[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study aimed to compare the interobserver Cohen κ on H&E staining and on H&E plus p16(INK4a) staining of all cervical biopsy specimens in a population-based screening program. Methods: All the colposcopy-guided biopsies generated by the routine screening of 23,258 women aged 25 to 64 years were stained with H&E and H&E plus p16. Biopsy specimens were reviewed by six external experts. Results: The four diagnoses were available in 441 cases. The interobserver κ values were 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.58) and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.42-0.56) with H&E and H&E + p16, respectively, when using a five-group classification (normal, CIN 1, CIN 2, CIN 3, and cancer); adopting a two-group classification (≤CIN 1 and ≥CIN 2), the values were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.66-0.82) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.61-0.79), respectively. Conclusions: The use of p16 on all cervical biopsy specimens in a screening program showed virtually no effect on reproducibility of the histologic diagnosis.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 03/2014; 141(3):367-73. DOI:10.1309/AJCPCYWVL61SVKFU · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Questo documento intende affrontare le tematiche emergenti nel passaggio dalla citologia di
screening alla citologia di triage. È stato elaborato sulla base dei dati ad oggi disponibili, provenienti
dagli studi pilota e dagli studi di fattibilità, e dei risultati dei due Slide seminar che si sono
svolti rispettivamente a Firenze il 10 maggio 2012 e a Bologna il 1° marzo 2013, e dei due Workshop
interdisciplinari svoltisi a L’Aquila il 20 giugno 2012 e a Riva del Garda il 22 maggio 2013.
Come viene fatto per altri documenti GISCi, potrà essere aggiornato o integrato quando saranno
disponibili ulteriori dati, provenienti dai programmi di screening o da iniziative GISCi sul Controllo
In particolare in questo documento verrà considerato il sistema di refertazione, e verranno individuati
i controlli e gli indicatori di qualità della citologia di triage più appropriati per aumentare la
specificità, e contenere il rischio di sovradiagnosi e sovratrattamento.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compares colposcopy referrals of 2 management strategies: oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA testing (Hybrid Capture 2 assay, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) and repeat cytology. In the New Technology in Cervical Cancer Trial, 22,708 subjects were randomly assigned to undergo both HPV and liquid-based cytologic testing. Women aged 35 to 60 years old with unsatisfactory cytologic findings were directly referred for colposcopy if the HPV test result was positive, and were referred for repeat cytologic examination if the HPV test result was negative; women aged 25 to 35 years old were referred for repeat cytologic examination independent of HPV test results. A positive or a second unsatisfactory cytologic examination referred women for colposcopy. Five hundred sixty women had unsatisfactory cytologic findings. Colposcopy referral was not significant and slightly higher with HPV testing than repeat cytologic test (9.8% vs 6.8%, P = .11). When cytologic testing was repeated 36.8% were unavailable for follow-up and most of the colposcopies were performed in HPV-negative women. For unsatisfactory cytologic findings, HPV triage is a more logical and efficient management strategy than a repeat cytologic test.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 07/2012; 138(1):65-71. DOI:10.1309/AJCP6J2OEFOYTRFD · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study assessed the clinical outcome of patients conservatively treated for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and their predictive factors using univariate and multivariate population averaged (PA) generalized estimating equation (GEE) model in a longitudinal setting.
A series of 166 consecutive women (mean age 39.8 yrs; range 23-63 yrs) underwent conservative treatment of AIS as the primary treatment and were followed-up (mean 40.9 mo) using colposcopy, PAP-smear, biopsy and HPV-testing with Hybrid Capture 2.
Hysterectomy was performed as part of the primary management in 47 patients, who were excluded from the follow-up (FU) analysis. Out of 119 women closely followed-up, additional therapeutic procedures were performed in 69. At study conclusion, 7 patients (5.9%) showed persistent disease, while 8 (6.7%) had progressed to invasive adenocarcinoma (AC). Positive HR-HPV test was the only independent predictor of disease recurrence (adjusted OR=2.72; 95%CI 1.08-6.87), and together with free cone margins (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.04-0.92), HR-HPV positivity was also the single most powerful predictor of disease progression to AC, with OR=3.74; 95%CI 1.84-7.61 (p=0.0001) in multivariate PA-GEE.
These results suggest that testing HR-HPV positive at any time point during FU is the most significant independent predictor of progressive disease, while showing free margins in cone has a significant protective effect against progression to AC. Furthermore, because 4.3% women with persistent, recurrent or progressive disease experienced a late (5th and 6th FU) diagnosis of HG-CGIN or microinvasive AC, a close surveillance should be scheduled for at least three years in conservatively treated AIS patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is known to be more sensitive, but less specific than cytology for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We assessed the efficacy of cervical-cancer screening policies that are based on HPV testing.
Between March, 2004, and December, 2004, in two separate recruitment phases, women aged 25-60 years were randomly assigned to conventional cytology or to HPV testing in combination with liquid-based cytology (first phase) or alone (second phase). Randomisation was done by computer in two screening centres and by sequential opening of numbered sealed envelopes in the remaining seven centres. During phase one, women who were HPV-positive and aged 35-60 years were referred to colposcopy, whereas women aged 25-34 years were referred to colposcopy only if cytology was also abnormal or HPV testing was persistently positive. During phase two, women in the HPV group were referred for colposcopy if the HPV test was positive. Two rounds of screening occurred in each phase, and all women had cytology testing only at the second round. The primary endpoint was the detection of grade 2 and 3 CIN, and of invasive cervical cancers during the first and second screening rounds. Analysis was done by intention to screen. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN81678807.
In total for both phases, 47,001 women were randomly assigned to the cytology group and 47,369 to HPV testing. 33,851 women from the cytology group and 32,998 from the HPV-testing group had a second round of screening. We also retrieved the histological diagnoses from screening done elsewhere. The detection of invasive cervical cancers was similar for the two groups in the first round of screening (nine in the cytology group vs seven in the HPV group, p=0.62); no cases were detected in the HPV group during round two, compared with nine in the cytology group (p=0.004). Overall, in the two rounds of screening, 18 invasive cancers were detected in the cytology group versus seven in the HPV group (p=0.028). Among women aged 35-60 years, at round one the relative detection (HPV vs cytology) was 2.00 (95% CI 1.44-2.77) for CIN2, 2.08 (1.47-2.95) for CIN3, and 2.03 (1.60-2.57) for CIN2 and 3 together. At round two the relative detection was 0.54 (0.23-1.28) for CIN2, 0.48 (0.21-1.11) for CIN3, and 0.51 (0.28-0.93) for CIN2 and 3 together. Among women aged 25-34 years, there was significant heterogeneity between phases in the relative detection of CIN3. At round one the relative detection was 0.93 (0.52-1.64) in phase one and 3.91 (2.02-7.57) in phase two. At round two the relative detection was 1.34 (0.46-3.84) in phase one and 0.20 (0.04-0.93) in phase two. Pooling both phases, the detection ratio of CIN2 for women aged 25-34 years was 4.09 (2.24-7.48) at round one and 0.64 (0.23-1.27) at round two.
HPV-based screening is more effective than cytology in preventing invasive cervical cancer, by detecting persistent high-grade lesions earlier and providing a longer low-risk period. However, in younger women, HPV screening leads to over-diagnosis of regressive CIN2.
European Union, Italian Ministry of Health, Regional Health Administrations of Piemonte, Tuscany, Veneto and Emilia-Romagna, and Public Health Agency of Lazio.
The Lancet Oncology 03/2010; 11(3):249-57. DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(09)70360-2 · 24.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reproducibility of cervical histology diagnoses is critical for efficient screening and to evaluate the effectiveness of new technologies. The vast majority of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) diagnoses reported in the New Technologies for Cervical Cancer study were blindly reviewed by 2 independent pathologists. Only H&E-stained slides were used for the review. The reviewers were asked to reclassify cases using the following categories: normal CIN 1, CIN 2, CIN 3, and squamous and glandular invasive cancer. We reviewed 1,003 cases. The interobserver agreement was 0.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32-0.40) with an unweighted kappa and 0.54 with a weighted kappa (95% CI, 0.50-0.58). The kappa values from dichotomous classifications with the threshold at CIN 2 were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.64-0.73) and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.51-0.63) with the threshold at CIN 3. The CIN 2 diagnosis had the lowest class-specific agreement, with fewer than 50% of cases confirmed by the panel members, which supports the fact that CIN 2 is not a well-defined stage in the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 07/2009; 132(1):125-32. DOI:10.1309/AJCPBRK7D1YIUWFP · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) diagnoses identified during the New Technologies for Cervical Cancer trial (ISRCTN81678807) were blindly reviewed by 2 pathologists. Original diagnoses based on colposcopy-guided biopsies were compared with those made by the reviewers who had access to all clinical histologic samples (including postsurgical). Cases downgraded from CIN 2+ by the reviewers were considered indicative of unnecessary treatments. The analyses are presented according to the molecular (high-risk human papillomavirus [HPV]) and/or cytologic diagnosis used to refer the women for colposcopy. We reviewed 812 CIN 1 and 364 CIN 2 + diagnoses. The specificity of colposcopy-guided biopsy was 98% and the sensitivity, 84%. The probability of unnecessary treatment was 27% for women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cytologic findings and 8% for women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse, 10% for HPV+ and positive cytologic findings, and 16% for HPV+ alone. The positive predictive value of the first-level screening test was inversely associated with probability of a histologic false-positive result (P = .015). In screening, a low positive predictive value of the colposcopy-referring test may result in unnecessary treatments.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 02/2008; 129(1):75-80. DOI:10.1309/EWYGWFRRM8798U5P · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Within a multicentre controlled trial framework, an external quality control (EQC) was scheduled to evaluate the interlaboratory reproducibility of liquid-based cytology. In particular, this EQC intended to evaluate the reproducibility of the ASCUS diagnosis.A selected set of 30 slides (4 within normal limit cases, 16 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 4 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and 6 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) circulated among the 13 laboratories involved in the trial.Kappa values were obtained from the comparison between individual laboratory diagnoses and majority diagnoses with target diagnoses. Specific kappa values resulted moderate to high for HSIL and low to moderate for LSIL and WNL. Meanwhile, the specific kappa for ASCUS was below 0.4 in 12 of 13 participating laboratories. The lack of reproducibility for ASCUS was not a result of the introduction of this new technology but rather to the low reproducibility of the ASCUS category itself stemming from intrinsic uncertainties in the reporting criteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the accuracy of conventional cytology with liquid based cytology for primary screening of cervical cancer.
Randomised controlled trial.
Nine screening programmes in Italy.
Women aged 25-60 attending for a new screening round: 22 466 were assigned to the conventional arm and 22 708 were assigned to the experimental arm.
Conventional cytology compared with liquid based cytology and testing for human papillomavirus.
Relative sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more at blindly reviewed histology, with atypical cells of undetermined significance or more severe cytology considered a positive result.
In an intention to screen analysis liquid based cytology showed no significant increase in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more (relative sensitivity 1.17, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.56) whereas the positive predictive value was reduced (relative positive predictive value v conventional cytology 0.58, 0.44 to 0.77). Liquid based cytology detected more lesions of grade 1 or more (relative sensitivity 1.68, 1.40 to 2.02), with a larger increase among women aged 25-34 (P for heterogeneity 0.0006), but did not detect more lesions of grade 3 or more (relative sensitivity 0.84, 0.56 to 1.25). Results were similar when only low grade intraepithelial lesions or more severe cytology were considered a positive result. No evidence was found of heterogeneity between centres or of improvement with increasing time from start of the study. The relative frequency of women with at least one unsatisfactory result was lower with liquid based cytology (0.62, 0.56 to 0.69).
Liquid based cytology showed no statistically significant difference in sensitivity to conventional cytology for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more. More positive results were found, however, leading to a lower positive predictive value. A large reduction in unsatisfactory smears was evident.
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81678807 [controlled-trials.com].
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter-laboratory reproducibility for atypical glandular cells (AGC) (The Bethesda System (TBS) 2001) of the laboratories involved in the screening programmes in Italy.
A set of 35 selected slides were circulated among 167 laboratories involved in local population-based cervical screening programmes. Each laboratory provided one single diagnosis per smear. The smears were read blind to the original diagnosis and to the diagnoses provided by other laboratories. A 'majority' diagnosis was defined for each case and assumed as the reference standard. The diagnosis provided from each laboratory was compared with the majority diagnosis.
According to the majority report the 35 slides in the set were classified as negative in nine cases, AGC in eight, adenocarcinoma in eight, and squamous lesion or squamous + glandular lesion in 10. The crude agreement between all pairs of laboratories was 49.43%. K-values were 0.46, 0.21, 0.34, 0.36 and 0.32 for negative, AGC/AIS (adenocarcinoma in situ of endocervix), AdenoCa, Sq/Sq + Gl and all reporting categories respectively. Concordance according to overall K was moderate to substantial in 77% of the participating laboratories.
The present study shows that the AGC category is not easily reproducible. The data confirmed the importance, in a screening scenario, of AGC/AIS diagnoses, but also presented difficulties in differentiating between the two diagnoses. In addition to the results obtained from the circulation of the slides, laboratories which had annually a low number of cervical smears were able to gain experience focused on particular morphological pictures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After an organised cervical screening programme was introduced in Turin in 1992, the age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence ratio in 1992-98 was 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-1.09) for invited vs not invited women and 0.25 (95% CI 0.13-0.50) for attenders vs non attenders. An organised screening programme can further reduce cervical cancer incidence in an area where substantial spontaneous activity was previously present.
British Journal of Cancer 09/2005; 93(3):376-8. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602705 · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was aimed at assessing interlaboratory reproducibility in the reporting of cervical smears in the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) category. A set of 50 selected slides circulated among 89 laboratories, currently involved in population-based screening programmes for cervical cancer, which provided a diagnostic report according to four main reporting categories based on the 1991 Bethesda system. Interlaboratory agreement was determined according to kappa (K) statistics: overall and weighted K values were determined for each laboratory and for single reporting categories. The results showed a very low reproducibility for the ASCUS category. This finding supports the Bethesda system 1991 recommendation to limit the use of this reporting category and suggests that the clinical response to ASCUS reports should be decided locally, based on the observed positive predictive value for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or more severe lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies have already shown the association of persistent infection of human high risk papillomavirus (HPV) with the development of pre-invasive and invasive cervical disease.
We evaluated the use of high risk HPV testing in a study of about 1908 women, aged 29-78, who attending, from 1996 to 1998, the Sant'Anna Hospital in Turin for routine, second level smears and histopathological diagnosis. We considered all cervical lesions: ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL, squamous and adeno invasive cancers. HPV testing was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using L1 consensus primers which can detect almost all infections (high and low risk types). The most important high risk HPV types (16, 18, 31, 33 and 35) were tested using specific primers.
The prevalence of high risk HPV was: ASCUS 42.2%, LSIL 39%, HSIL 73.5%, squamous invasive cancers 98.3% and adeno 100%. In addition HPV 16 is the most represented type in all lesions: ASCUS 40%, LSIL 62%, HSIL 71.2% squamous invasive cancers 73.3% and adeno 50.6%. In addition we study the mean age of cervical cancer onset compared with the different high risk HPV types. We found that HPV 18 related cancer occurs in younger women (mean age 41 years; range 39-42).
The addition of high risk HPV testing to cytology may improve early identification of women at risk for cervical cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1986 the International Society For the Study of Vulvar Disease classified vulvar Paget's disease (VPD) as a non-squamous intraepithelial lesion of the vulva. The clinical multiform aspect of VPD, similar to other dermatological lesions, often delays the execution of a biopsy. Paget's cells could be instead easily identified at histological examination and with histochemical reactions. Underlying adenocarcinomas or stromal invasion are present in about 10% of intraepithelial VPD. Patients with VPD are at risk for a second synchronous or metachronous neoplasia: colo-rectal adenocarcinoma (more frequent in perianal localization of VPD), cervical adenocarcinoma, carcinoma of the transitional epithelium from the renal pelvis to urethra and mammary carcinoma. A wide spectrum of frequency of these associations is reported in the literature (0-45%). Therapy for intraepithelial VPD is wide and deep surgical resection comprising all the skin appendages. However VPD has a high frequency of recurrences (15-62%), often irrespective for radicality of surgical excision. When association with underlying invasive adenocarcinoma or stromal invasion is histologically confirmed, vulvar surgical approach must be integrated with inguino-femoral lymphadenectomy. The role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the multimodal approach to extensive or recurring VPD is still controversial. Recurrences or progression of intraepithelal VPD are reported more than 10 years from first surgical resection so that long term follow-up is mandatory.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of prognostic factors in the recurrence of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is crucial for less invasive treatments.
The authors studied 101 patients treated for primary invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Selected pathologic variables were observed in a standardized manner during treatment, and their association with disease free survival was investigated using the Cox model. Independent prognostic factors were selected by a stepwise procedure. The absolute survival of patient groups determined on the basis of such factors was computed by the product limit method.
The median follow-up was 3.1 years (range, 56 days to 15.5 years). Recurrences developed in 33 patients. The independent recurrence predictors were as follows: International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage IVA (vs. IB, II, or III) (risk ratio [RR]adjusted for other independent factors, 7.39), tumor multifocality (RR, 4.10), lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI) (RR, 2.96), the presence of associated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) Grade 2 or 3 (RR, 3.34), and the involvement of resection margins (RR, 4.88). By ignoring the FIGO stage and lymph node status, the independent predictors were then as follows: greatest tumor dimension < 2.5 cm, 2.5-4 cm (RR, 2.86), or > 4 cm (RR, 5.98); tumor multifocality (RR, 3.36); LVSI (RR, 4.19); the presence of VIN 2 or 3 (RR, 3.06); and the involvement of surgical margins (RR, 2.78). No recurrences were observed in 119 at-risk years among patients with unifocal tumors < 2.5 cm in greatest dimension, free surgical margins, no LVSI, and no associated VIN 2 or 3.
The presence of associated VIN 2 or 3 was revealed to be a previously unidentified independent prognostic factor for recurrence. Subjects at low risk of recurrence could be identified even without consideration of lymph node status.
Cancer 05/2000; 88(8):1869-76. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000415)88:83.0.CO;2-U · 4.90 Impact Factor