Matthias Wagner

Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany

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Publications (178)527.24 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The reaction of biphenylene (1) with Et2 SiH2 in the presence of [Ni(PPhMe2 )4 ] results in the formation of a mixture of 2-diethylhydrosilylbiphenyl [2(Et2 HSi)] and 9,9,-diethyl-9-silafluorene (3). Silafluorene 3 was isolated in 37.5 % and 2(Et2 HSi) in 36.9 % yield. The underlying reaction mechanism was elucidated by DFT calculations. 4-Methyl-9,9-diethyl-9-silafluorene (7) was obtained selectively from the [Ni(PPhMe2 )4 ]-catalyzed reaction of Et2 SiH2 and 1-methylbiphenylene. By contrast, no selectivity could be found in the Ni-catalyzed reaction between Et2 SiH2 and the biphenylene derivative that bears tBu substituents in the 2- and 7-positions. Therefore, two pairs of isomers of tBu-substituted silafluorenes and of the related diethylhydrosilylbiphenyls were formed in this reaction. However, a subsequent dehydrogenation of the diethylhydrosilylbiphenyls with Wilkinson's catalyst yielded a mixture of 2,7-di-tert-butyl-9,9-diethyl-9-silafluorene (8) and 3,6-di-tert-butyl-9,9-diethyl-9-silafluorene (9). Silafluorenes 8 and 9 were separated by column chromatography.
    Chemistry - An Asian Journal 09/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Common wisdom has it that organoboranes are readily oxidized. Described herein is that also their reduction can result in remarkable chemistry. Treatment of dimeric 9H-9-borafluorene with Li metal in toluene yields two strikingly different classes of compounds. One part of the sample reacts in a way similar to B2H6, thus affording an aryl(hydro)borane cluster reminiscent of the [B3H8]− anion. The other part furnishes a dianionic boron-doped graphene flake devoid of hydrogen substituents at the boron centers and featuring a central BB bond. A change in the solvent to THF allows an isolation of this dibenzo[g,p]chrysene analogue in good yields.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 08/2014; · 11.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the oxidative process of the supersilanide anion [SitBu3]−, radical species are generated. The continuous wave (cw)-EPR spectrum of the reaction solution of Na[SitBu3] with O2 revealed a signal, which could be characterized as disupersilylperoxo radical anion [tBu3SiOOSitBu3]⋅− affected by sodium ions though ion-pair formation. A mechanism is suggested for the oxidative process of supersilanide, which in a further step can be helpful in a better understanding of the oxidation process of isoelectronic phosphanes.
    Chemistry 07/2014; · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reaction of 1,2-C6H4(P(O)-t-Bu2)(Li) (Ph*Li) with B(OMe)3 furnishes a mixture of Li[Ph*B(OMe)3] (Li[2a]) and Ph*B(OMe)2 (2b). Further treatment with Li[AlH4] provides the trihydroborate Li[Ph*BH3] (Li[3]), which can subsequently be converted into the intramolecular P═O–B adduct Ph*BH2 (4) through hydride abstraction with Me3SiCl. Addition of C6F5MgBr yields Mg[Ph*BH2(C6F5)]2 (Mg[5]2), which is inert toward Me3SiCl but reacts with water to give Ph*B(H)C6F5 (6). Upon addition of further C6F5MgBr, a mixture is formed, from which crystals of Mg[Ph*BH(C6F5)2]2 (Mg[7]2) were obtained. The reaction of Ph*Li with (C6F5)2BH·SMe2 provides access to Li[7], but again with limited product selectivity. The targeted acidic hydrolysis of Li[7] furnishes Ph*B(C6F5)2 (8), while Mg[7]2 reacts back to 6. The anions of the hydroborates Li[3] and Mg[5]2 act as BH2,O-chelating ligands toward their metal ions. Therefore, Li[Ph*2BH2] (Li[13]) was also synthesized to obtain the corresponding pincer-type species. 4, 6, and 8 exist as water-stable intramolecular P═O–B adducts both in solution and in the solid state. X-ray crystallography and 31P NMR spectroscopy indicate an increase in the Lewis acidity of the boryl groups in the order 4 < 6 < 8.
    Organometallics 06/2014; 33(12):3163–3172. · 4.15 Impact Factor
  • Christian Reus, Matthias Wagner
    Nature Chemistry 06/2014; 6(6):466-7. · 21.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Air- and water-stable, π-conjugated [−donor–acceptor−]n oligomers containing thiophene fragments as donors and 9,10-dimesityl-9,10-dihydro-9,10-diboraanthracene (DBA(Mes)2) as acceptor units were prepared through Stille-type C–C-coupling protocols. The reaction between 2,6-dibromo-DBA(Mes)2 (1), 2,7-dibromo-DBA(Mes)2 (2), 2-bromo-6,7-dimethyl-DBA(Mes)2 (3), and 2,5-bis(trimethylstannyl)thiophene (7) furnished monodisperse, short-chain model systems 80 (2 × DBA(Mes)2, 1 × 2,5-thienylene) and 81 (3 × DBA(Mes)2, 2 × 2,5-thienylene) after GPC separation. In the absence of 3, the oligomerization of 1/2 with 7 provided analogous longer chain macromolecules 9 (MALDI–MS reveals up to 7 repeating units; GPC indicates also significantly longer chains). UV/vis absorption spectroscopy suggests that the obtained chain lengths of 9 are already sufficient to reach the maximum effective conjugation length (the lower limit of the HOMO–LUMO band gap corresponds to 2.3 eV). 9 gives rise to a dark orange fluorescence, both in C6H6 solution (f = 47%) and as thin film (f = 13%).
    Macromolecules 05/2014; 47(11):3727–3735. · 5.93 Impact Factor
  • ChemInform 05/2014; 45(20).
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    ABSTRACT: A surprisingly simple preparative procedure, addition of Si2Cl6 to a solution of [nBu4N]Cl in CH2Cl2, leads to the formation of the chloride-complexed cyclic dianions [Si6Cl12⋅2Cl]2−, [(SiCl3)Si6Cl11⋅2Cl]2−, or [1,y-(SiCl3)2Si6Cl10⋅2Cl]2− (y=1, 3, 4), depending on the stoichiometric ratio of the reactants and the reaction temperature (25–85 °C). Below −40 °C the open-chain oligosilane chloride adducts [Si3Cl9]−, [Si3Cl10]2−, [Si4Cl11]−, and [Si6Cl15]− are formed, again depending on the reaction conditions chosen. All species were characterized by X-ray crystallography. The underlying reaction mechanism is elucidated by DFT calculations. It incorporates all experimental findings and involves a few key elementary steps: 1) chloride-induced liberation of SiCl3− or higher silanides, 2) their addition to neutral silanes yielding larger oligosilane chloride adducts, 3) dimerization of larger silanides to (substituted) cyclohexasilane dichloride adducts with inverse sandwich structure.
    Chemistry 04/2014; · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reaction between the bisborate Li2[o-C6H4(BH3)2] and 2 equivalents of an appropriate pyrazole derivative (Hpz(R)) in the presence of Me3SiCl yields o-phenylene-bridged pyrazaboles HB(μ-pz(R))2(μ-o-C6H4)BH (; Hpz(R) = 4-iodopyrazole (), 4-(trimethylsilyl)pyrazole (), 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (), 3,5-di(tert-butyl)pyrazole (), 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazole ()). The synthesis approach thus provides access to uncharged B-N triptycenes bearing (i) functionalisable groups, (ii) electron-donating or -withdrawing substituents and (iii) pyrazole rings of varying steric demand. Treatment of p-R*C6H4BBr2 with the potassium tris(pyrazol-1-yl)borates K[HBpz3] or K[p-R*C6H4Bpz3] yields cationic pyrazolyl-bridged pyrazaboles [p-BrC6H4B(μ-pz)3BH]Br ([]Br) and [p-R*C6H4B(μ-pz)3Bp-C6H4R*]Br (R* = Br ([]Br), I ([]Br), SiMe3 ([]Br)), which can be regarded as full B-N analogues of triptycene. The B-H bonds of and []Br are unreactive towards tBuC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH even at temperatures of 80 °C, thereby indicating an appreciable thermal stability of the corresponding B-N cage bonds. Most of the cage compounds are sufficiently inert towards water to allow quick aqueous workup. However, NMR spectroscopy in CD3OD solution reveals degradation of or []Br to the corresponding pyrazoles and o-C6H4(B(OCD3)2)2 or p-BrC6H4B(OCD3)2/B(OCD3)3. The diphenylated species []Br is significantly more stable under the same measurement conditions; even after 76 d, most of the material degrades only to the stage of the syn/anti-pyrazaboles p-BrC6H4(CD3O)B(μ-pz)2B(OCD3)p-C6H4Br (/). A derivatisation of []Br with nBu3SnC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CtBu through Stille-type coupling reactions furnishes the alkynyl derivative [p-tBuC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC6H4B(μ-pz)3Bp-C6H4C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CtBu]Br ([]Br). Larger B-N aggregates are also accessible: treatment of the tetrakisborate Li4[1,2,4,5-C6H2(BH3)4] with 4 equivalents of Hpz(R) in the presence of Me3SiCl leads to the corresponding B-N pentiptycenes (Hpz(R) = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazole (), 4-(trimethylsilyl)pyrazole (), 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (), 3,5-di(tert-butyl)pyrazole ()).
    Dalton Transactions 03/2014; · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Is one electron sufficient to bring about significant σ bonding between two atoms? The chemist's view on the chemical bond is usually tied to the concept of shared electron pairs, and not too much experimental evidence exists to challenge this firm belief. Whilst species with the unusual one-electron σ-bonding motif between homonuclear atoms have so far been identified mainly by spectroscopic evidence, we present herein the first crystallographic characterization, augmented by a detailed quantum-chemical validation, for a radical anion featuring a B⋅B one-electron-two-center σ bond.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 03/2014; · 11.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reaction of 4-chloro-1,2-dimethyl-4-supersilylsila-1-cyclopentene (2 a) with Li[NiPr2 ] at -78 °C results in the formation of the formal 1,4-addition product of the silacyclopentadiene derivative 3,4-dimethyl-1-supersilylsila-1,3-cyclopentadiene (4 a) with 2,3-dimethyl-4-supersilylsila-1,3-cyclopentadiene (5 a). In addition the respective adducts of the Diels-Alder reactions of 4 a+4 a and 4 a+5 a were obtained. Compound 4 a, which displays an s-cis-silacyclopentadiene configuration, reacts with cyclohexene to form the racemate of the [4+2] cycloadduct of 4 a and cyclohexene (9). In the reaction between 4 a and 2,3-dimethylbutadiene, however, 4 a acted as silene as well as silacyclopentadiene to yield the [2+4] and [4+2] cycloadducts 10 and 11, respectively. The constitutions of 9, 10, and 11 were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and their crystal structures were determined. Reaction of 4-chloro-1,2-dimethyl-4-tert-butyl-4-silacyclopent-1-ene (2 c) with KC8 yielded the corresponding disilane (12), which was characterized by X-ray crystal structure analysis (triclinic, P$\bar 1$). DFT calculations are used to unveil the mechanistic scenario underlying the observed reactivity.
    Chemistry 03/2014; · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of 1,2-dibromobenzene (1,2-C6H4Br2) or 1,2,4,5-tetrabromobenzene (1,2,4,5-C6H2Br4) with 2 equiv or 4 equiv of n-BuLi in the presence of excess iso-propoxy(pinacol)borane ((i-PrO)Bpin) furnishes 1,2-C6H4(Br)(Bpin) (1) or 1,4,2,5-C6H2(Br)2(Bpin)2 (3) with excellent selectivity. The subsequent reaction of 1 or 3 with Mg turnings and more (i-PrO)Bpin gives the di- and tetraborylated benzenes 1,2-C6H4(Bpin)2 (2) and 1,2,4,5-C6H2(Bpin)4 (4) in overall yields of about 65%. For the Grignard transformation step, it is essential to continuously add 1 equiv (1) or 2 equiv (3) of 1,2-dibromoethane as an entrainer over a period of 1 h. Compounds 1 and 2 have been transformed into the ortho-functionalized trihydroborates Li[1,2-C6H4(Br)(BH3)] (Li[7]) and Li[1,2-C6H4(Bpin)(BH3)] (Li[8]) by means of 1 equiv of Li[AlH4]. Using 3 equiv of Li[AlH4], 2 can also be converted into the ditopic lithium trihydroborate Li2[1,2-C6H4(BH3)2] (Li2[9]); even the tetratopic derivative Li4[1,2,4,5-C6H2(BH3)4] (Li4[10]) is accessible from 4 and 4 equiv of Li[AlH4]. The compounds Li[7], Li[8], Li2[9], and Li4[10] have been crystallographically characterized as ether solvates, but still show Ar–BH3-η2-Li interactions as the dominant mode of coordination. In the cases of Li2[9] and Li4[10] an intricate three-dimensional network and a zigzag polymer, respectively, are established by the contact ion pairs in the crystal lattice.
    Organometallics 02/2014; 33(5):1291–1299. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 9,10-Dihydro-9,10-diboraanthracene (DBA) provides a versatile scaffold for the development of boron-doped organic luminophores. Symmetrically C-halogenated DBAs are obtained through the condensation of 4-bromo-1,2-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene or 4,5-dichloro-1,2-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene with BBr3 in hexane. Unsymmetrically C-halogenated DBAs are formed via an electrophilic solvent activation reaction if the synthesis is carried out in o-xylene. Mechanistic insight has been achieved by in situ NMR spectroscopy, which revealed C-halogenated 1,2-bis(dibromoboryl)benzenes to be the key intermediates. Treatment of the primary 9,10-dibromo-DBAs with MesMgBr yields air and water stable C-halogenated 9,10-dimesityl-DBAs (2-Br-6,7-Me2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,6-Br2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,3-Cl2-6,7-Me2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,3,6,7-Cl4-DBA(Mes)2). Subsequent Stille-type C-C-coupling reactions give access to corresponding phenyl, 2-thienyl, and p-N,N-diphenylaminophenyl derivatives, which act as highly emissive donor-acceptor dyads or donor-acceptor-donor triads both in solution and in the solid state. 2-Thienyl was chosen as a model substituent to show that already a variation of the number and/or the positional distribution of the donor groups suffices to tune the emission wavelength of the resulting bench-top stable compounds from 469 nm (blue) to 540 nm (green). A further shift of the fluorescence maximum to 594 nm (red) can be achieved by switching from 2-thienyl to p-aminophenyl groups. A comparison of the optoelectronic properties of selected C-substituted DBA(Mes)2 derivatives with those of the isostructural anthracene analogs unveiled that: (i) The DBA core is a much better electron acceptor. (ii) The emission colors of DBAs fall in the visible range of the spectrum (blue to orange), while anthracenes emit exclusively in the near ultraviolet to blue wavelength regime. (iii) DBAs show significantly higher solid-state quantum yields.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 07/2013; · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Temperature treatment (120 °C, C6H6 or toluene, sealed glass ampule) of the C1-symmetric dimer of 9H-9-borafluorene (1)2 leads to the ring-opened dimer 1,2:1,2-bis(2,2′-biphenylylene)diborane(6) (2), 2,2′-bis(9-borafluoren-9-yl)biphenyl (3), and 1,2-(2,2′-biphenylylene)diborane(6) (4). 2 readily crystallizes from the thermolysis mixture in 34% yield. The ditopic borane 3 does not form in preparatively useful quantities but has been made accessible through salt metathesis between 9-bromo-9-borafluorene and donor-free 2,2′-dilithiobiphenyl in almost quantitative yields. Even at 330 K, the 1H and 13C{1H} NMR spectra of 3 are broadened almost beyond interpretability. X-ray crystallography and molecular modeling studies on 3 indicate a highly restricted conformational space. 3 binds THF and SMe2 only weakly but readily forms a stable B–N adduct upon addition of 2 equiv of pyridine (py). The resulting 3·py2 (X-ray crystal structure) shows perfectly well resolved NMR spectra.
    Organometallics 07/2013; 32(22):6827–6833. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reaction of 9-bromo-9-borafluorene (1) with Li[PtBu2] in toluene gave quantitatively the corresponding di-tert-butyl-phosphaboradibenzofulvene (9-di-tert-butylphosphanyl-9-borafluorene, 2). Degradation of thf occurred by treatment of 2 with thf in toluene at room temperature. In this paper the reaction of 2 with gaseous H2 in toluene solution at room temperature is described, by which the corresponding H2 addition product 4 was formed. The hydrogen addition product 4 crystallizes from benzene in the monoclinic space group P21/n. Addition reactions of 2 with acetonitrile, benzophenone, and 2,3-dimethylbutadiene were also investigated. Treatment of 2 with a 20-fold excess of acetonitrile afforded the corresponding adduct, which itself dimerized to a mixture of cis and trans isomers of the corresponding cycloiminoborane 6. Cocrystals of cis-6 and trans-6 (ratio 2:1) were obtained from toluene in the presence of 20 equiv of acetonitrile at 6 °C (monoclinic space group P21/c). The isolation of the pure trans-6 was achieved from toluene in the presence of 2 equiv of acetonitrile at −30 °C (triclinic space group P1̅). Benzophenone reacted with the phosphaboradibenzofulvene 2, forming the corresponding addition product 7 (orthorhombic space group Pbca). The reaction of 2 with a 6-fold excess of 2,3-dimethylbutadiene gave the related Diels–Alder adduct 8 (monoclinic space group P21/c).
    Organometallics 07/2013; 32(22):6792–6799. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Key structural and optoelectronic properties of 9,10-dihydro-9,10-diboraanthracene (DBA) derivatives carrying mesityl (), 2-methylnaphthyl- () and 9-phenyl-2,7-di-tert-butylanthryl () substituents at the boron atoms have systematically been compared with the properties of their all-carbon congeners . The experimental investigations have been augmented by quantum-chemical calculations. Steric repulsion leads to large dihedral angles between the aryl substituents and the DBA () or anthrylene () cores; as a result, the B-C bonds of are kinetically shielded from hydrolysis and oxidative degradation. Lithium metal reduces the mesityl derivative to the inverse sandwich complexes [Li(OR2)n]2[] (X-ray crystallography; OR2 = THF, n = 2; Et2O, n = 1). In line with the nodal structures of the LUMO of /HOMO of [Li(THF)2]2[], the C-C bond lengths of the anionic fragment [](2-) show characteristic differences to those of and come close to the C-C bond lengths of the isoelectronic species . X-ray crystallography on anti- × 2 C6H6 and anti- × 2 C6H6 reveals an essentially identical packing of the main molecules. The benzene solvate molecules, however, interact in a very different manner with anti- or anti-, which can be traced down to subtle disparities between the electron density distributions of the two compounds. undergo a photoinduced aryl-to-DBA charge transfer; the back electron transfer results in blue (), green () and red () emission, albeit with low quantum yields. are characterised by a local π-π* photoexcitation of the central 9,10-anthrylene fragments and corresponding blue emission. Each of the compounds gives rise to two reversible DBA-centred one-electron transitions in the cyclic voltammogram.
    Dalton Transactions 06/2013; · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N-methyl-1, 3-propylenediaminoboryl ferrocene (1-H) was obtained by a three-step synthesis: i) At first ferrocene was reacted with BBr3 to give dibromoboryl ferrocene (FcBBr2). ii) In a second step FcBBr2 was transformed into FcB(OMe)2 by treatment of FcBBr2 with Me3SiOMe. iii) Finally reaction of FcB(OMe)2 with H2NCH2CH2CH2NMeH yielded the boryl ferrocene 1-H. In addition we examined the metalation of 1-H with magnesium 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidide (TMP) and mixtures of Li(TMP)/Mg(TMP)2. The reaction of 1-H with 0.5 equivalent of Mg(TMP)2 yielded quantitatively the homoleptic complex Mg[1]2 whereas metalation of 1-H with 1.5 and 2 equivalents of Mg(TMP)2 gave product mixtures. However, N,N'-dimethyl-1, 3-propylenediaminoboryl ferrocene (1-Me) and the ortho-methylated derivatives 2-Me and 3-Me (3-Me bears additionally one Me group in 1′-postion) could be identified after derivatization with Me2SO4. The metalated ferrocene derivative (Li2(THP)2Mg3(TMP)2[3]2) which is bearing one Li and one Mg atom in the ortho-position and a further two Mg atoms in N- and 1′-positions, was formed in good yield by treatment of 1-H with an excess of a 1:2 mixture of Li(TMP) and Mg(TMP)2 in tetrahydropyran (THP). Single crystals of the racemic complex Li2(THP)2Mg3(TMP)2[3]2 were available by gas-phase diffusion of hexane into a concentrated THP solution at ambient temperature (space group C2/c). The crystal structure of Li2(THP)2Mg3(TMP)2[3]2 displays a racemic dimer of the Rp- and the Sp-enantiomer.
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 06/2013; 639(7). · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The title compound, [FeZr2(C5H5)4Cl2(C13H18B2)], is a heteronuclear complex that consists of a [3]ferrocenophane moiety substituted at each cyclo-penta-dienyl (Cp) ring by a BH3 group; the BH3 group is bonded via two H atoms to the Zr atom of the zirconocene chloride moiety in a bidentate fashion. The two Cp rings of the [3]ferrocenophane moiety are aligned at a dihedral angle of 8.9 (4)° arising from the strain of the propane-1,3-diyl bridge linking the two Cp rings. [One methyl-ene group is disordered over two positions with a site-occupation factor of 0.552 (18) for the major occupied site.] The dihedral angles between the Cp rings at the two Zr atoms are 50.0 (3) and 51.7 (3)°. The bonding Zr⋯H distances are in the range 1.89 (7)-2.14 (7) Å. As the two Cp rings of the ferrocene unit are connected by an ansa bridge, the two Zr atoms approach each other at 6.485 (1) Å. The crystal packing features C-H⋯Cl inter-actions.
    Acta Crystallographica Section E Structure Reports Online 01/2013; 69(Pt 10):m534-m535. · 0.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Starting from the monofunctionalized 9,10-dihydro-9,10-diboraanthracene derivatives MesB(C6H4)2BX (X = H, Br), the bridged systems MesB(C6H4)2B–L–B(C6H4)2BMes have been synthesized with L = −C(H)═C(H)(p-C6Me4)C(H)═C(H)– (5), −C≡C(p-C6Me4)C≡C– (6), and −(p-C6H4)(p-C6Me4)(p-C6H4)– (7). The compounds were characterized by NMR, IR, UV/vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The vinyl- and phenylboranes 5 and 7 are pale yellow solids, whereas the alkynylborane 6 possesses a bright yellow color. The emission maxima of 5–7 in toluene are λmax(em) 477, 460, and 461 nm with quantum yields f of 0.02, 0.30, and 0.04, respectively. Alkynylborane 6 was found to be the least air- and moisture-sensitive of the three derivatives.
    Organometallics 11/2012; 31(23):8420–8425. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Finally, boron did it too: The first example of a dimeric organyl(hydro)borane with a B-B-bridging aryl ring has been elucidated (see picture; B green/blue, C black/gray). It features a B-C-B two-electron-three-center bond and a largely unperturbed aromatic π-electron system.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 11/2012; · 11.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

416 Citations
527.24 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2014
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      • • Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie
      • • Institut für Organische Chemie und Chemische Biologie
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
  • 1998–2006
    • Deutsches Herzzentrum München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1995–2006
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1997
    • Università degli Studi di Siena
      Siena, Tuscany, Italy