template, and the ratio of the value in the affected side to that in the contralateral side was calculated in each image. Among patients, a significant positive correlation was observed between PET-CBF ratios and the SPECT-early IMZ ratios (r=0.797, P<0.0001) as well as between the PET-OEF ratios and the SPECT-late/early IMZ ratios (r=0.679, P<0.0001). When an abnormally elevated PET-OEF ratio was defined as a value greater than the mean+2 SD obtained in normal participants, the SPECT-late/early IMZ ratios yielded 100% sensitivity and 93% specificity, with 76% positive-predictive and 100% negative-predictive values for detecting abnormally elevated PET-OEF ratios. Early and late/early images on 123I-IMZ SPECT correlate with CBF images and OEF images on PET, respectively, in the cerebral cortex of patients with chronic unilateral major cerebral artery occlusive disease.
    Nuclear Medicine Communications 11/2011; 33(2):171-8. · 1.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Risk factors for cerebrovascular complications developing during or after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) include preoperative impairments in cerebral hemodynamics, as detected by the demonstration of decreased cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide on brain perfusion SPECT. Central benzodiazepine receptor binding potential (CBRBP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) images on SPECT provide high sensitivity and high specificity for detecting misery perfusion in patients with chronic unilateral major cerebral artery occlusive disease. The aim of the present study was to determine whether preoperative CBRBP/CBF images on SPECT could identify patients at risk for new cerebral ischemic events, including neurologic deficits and cerebral ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted MRI, or cerebral hyperperfusion after CEA and to compare the predictive accuracy of CBRBP/CBF with that of CVR to acetazolamide on SPECT. CBF, CVR, and CBRBP were assessed using N-isopropyl-p-(123)I-iodoamphetamine ((123)I-IMP) and (123)I-iomazenil SPECT before CEA in 112 patients with unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (≥ 70%). CBF measurement using (123)I-IMP SPECT was also performed immediately and 3 d after CEA. A region of interest was automatically placed in the middle cerebral artery territory in both cerebral hemispheres using a 3-dimensional stereotactic region-of-interest template. Diffusion-weighted MRI was performed within 3 d before and 24 h after surgery. A preoperative increase in the affected side-to-contralateral side asymmetry on CBRBP/CBF value was the only significant independent predictor of postoperative new cerebral ischemic events (95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.145-1.608; P = 0.0004) or post-CEA hyperperfusion (95% CI, 1.244-2.252; P = 0.0007). There was no difference in the ability to predict post-CEA hyperperfusion when comparing the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve of the affected side-to-contralateral side asymmetry on CBRBP/CBF and that of the CVR in the affected hemisphere. However, the former value (0.924; 95% CI, 0.854-0.972) was significantly greater than the latter value (0.782; 95% CI, 0.697-0.852) for the prediction of new postoperative cerebral ischemic events (P < 0.05). Preoperative CBRBP/CBF images on SPECT can more accurately identify patients at risk for cerebrovascular complications occurring during or after CEA when compared with preoperative CVR to acetazolamide.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 07/2011; 52(9):1400-7. · 5.77 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The distribution of central benzodiazepine receptors in the human brain has been characterized by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using I-iomazenil, and it may dynamically change. We present the case of a 52-year-old man with left internal carotid artery occlusion, who underwent extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass surgery and exhibited postoperative improvement of cognition. Although preoperatively decreased cerebral blood flow and decreased cerebrovascular reactivity to acetazolamide on SPECT in the affected cerebral hemisphere resolved after surgery, preoperatively decreased cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen on positron emission tomography and decreased I-iomazenil uptake on SPECT in the affected frontal lobe also resolved after surgery.
    Clinical nuclear medicine 05/2011; 36(5):361-2. · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is a key predictor of stroke recurrence in patients with symptomatic major cerebral arterial occlusive disease. The purpose of the present study was to compare central benzodiazepine receptor binding potential (BRBP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) images on SPECT with OEF images on PET in patients with chronic unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) or internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusive disease. OEF, CBF, and BRBP were assessed using (15)O PET and N-isopropyl-p-(123)I-iodoamphetamine and (123)I-iomazenil SPECT, respectively, in 20 healthy subjects and in 34 patients with unilateral MCA or ICA occlusive disease. All images were transformed into the standard brain size and shape by linear and nonlinear transformation using statistical parametric mapping for anatomic standardization. A region of interest (ROI) was automatically placed according to the arterial supply using a 3-dimensional stereotactic ROI template, and the ratio of the value in the affected side to that in the contralateral side was calculated in each image. Among patients with occlusive disease, a significant positive correlation was observed between PET OEF and SPECT BRBP/CBF ratios in 3 cerebral cortical regions (r = 0.851, P < 0.0001, for anterior cerebral artery [ACA] ROI; r = 0.807, P < 0.0001, for MCA ROI; and r = 0.774, P < 0.0001, for posterior cerebral artery [PCA] ROI), but there were no correlations between these 2 parameters in the basal ganglia or the cerebellum. When an abnormally elevated PET OEF ratio was defined as a value greater than the mean + 2 SDs obtained in healthy subjects, sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 100% and 96% for the ACA ROI, 100% and 89% for the MCA ROI, and 100% and 93% for the PCA ROI for the SPECT BRBP/CBF ratio for detecting an abnormally elevated PET OEF ratio. BRBP/CBF images on SPECT correlate with OEF images on PET in a specific clinical setting-that is, in the cerebral cortex of patients with chronic unilateral MCA or ICA occlusive disease.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 03/2011; 52(4):511-8. · 5.77 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Low blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) correlates with the development of postoperative cerebral ischemic lesions related to generation of microemboli during dissection of carotid arteries in carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The purpose of this prospectively controlled trial was to determine whether increased mean blood flow velocity in the MCA by intentional hypertension during carotid dissection in CEA prevented postoperative development of new cerebral ischemic lesions caused by intraoperative microemboli. Patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (>70%) underwent CEA under transcranial Doppler monitoring of mean blood flow velocity and microembolic signals in the ipsilateral MCA. Attempts were made to keep systolic blood pressure during carotid dissection between -10% and +10% of the preoperative value (controls, n = 65) or above a +10% increase (intentional hypertension group, n = 65). Incidence of new ischemic lesions on postoperative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was significantly lower in the intentional hypertension group both for all patients (controls, 15.4%; intentional hypertension group, 3.1%; P = .03) and in a subgroup of 37 patients showing microembolic signals during carotid dissection (controls, 52.6%; intentional hypertension group, 11.1%; P = .013). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated the absence of intentional hyperperfusion (95% confidence interval: 1.77-100.00; P = .012) and high number of microembolic signals (95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.62; P = .05) during carotid dissection were significant independent predictors of the postoperative development of new ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Increased MCA mean blood flow velocity by intentional hypertension during dissection of the carotid artery in CEA prevents the postoperative development of new cerebral ischemic lesions caused by intraoperative microemboli.
    Neurosurgery 03/2011; 69(2):301-7. · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adverse effects of intravenous acetazolamide administration for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity using brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were prospectively investigated in 100 patients with major cerebral artery, atherosclerotic, and steno-occlusive diseases. All patients underwent two SPECT studies (with and without acetazolamide challenge) at an interval of 2 or 3 days, received a questionnaire immediately after each SPECT study, and returned the answered questionnaire within 7 days after the study. None of the 100 patients studied experienced any symptoms during the SPECT study without acetazolamide challenge. Sixty-three patients (63%) developed symptoms during the SPECT study with acetazolamide challenge, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, tinnitus, numbness of the extremities, motor weakness of the extremities, and general malaise 1-3 hours (mean 1.6 hours) after administration of acetazolamide, and these symptoms lasted for 0.5-72 hours (mean 7.9 hours). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that younger age (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.896-0.980, p = 0.0047) and female sex (95% CI 1.178-16.129, p = 0.0274) were significantly associated with development of symptoms with acetazolamide challenge. The incidences of the development of symptoms with acetazolamide challenge were 91% (21/23) and 41% (12/29) in subgroups of women <70 years and men ≥70 years, respectively. Patients should be informed of such adverse effects of intravenous acetazolamide administration prior to the acetazolamide challenge test for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity.
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica 01/2011; 51(7):479-83. · 0.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Scar formation in the carotid sheath is often identified during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with previous cardiac surgery, and dissection of the carotid sheath and exposure of the carotid arteries in such patients are difficult. The purpose of the present study was to investigate factors related to scar formation identified during CEA in patients with previous cardiac surgery. Twenty-three patients with internal carotid artery stenosis (≥ 70%) and previous cardiac surgery underwent CEA. A patient was prospectively defined as having scar formation during CEA when scissors were required throughout dissection of the carotid sheath and exposure of the carotid arteries. Scar formation was identified during dissection of the carotid sheath in 7 patients (30.4%). In all 7 patients, the side of CEA was identical to the side on which the Swan-Ganz catheter was inserted during cardiac surgery, and the incidence of previous ipsilateral Swan-Ganz catheter insertion was significantly higher in patients with the scar formation (100%) than in those without (31.3%). Seven (58.3%) of 12 patients with a history of ipsilateral Swan-Ganz catheter insertion had scar formation. Two of the 7 patients with scar formation experienced complications after CEA, including one patient with hemiparesis due to artery-to-artery embolism during surgery, and another patient with transient vocal cord paralysis. A history of Swan-Ganz catheter insertion during previous cardiac surgery is associated with the presence of scar tissue in the ipsilateral carotid sheath and a higher risk of complications during CEA.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2010; 113(4):885-9. · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Common carotid artery (CCA) occlusive disease may cause hemodynamic cerebral ischemia resulting in the development of ischemic symptoms. The blood flow in the superficial temporal artery (STA) ipsilateral to the occluded CCA is usually poor, which limits its use as a donor artery for extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass surgery. Despite antiplatelet therapy, recurrent transient ischemic attacks manifesting as motor aphasia developed in a 72-year-old man. Neuroradiological imaging revealed misery perfusion in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres caused by left CCA occlusion and right internal carotid artery occlusion. Blood flow from the STA contralateral to the occluded CCA perfused the ipsilateral STA over the midline in a retrograde fashion. After confirming the direction and the pressure of the blood flow in the spontaneously formed "bonnet" STA, the STA was anastomosed to a cortical artery in the symptomatic frontal lobe so that blood flow in the ipsilateral STA was supplied from the contralateral STA. The procedure was accomplished without difficulty, and no further ischemic symptoms developed after surgery. Postoperative cerebral angiography demonstrated an increase in collateral flow to the anastomosed bonnet STA and perfusion to an entire territory of the upper trunk of the symptomatic middle cerebral artery via the anastomosis. This case suggests that arterial bypass surgery can be performed using a spontaneously formed bonnet STA as a donor in a patient with symptomatic CCA occlusion.
    Neurosurgery 09/2010; 67(3 Suppl Operative):onsE316-7; discussion onsE317. · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine whether brain temperature measured by using preoperative proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy could help identify patients at risk for cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Acquisition of proton MR spectroscopic data by using point-resolved spectroscopy without water suppression was performed before CEA in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres of 84 patients with unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (> or =70%) and without contralateral internal carotid artery steno-occlusive disease. Brain temperature was calculated from the chemical shift difference between water and N-acetylaspartate signals at proton MR spectroscopy. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was also measured by using single photon emission computed tomography and N-isopropyl-p-[(123)I]-iodoamphetamine before and immediately after CEA and on the 3rd postoperative day. The relationship between each variable and the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion (CBF increase > or = 100% compared with preoperative values) was evaluated with univariate statistical analysis followed by multivariate analysis. A linear correlation was observed between preoperative brain temperature difference (the value in the affected hemisphere minus the value in the contralateral hemisphere) and increases in CBF immediately after CEA (r = 0.763 and P < .001) when the preoperative brain temperature difference was greater than 0. Cerebral hyperperfusion immediately after CEA was observed in nine patients (11%). Elevated preoperative brain temperature difference was the only significant independent predictor of post-CEA hyperperfusion. When elevated brain temperature difference was defined as a marker of hemodynamic impairment in the affected cerebral hemisphere, use of preoperative brain temperature difference resulted in 100% sensitivity and 87% specificity, with a 47% positive predictive value and a 100% negative predictive value for the prediction of post-CEA hyperperfusion. Hyperperfusion syndrome developed on the 3rd and 4th postoperative days in two of the nine patients who exhibited hyperperfusion immediately after CEA. Brain temperature measured by using preoperative proton MR spectroscopy may help identify patients at risk for post-CEA cerebral hyperperfusion.
    Radiology 09/2010; 256(3):924-31. · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: When the fundus of an aneurysm is superiorly or posteriorly directed or the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) is located far from the sphenoidal plane, wide dissection of the interhemispheric fissure is needed to expose the ACoA aneurysm. When the thickened arachnoid membrane covering the dorsal surface of the ipsilateral optic nerves is dissected through the pterional approach, the dissection must not be performed beyond the midline of the optic chiasm. As a result, the undissected arachnoid membrane becomes tense and is easily cut down toward the interhemispheric fissure. We have used this technique in 24 patients in whom the ACoA aneurysm projected superiorly or posteriorly. The gyrus rectus was resected in four patients with ruptured aneurysm because the aneurysmal domes were partially buried in the ipsilateral gyri recti. In the remaining patients, the aneurysmal dome was fully exposed without gyrus rectus resection. The present technique is helpful to dissect the interhemispheric fissure easily and widely by the pterional approach and to expose the ACoA aneurysm adequately.
    World Neurosurgery 06/2010; 73(6):688-90. · 1.77 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

197 Citations
108.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2013
    • Iwate Medical University
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      • • Cyclotron Research Center
      Morioka-shi, Iwate-ken, Japan
  • 2002
    • Yamaguchi University
      • Division of Neurosurgery
      Yamaguti, Yamaguchi, Japan