[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transurethral ethanol ablation of the prostate (TEAP) for patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and high-risk comorbidities.
Thirty-six patients (mean age 77.3 years) with symptomatic BPH or persistent urinary retention were assessed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. All patients were affected by comorbidities (cardiovascular, respiratory, hematologic, neoplastic, dysmetabolic diseases, or coagulation disorders). Baseline evaluation was achieved by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and quality of life (QoL) score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), and the maximum peak flow rate with evaluation of post-voiding residual urine volume (PVR). Treatment was performed by injecting dehydrated ethanol at a rate correlated to prostate volume into the prostate. The primary end-point for response was > or = 80% improvement of the maximum peak flow rate and significant reduction of the PVR; secondary end-points included symptom improvement (> or = 40% reduction in IPSS and QoL scores). Statistical analysis was carried out with Pearson's Chi-square test and the non-parametric Wilcoxon test with an assigned statistical significance at P < 0.05.
During the active follow-up period, we observed a statistically significant decrease of the baseline at the end of the study in the total IPSS score and in the QoL score. The mean peak flow rate improved from 6.0 +/- 2.40 ml/min to 15.2 +/- 0.14 ml/min (P < 0.001), while the PVR decreased from a baseline value of 290.6 +/- 14.14 ml to 4.2 +/- 14.10 ml (P < 0.001).
We found that TEAP is a safe minimally invasive treatment, which significantly improves voiding dysfunctions in patients with symptomatic BPH.
International Urology and Nephrology 05/2008; 40(4):941-6. · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex and the vinculin-talin-integrin system constitute, together a protein machinery, called costameres. The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex contains, among other proteins, also dystrophin and the sarcoglycans subcomplex, proteins playing a key role in the pathogenesis of many muscular dystrophies and linking the cytoplasmic myofibrillar contractile elements to the signal transducing molecules of the extracellular matrix, also providing structural support to the sarcolemma. The vinculin-talin-integrin system connects some components of the extracellular matrix with intermediate filaments of desmin, forming transverse bridges between Z and M lines. In our previous reports we always studied these systems by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In this paper we report on the first applications of optical near-field fluorescence microscopy to the spatial localization of alpha-sarcoglycan and beta1D-integrin in human skeletal muscle fibres in order to better compare and test the images obtained with conventional CLSM and with scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). In addition, the analysis of the surface morphology, and the comparison with the fluorescence map is put forward and analyzed for the first time on human muscle fibres. In aperture-SNOM the sample is excited through the nanometre-scale aperture produced at the apex of an optical fibre after tapering and subsequent metal coating. The acquisition of the topography map, simultaneously to the optical signal, by SNOM, permits to exactly overlap the fluorescence images obtained from the two consecutive scans needed for the double localization. Besides, the differences between the topography and the optical spatial patterns permit to assess the absence of artefacts in the fluorescence maps. Although the SNOM represented a good method of analysis, this technique remains a complementary method to the CLSM and it can be accepted in order to confirm the hypothesis advanced by CLSM.
Journal of Microscopy 01/2008; 228(Pt 3):322-9. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sarcoglycans are a sub-complex of transmembrane proteins which are part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC). They are expressed above all in the skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle. Although numerous studies have been conducted on the sarcoglycan sub-complex in skeletal and cardiac muscle, the manner of distribution and localization of these proteins along the non-junctional sarcolemma is still not clear. Furthermore, there are unclear data about the actual role of sarcoglycans in human skeletal muscle affected by sarcoglycanopathies. In our studies on human skeletal muscle, normal and pathological, we determined the localization, distribution and interaction of these glycoproteins. Our results, on normal human skeletal muscle, showed that the sarcoglycans can be localized both in the region of the sarcolemma over the I band and over the A band, hypothesizing a correlation between regions of the sarcolemma occupied by costameres and the metabolic type of the fibers (slow and fast). Our data on skeletal muscle affected by sarcoglycanopathy confirmed the hypothesis of a bidirectional signaling between sarcoglycans and integrins and the interaction of filamin2 with both sarcoglycans and integrins. In addition, we have recently demonstrated, in smooth muscle, the presence of alpha-SG, in contrast with data of other Authors. Finally, we analyzed the association between contractile activity and quantitative correlation between alpha- and epsilon-SG, in order to better define the arrangement of sarcoglycan subcomplex.
European journal of histochemistry: EJH 02/2007; 51 Suppl 1:29-33. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Dystrophin-Glycoprotein Complex (DGC) is a large multisubunit complex that plays a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and physiology of muscle fibers. Dystrophin has been reported to be absent in the pyloric muscle of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) patients. The present study was designed to investigate the other two patterns of DGC (dystroglycan and sarcoglycan complexes) in normal pyloric muscle and their possible modifications in IHPS patients.
Ten pyloric muscle biopsies were obtained from babies operated for IHPS and five control pylorus biopsy taken at autopsy from cases without gastrointestinal disease. The DGC sub-complexes (beta-dystroglican and beta, delta- sarcoglycans) were localized immunohistochemically using specific monoclonal antibodies. The results were evaluated using a confocal laser scanning microscope.
Positive immunolocalization of the two DGC sub complexes was demonstrated in the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the pyloric region of control patients. Similarly, a positive immune expression of beta-dystroglican was observed in the pyloric SMCs of IHPS patients. On the other hand a negative immunoreaction for sarcoglycans was recorded within the full thickness of the pyloric SMCs of these patients.
The absence of sarcoglycans within the hypertrophied pyloric muscle may be a predisposing factor in the pathogenesis of IHPS since it could alter the normal physiology of SMCs through the modifications of structural integrity of sarcolemma and signaling between the extracellular and intracellular compartment.
La Pediatria medica e chirurgica: Medical and surgical pediatrics 01/2007; 29(1):32-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The estimation of fibre length in jaw-elevator muscles is important for modelling studies and clinical applications. The objective of this study was to identify, from multi-channel surface EMG recordings, the main innervation zone(s) of the superficial masseter and anterior temporalis muscles, and to estimate the fibre length of these muscles. Surface EMG signals were collected from 13 subjects with a 16-electrode linear array. The innervation zones of the masseter and anterior temporalis were identified and their variability intra- and inter-subject outlined. More than one main innervation zone location was identified in the masseter of all subjects and in the temporalis anterior of 12 subjects. Average estimated fibre lengths, for the right (left) side, were (mean+/-SD) 27.3+/-2.4 mm (27.0+/-1.7 mm) and 25.9+/-2.3 mm (26.6+/-1.6 mm), for the superficial masseter and temporalis anterior muscle, respectively. The range of innervation zone locations was up to approximately 50% of the fibre length, both within and between subjects. Fibre length estimates well matched with published data on cadavers. It was concluded that multi-channel surface EMG provides important and reliable information on the anatomy of single motor units in jaw-elevator muscles.
Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 11/2005; 32(10):708-13. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is the usual treatment for locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer. Osteoporosis is a common complication of ADT. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of neridronate, a relatively new bisphosphonate to prevent bone loss during androgen ablation.
Sixty patients with prostate cancer and osteoporosis were enrolled and randomly assigned to 2 different treatment regimes: group A (30 patients) treated with maximum androgenic blockage (MAB), and group B (30 patients) treated with bicalutamide 150 mg. Each group was divided in 2 subgroups A1-A2 and B1-B2. All patients received calcium and cholecalciferol supplements (500 mg of elemental calcium and 400 IU cholecalciferol) daily. The A2 and B2 subgroups were also treated with neridronate (25 mg intramuscular monthly). Lumbar and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), both at baseline and after one year of treatment. Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and bone-alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) were determined at the beginning, midstudy and at the end.
Patients treated only with calcium and cholecalciferol (A1, B1 subgroups) showed a marked bone loss after 6, and 12 months, with increased levels of DPD and BALP, compared to baseline values. Patients treated with neridronate (A2 et B2 subgroups) showed unchanged levels of these markers. After one year of treatment, lumbar and total hip BMD decreased significantly in patients treated only with calcium and cholecalciferol (A1 subgroup: -4.9% and -1.9% respectively). BMD did not change significantly at any site in patients treated also with neridronate (A2 subgroup: +1% and +0.8% respectively). Lumbar and total hip BMD did not change significantly (-1.5% and -1% respectively) in B1 subgroup. In B2 subgroup an important increase in lumbar spine and the total hip BMD was shown (+2.5% and 1.6% respectively). No relevant side effects were recorded during our study.
In conclusion, neridronate is an effective and safe treatment in preventing bone loss in men receiving ADT for prostate cancer.
European Urology 06/2005; 47(5):575-80; discussion 580-1. · 12.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transurethral resection of the prostate is considered the standard technique for patients with moderate or severe lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Pathologically BPH is characterized by an increased proliferation of stromal and acinar cells, sustained by increased vascularization (neoangiogenesis). Recent studies have also shown that finasteride reduces angiogenesis and prostatic bleeding associated with BPH. Reducing the volume as a final step in reducing neoangiogenesis could thus represent a fundamental advance in limiting intra- and postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
Our study included 60 patients undergoing TURP between January 2001 and January 2002. Of the patients, 30 received pretreatment with finasteride while 30 did not undergo any pretreatment (control group). In all the patients we evaluated the degree of peri-surgical bleeding, intended as a reduction in hemoglobin values in the 24 h following surgery.
In the group of patients pretreated with finasteride, blood loss, evaluated as a reduction in hemoglobin values, was minimal, and none of the patients required blood transfusion. The average hemoglobin loss in the 24 h following surgery was 0.9%. In the control group (average age 67 years), 4 patients (12%) required blood transfusion. The loss of hemoglobin was 2.36%. Finasteride, therefore, seems to play a fundamental role in the pretreatment of TURP patients, since by reducing dihydrotestosterone synthesis, it interacts with endothelial growth factors, thus reducing angiogenesis and preventing bleeding.
Urologia Internationalis 02/2005; 74(1):51-3. · 1.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Today, androgen deprivation therapy is a cornerstone of treatment for advanced prostate cancer, although it presents important complications such as osteoporosis. Neridronate, a relatively new bisphosphonate, is able to prevent bone loss in patients with prostate cancer during androgen ablation.
Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is a cornerstone of treatment for advanced prostate cancer. This therapy has iatrogenic complications, such as osteoporosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of neridronate, a relatively new bisphosphonate, to prevent bone loss during androgen ablation.
Forty-eight osteoporotic patients with prostate cancer, treated with 3-month depot triptorelina, were enrolled and randomly assigned to two different treatment groups: group A (n = 24) was treated with a daily calcium and cholecalciferol supplement (500 mg of elemental calcium and 400 IU cholecalciferol), and group B (n = 24) received in addition to the same daily calcium and cholecalciferol supplement, 25 mg of neridronate given intramuscularly every month. All patients also received bicalutamide for 4 weeks. Lumbar and femoral BMD was evaluated by DXA at baseline and after 1 year of therapy; moreover, deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) were determined at the beginning, midway through, and at the end of the study.
After 6 and 12 months, whereas patients treated only with calcium and cholecalciferol (group A) showed a marked bone loss, with increased levels of DPD and BALP compared with baseline values, patients treated also with neridronate (group B) had substantially unchanged levels of these markers. After 1 year of treatment, lumbar and total hip BMD decreased significantly in patients treated only with calcium and cholecalciferol (group A), whereas it did not change significantly at any skeletal site in patients treated also with neridronate (group B). No relevant side effects were recorded during our study.
Neridronate is an effective treatment in preventing bone loss in the hip and lumbar spine in men receiving ADT for prostate cancer.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 12/2004; 19(11):1766-70. · 6.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of magnetic resonance (MR) pyelography in patients affected by hydronephrosis due to ureteric stones, in order to identify a pyonephrotic condition.
In the last 3 years, 315 patients, who had originally been investigated by ultrasonography, were evaluated with MR pyelography in order to define the etiology of obstruction. In 67 patients hydronephrosis was referred as caused by lithiasis.
MR pyelography not only confirmed urinary tract dilatation in all patients, but also identified grade and site of obstruction, both in acute dilatation (25 patients) and in chronic obstructions (42 patients). In 7 patients, MR pyelography documented pyonephrosis that was obviously confirmed by nephrostomic drainage.
MR pyelography, made with ultrafast breath-hold sequences, has a great value in identifying hydronephrosis in patients with ureteric stones. Furthermore, it provides the chance to identify pyonephrosis requiring an immediate drainage of the kidney before major complications develop.
Urologia Internationalis 02/2004; 72 Suppl 1:40-2. · 1.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vinculin-talin-integrin system and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) are two protein systems with structural and signaling functions, allowing interaction between muscle fibers and extracellular matrix. Although numerous studies have been conducted on these systems, their localization and distribution patterns along the nonjunctional sarcolemma are not clear. On this basis, we carried out an indirect immunofluorescence study on the vastus lateralis muscle of human adults not affected by neuromuscular diseases to better define these patterns. Our results showed that all tested proteins of the two systems have a costameric distribution; all tested proteins of the two systems colocalize with each other (about 90-95% of the cases); only alpha-sarcoglycan in a few cases (about 6%) does not colocalize with other proteins; in about 9-10% of the cases, dystrophin and beta-dystroglycan colocalize partially with other proteins; all tested proteins can be localized in different fibers, both in the region of the sarcolemma over I or A bands. The colocalization between the vinculin-talin-integrin and DGC systems may imply their functional interaction involving the structural aspect, by providing a stronger adhesion between sarcolemma and extracellular matrix in well-defined regions of the muscle fiber. Besides, their colocalization may suggest the existence of a mechanism of mutual modulation of the transmitted signals. This reciprocal control may determine, in different conditions, the prevalence of one system over another with a consequent transmission of different messages to the sarcolemma-associated cytoskeleton.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sarcoglycans are a subcomplex of transmembrane proteins which are part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. They are expressed in the skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle. Although numerous studies have been conducted on the sarcoglycan subcomplex in skeletal and cardiac muscle, the manner of the distribution and localization of these proteins along the nonjunctional sarcolemma is not clear. We therefore carried out an indirect immunofluorescence study on surgical biopsies of normal human skeletal muscle and of healthy human atrial myocardium biopsies of patients affected by valvulopathy. Our results indicate that, in skeletal muscle, sarcoglycans have a costameric distribution and all colocalize with each other. Only in a few cases did the alpha-sarcoglycan not colocalize with other sarcoglycans. In addition, these glycoproteins can be localized in different fibers either in the regions of the sarcolemma over band I or band A. In cardiac muscle, our results show a costameric distribution of all proteins examined and, unlike in skeletal muscle, they show a constant colocalization of all sarcoglycans with each other, along with a consistent localization of these proteins in the region of the sarcolemma over band I. In our opinion, this situation seems to confirm the hypothesis of a correlation between the region of the sarcolemma occupied by costameric proteins and the metabolic type, fast or slow, of the muscular fibers. These data, besides opening a new line of research in understanding interactions between the sarcoglycans and other transmembrane proteins, could also be extended to skeletal and cardiac muscles affected by neuromuscular and cardiovascular pathologies to understand possible structural alterations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of perineal ultrasound versus cystography in patients affected by urinary incontinence (UI). 40 patients affected by UI were evaluated by voiding cystography and by perineal ultrasound through sagittal scans. Bladder floor related to public simphysis, urethro-vesical angle, bladder neck dilatation after an increase of abdominal pressure with or without urine leakage, were checked. The comparison with urinary cystography gave similar results. In our experience perineal ultrasound study of pelvic floor showed, in the evaluation of urinary incontinence, the same accuracy of the urinary cystography. Ultrasound study allows a good visualization of the anatomic structures of the pelvic floor and of the lower urinary tract and a good evaluation of the tissues; it also offers easy performance, low cost, less invasivity and a better compliance.
Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia: organo ufficiale [di] Società italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica / Associazione ricerche in urologia 01/2003; 74(4):260-2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vinculin-talin-integrin system and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) are two protein systems with structural and signaling functions, allowing interaction between muscle fibers and extracellular matrix. Although numerous studies have been conducted on these systems, their localization and distribution patterns along the nonjunctional sarcolemma are not clear. On this basis, we carried out an indirect immunofluorescence study on the vastus lateralis muscle of human adults not affected by neuromuscular diseases to better define these patterns. Our results showed that all tested proteins of the two systems have a costameric distribution; all tested proteins of the two systems colocalize with each other (about 90–95% of the cases); only α-sarcoglycan in a few cases (about 6%) does not colocalize with other proteins; in about 9–10% of the cases, dystrophin and β-dystroglycan colocalize partially with other proteins; all tested proteins can be localized in different fibers, both in the region of the sarcolemma over I or A bands. The colocalization between the vinculin-talin-integrin and DGC systems may imply their functional interaction involving the structural aspect, by providing a stronger adhesion between sarcolemma and extracellular matrix in well-defined regions of the muscle fiber. Besides, their colocalization may suggest the existence of a mechanism of mutual modulation of the transmitted signals. This reciprocal control may determine, in different conditions, the prevalence of one system over another with a consequent transmission of different messages to the sarcolemma-associated cytoskeleton.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemodialysis influences the transport of water through the erythrocytic membrane, and induces morphologic and functional modifications. Recently water channels, called aquaporins (AQP), have been identified on the membrane of red blood cells. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to evaluate any relationships between volumetric changes in erythrocytes (MCV), plasma osmolarity and membrane expression of AQP1 in 22 uremic patients during a hemodialysis session, and compare value with those in a control group of 22 healthy volunteers. Membranal AQP1 expression was evaluated using three methods: indirect immunofluorescence under confocal microscopy, immunoenzymatic method after membrane extraction, and immunoblotting. In uremic subjects, at baseline membrane AQP1 expression was significantly lower, whereas plasma osmolality was higher than in controls. At 1 and 2 h of replacement therapy, a progressive increase was observed in erythrocytic AQP1, values similar to those in controls being attained after 3.5 h. During the session osmolality values reduced progressively, becoming significantly lower than basal values. The mean erythrocytic corpuscular volume in patients with ESRD was significantly lower than in cntrols at baseline. This value increased during hemodialysis, attaining statistical significance with respect to the basal value at 3.5 h of dialysis. Close correlations were found between plasma osmolality and AQP1 values (r = -0.930; p < 0.05), and also between MCV and plasma osmolality trend (r = -0.909; p < 0.05). There was a linear correlation (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) between plasma AVP concentrations and plasma osmolality. The variations found in plasma osmolarity during hemodialysis, may induce AQP1 expression on the membrane of intact red blood cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Focal contacts are systems of adherens junctions of the cell-extracellular matrix type, which allow the transfer of fundamental signals from the extracellular matrix to nuclear compartments, capable of regulating adhesion, proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells. Recently, many authors have concentrated their attention on epitheliomesenchymal interactions which guide organogenesis of dental germ, identifying numerous growth and differentiation factors and having the inner enamel epithelial cells of the enamel organ as a target. Given that the two cellular compartments in their tooth germ are separated by a basal membrane and by an extracellular matrix, which touches it, we wanted to evaluate the presence of focal contacts through the identification of talin and vinculin, proteins of the actin-associated protein complex. In this study we utilized the hemimandibles of young Wistar rats and we extracted the related odontogenic tooth organs present at their apical end. Specimens are processed with antibody against vinculin and talin. Results show that these junctional system proteins are present at the apical poles of both cellular compartments suggesting that putative epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, other than marker molecules, may use focal contacts as a system for transmission of signals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One hundred four patients (mean age 70.6 years) with prostatic specific antigen (PSA) values between 4 and 10 ng/ml (average 7.9 ng/ml), and with no suspects for neoplasia by digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) were studied. In all patients PSA density for the entire prostate (PSAD) and PSA density for the transition zone (PSAT) were calculated. TRUS was performed using a 5 MHz probe. Prostate and transition zone volumes were obtained by ellipsoid formula. Aim of the study was to evaluate the PSAT predictivity for prostate cancer compared to the PSAD. Sixteen out of 104 patients (15.4%) had histologically confirmed prostate cancer, and 88 (84.6%) had benign prostatic hyperplasia. When cut-off for PSAD was 0.15 ng/ml/cc, specificity and sensitivity were respectively 75% and 68% with positive and negative predictive values of 54% and 17%; when cut-off for PSAT was 0.34% ng/ml/cc, sensitivity and specificity were respectively 100% and 68% with positive and negative predictive values of 60% and 18%. Our results, according to the literature data, suggest that PSAT seems to have a higher predictivity for prostate cancer than PSAD, providing an optimization for the employ of prostatic biopsy, especially for those patients with PSA values between 4 and 10 ng/ml.
Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia: organo ufficiale [di] Società italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica / Associazione ricerche in urologia 01/2001; 72(4):190-3.