Evgeny M Zdobnov

Imperial College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

Are you Evgeny M Zdobnov?

Claim your profile

Publications (100)1528.42 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arginine, a semiessential amino acid implicated in diverse cellular processes, is a substrate for two arginases-Arg1 and Arg2-having different expression patterns and functions. Although appropriately regulated Arg1 expression is critical for immune responses, this has not been documented for Arg2. We show that Arg2 is the dominant enzyme in dendritic cells (DCs) and is repressed by microRNA-155 (miR155) during their maturation. miR155 is known to be strongly induced in various mouse and human DC subsets in response to diverse maturation signals, and miR155-deficient DCs exhibit an impaired ability to induce Ag-specific T cell responses. By means of expression profiling studies, we identified Arg2 mRNA as a novel miR155 target in mouse DCs. Abnormally elevated levels of Arg2 expression and activity were observed in activated miR155-deficient DCs. Conversely, overexpression of miR155 inhibited Arg2 expression. Bioinformatic and functional analyses confirmed that Arg2 mRNA is a direct target of miR155. Finally, in vitro and in vivo functional assays using DCs exhibiting deregulated Arg2 expression indicated that Arg2-mediated arginine depletion in the extracellular milieu impairs T cell proliferation. These results indicate that miR155-induced repression of Arg2 expression is critical for the ability of DCs to drive T cell activation by controlling arginine availability in the extracellular environment.
    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 07/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High-throughput sequencing (HTS) provides the means to analyze clinical specimens at unprecedented molecular detail. While this technology has been successfully applied to virus discovery and other related areas of research, HTS methodology has yet to be exploited for use in a clinical setting for routine diagnostics. Here, a bioinformatics pipeline (ezVIR) was designed to process HTS data from any of the standard platforms and to evaluate the entire spectrum of known human viruses at once, providing results that are easy to interpret and customizable. The pipeline works by identifying the most likely viruses present in the specimen given the sequencing data. Additionally, ezVIR can generate optional reports for strain typing, genome coverage histograms, and can perform cross-contamination analysis for specimens prepared in series. In this pilot study, the pipeline was challenged using HTS data from 20 clinical specimens representative of those most often collected and analyzed in daily practice. The specimens (5 cerebrospinal fluids, 7 bronchoalveolar lavages, 5 plasma, 2 serums and 1 nasopharyngeal aspirate) were originally found to be positive for a diverse range of DNA or RNA viruses by routine molecular diagnostics. The ezVIR pipeline correctly identified 14/14 specimens containing viruses with genomes < 40,000 bp, and 4/6 specimens positive for large genome viruses. Although further validation is needed to evaluate sensitivity and to define detection cut-offs, results obtained in this pilot study indicate that the overall detection success rate, coupled to the ease of interpreting the analysis reports, makes it worth considering using HTS for clinical diagnostics.
    Journal of clinical microbiology. 07/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (www.isb-sib.ch) was created in 1998 as an institution to foster excellence in bioinformatics. It is renowned worldwide for its databases and software tools, such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, PROSITE, SWISS-MODEL, STRING, etc, that are all accessible on ExPASy.org, SIB's Bioinformatics Resource Portal. This article provides an overview of the scientific and training resources SIB has consistently been offering to the life science community for more than 15 years.
    Nucleic Acids Research 05/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The first generation of genome sequence assemblies and annotations have had a significant impact upon our understanding of the biology of the sequenced species, the phylogenetic relationships among species, the study of populations within and across species, and have informed the biology of humans. As only a few Metazoan genomes are approaching finished quality (human, mouse, fly and worm), there is room for improvement of most genome assemblies. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome, published in 2006, was noted for its bimodal GC content distribution that affected the quality of the assembly in some regions and for fewer genes in the initial gene set (OGSv1.0) compared to what would be expected based on other sequenced insect genomes. Here, we report an improved honey bee genome assembly (Amel_4.5) with a new gene annotation set (OGSv3.2), and show that the honey bee genome contains a number of genes similar to that of other insect genomes, contrary to what was suggested in OGSv1.0. The new genome assembly is more contiguous and complete and the new gene set includes ~5000 more protein-coding genes, 50% more than previously reported. About 1/6 of the additional genes were due to improvements to the assembly, and the remaining were inferred based on new RNAseq and protein data. Lessons learned from this genome upgrade have important implications for future genome sequencing projects. Furthermore, the improvements significantly enhance genomic resources for the honey bee, a key model for social behavior and essential to global ecology through pollination.
    BMC Genomics 01/2014; 15(1):86. · 4.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma is a deadly malignant brain tumor, and one of the most incurable forms of cancer in need of new therapeutic targets. As some cancers are known to be caused by a virus, the discovery of viruses could open the possibility to treat, and perhaps prevent, such a disease. Although an association with viruses such as cytomegalovirus or Simian virus 40 has been strongly suggested, involvement of these and other viruses in the initiation and/or propagation of glioblastoma remains vague, controversial, and warrants elucidation. To exhaustively address the association of virus and glioblastoma, we developed and validated a robust metagenomic approach to analyze patient biopsies via high-throughput sequencing, a sensitive tool for virus screening. In addition to traditional clinical diagnostics, glioblastoma biopsies were deep-sequenced and analyzed with a multi-stage computational pipeline to identify known or potentially discover unknown viruses. In contrast to the studies reporting the presence of viral signatures in glioblastoma, no common or recurring active viruses were detected, despite finding an anti-viral-like type I interferon response in some specimens. Our findings highlight a discrete and non-specific viral signature and uncharacterized short RNA sequences in glioblastoma. This study provides new insights into glioblastoma pathogenesis and defines a general methodology that can be used for high-resolution virus screening and discovery in human cancers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 12/2013; · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Insects and their arthropod relatives including mites, spiders, and crustaceans play major roles in the world’s terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Arthropods compete with humans for food and transmit devastating diseases. They also comprise the most diverse and successful branch of metazoan evolution, with millions of extant species. Here, we describe an international effort to guide arthropod genomic efforts, from species prioritization to methodology and informatics. The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5K) community met formally in 2012 to discuss a roadmap for sequencing and analyzing 5000 high-priority arthropods and is continuing this effor t via pilot projects, the development of standard operating procedures, and training of students and career scientists.With university, governmental, and industry support, the i5K Consortium aspires to deliver sequences and analytical tools for each of the arthropod branches and each of the species having beneficial and negative effects on humankind.
    Journal of Heredity 09/2013; 104(5):595-600. · 2.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Charles E Vejnar, Matthias Blum, Evgeny M Zdobnov
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) posttranscriptionally repress the expression of protein-coding genes. Based on the partial complementarity between miRNA and messenger RNA pairs with a mandatory so-called 'seed' sequence, many thousands of potential targets can be identified. Our open-source software library, miRmap, ranks these potential targets with a biologically meaningful criterion, the repression strength. MiRmap combines thermodynamic, evolutionary, probabilistic and sequence-based features, which cover features from TargetScan, PITA, PACMIT and miRanda. Our miRmap web application offers a user-friendly and feature-rich resource for browsing precomputed miRNA target predictions for model organisms, as well as for predicting and ranking targets for user-submitted sequences. MiRmap web integrates sorting, filtering and exporting of results from multiple queries, as well as providing programmatic access, and is available at http://mirmap.ezlab.org.
    Nucleic Acids Research 05/2013; · 8.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genomes of eusocial insects code for dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity and social organization. We compared the genomes of seven ants, the honeybee, and various solitary insects to examine whether eusocial lineages share distinct features of genomic organization. Each ant lineage contains ~4,000 novel genes, but only 64 of these genes are conserved among all seven ants. Many gene families have been expanded in ants, notably those involved in chemical communication (e.g., desaturases and odorant receptors). Alignment of the ant genomes revealed reduced purifying selection compared to Drosophila without significantly reduced synteny. Correspondingly, ant genomes exhibit dramatic divergence of non-coding regulatory elements, however extant conserved regions are enriched for novel non-coding RNAs and transcription factor binding sites. Comparison of orthologous gene promoters between eusocial and solitary species revealed significant regulatory evolution in both cis (e.g., CREB) and trans (e.g., Forkhead) for nearly 2000 genes, many of which exhibit phenotypic plasticity. Our results emphasize that genomic changes can occur remarkably fast in ants, as two recently diverged leaf-cutter ant species exhibit faster accumulation of species-specific genes and greater divergence in regulatory elements compared to other ants or Drosophila. Thus, while the "socio-genomes" of ants and the honeybee are broadly characterized by a pervasive pattern of divergence in gene composition and regulation, they preserve lineage-specific regulatory features linked to eusociality. We propose that changes in gene regulation played a key role in the origins of insect eusociality, whereas changes in gene composition were more relevant for lineage-specific eusocial adaptations.
    Genome Research 05/2013; · 14.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The concept of orthology provides a foundation for formulating hypotheses on gene and genome evolution, and thus forms the cornerstone of comparative genomics, phylogenomics and metagenomics. We present the update of OrthoDB-the hierarchical catalog of orthologs (http://www.orthodb.org). From its conception, OrthoDB promoted delineation of orthologs at varying resolution by explicitly referring to the hierarchy of species radiations, now also adopted by other resources. The current release provides comprehensive coverage of animals and fungi representing 252 eukaryotic species, and is now extended to prokaryotes with the inclusion of 1115 bacteria. Functional annotations of orthologous groups are provided through mapping to InterPro, GO, OMIM and model organism phenotypes, with cross-references to major resources including UniProt, NCBI and FlyBase. Uniquely, OrthoDB provides computed evolutionary traits of orthologs, such as gene duplicability and loss profiles, divergence rates, sibling groups, and now extended with exon-intron architectures, syntenic orthologs and parent-child trees. The interactive web interface allows navigation along the species phylogenies, complex queries with various identifiers, annotation keywords and phrases, as well as with gene copy-number profiles and sequence homology searches. With the explosive growth of available data, OrthoDB also provides mapping of newly sequenced genomes and transcriptomes to the current orthologous groups.
    Nucleic Acids Research 11/2012; · 8.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate HIV-1 transmission trends and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on newly diagnosed HIV infections in Geneva, Switzerland. DESIGN:: Retrospective molecular epidemiology analysis of all newly HIV-diagnosed individuals between 2008 and 2010. METHODS:: Phylogenetic analyses were performed using pol sequences of 780 newly HIV-1 diagnosed individuals between 2000 and 2010 (mandatory reporting) and 1058 individuals diagnosed before 2000. All clusters (bootstrap value >98%) including individuals diagnosed in 2008-2010 were analyzed. Recent HIV infections (<1 year) were determined by documented seroconversion and/or fraction of ambiguous nucleotides. Median viral load and HAART coverage during the study period were obtained from patients included in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). RESULTS:: Among 142 newly diagnosed individuals during 2008-2010, 49% had a recent infection and 42% were included in transmission clusters. Among the latter, two-thirds were included in new clusters and one-third expanded previously known clusters. MSM carrying resistant strains were more frequently included in clusters. Only 1.8% of individuals diagnosed before 2000 and 10.8% diagnosed during 2000-2008 were included in clusters involving individuals diagnosed between 2008 and 2010. During 2008-2010, the median population viral load of SHCS-enrolled individuals was significantly lower for individuals diagnosed before 2000 than for those diagnosed during 2000-2008 and 2008-2010 and HAART coverage significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS:: MSM with recent HIV infection are a significant source of onward transmission. Individuals diagnosed before 2000 were only exceptionally related to newly diagnosed infections between 2008 and 2010. Prevention campaigns need to be focused on improving diagnosis for recently infected individuals.
    AIDS (London, England) 10/2012; 26(16):2079-2086. · 4.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Charles E Vejnar, Evgeny M Zdobnov
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs, or miRNAs, post-transcriptionally repress the expression of protein-coding genes. The human genome encodes over 1000 miRNA genes that collectively target the majority of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Base pairing of the so-called miRNA 'seed' region with mRNAs identifies many thousands of putative targets. Evaluating the strength of the resulting mRNA repression remains challenging, but is essential for a biologically informative ranking of potential miRNA targets. To address these challenges, predictors may use thermodynamic, evolutionary, probabilistic or sequence-based features. We developed an open-source software library, miRmap, which for the first time comprehensively covers all four approaches using 11 predictor features, 3 of which are novel. This allowed us to examine feature correlations and to compare their predictive power in an unbiased way using high-throughput experimental data from immunopurification, transcriptomics, proteomics and polysome fractionation experiments. Overall, target site accessibility appears to be the most predictive feature. Our novel feature based on PhyloP, which evaluates the significance of negative selection, is the best performing predictor in the evolutionary category. We combined all the features into an integrated model that almost doubles the predictive power of TargetScan. miRmap is freely available from http://cegg.unige.ch/mirmap.
    Nucleic Acids Research 10/2012; · 8.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the most virulent enteroviruses, but the specific molecular features that enhance its ability to disseminate in humans remain unknown. We analyzed the genomic features of EV71 in an immunocompromised host with disseminated disease according to the different sites of infection. Comparison of five full-length genomes sequenced directly from respiratory, gastrointestinal, nervous system, and blood specimens revealed three nucleotide changes that occurred within a five-day period: a non-conservative amino acid change in VP1 located within the BC loop (L97R), a region considered as an immunogenic site and possibly important in poliovirus host adaptation; a conservative amino acid substitution in protein 2B (A38V); and a silent mutation in protein 3D (L175). Infectious clones were constructed using both BrCr (lineage A) and the clinical strain (lineage C) backgrounds containing either one or both non-synonymous mutations. In vitro cell tropism and competition assays revealed that the VP1₉₇ Leu to Arg substitution within the BC loop conferred a replicative advantage in SH-SY5Y cells of neuroblastoma origin. Interestingly, this mutation was frequently associated in vitro with a second non-conservative mutation (E167G or E167A) in the VP1 EF loop in neuroblastoma cells. Comparative models of these EV71 VP1 variants were built to determine how the substitutions might affect VP1 structure and/or interactions with host cells and suggest that, while no significant structural changes were observed, the substitutions may alter interactions with host cell receptors. Taken together, our results show that the VP1 BC loop region of EV71 plays a critical role in cell tropism independent of EV71 lineage and, thus, may have contributed to dissemination and neurotropism in the immunocompromised patient.
    PLoS Pathogens 07/2012; 8(7):e1002826. · 8.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Jia Li, Robert M Waterhouse, Evgeny M Zdobnov
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: First identified in fruit flies with temperature-sensitive paralysis phenotypes, the Drosophila melanogaster TipE locus encodes four voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channel auxiliary subunits. This cluster of TipE-like genes on chromosome 3L, and a fifth family member on chromosome 3R, are important for the optional expression and functionality of the Para NaV channel but appear quite distinct from auxiliary subunits in vertebrates. Here, we exploited available arthropod genomic resources to trace the origin of TipE-like genes by mapping their evolutionary histories and examining their genomic architectures. We identified a remarkably conserved synteny block of TipE-like orthologues with well-maintained local gene arrangements from 21 insect species. Homologues in the water flea, Daphnia pulex, suggest an ancestral pancrustacean repertoire of four TipE-like genes; a subsequent gene duplication may have generated functional redundancy allowing gene losses in the silk moth and mosquitoes. Intronic nesting of the insect TipE gene cluster probably occurred following the divergence from crustaceans, but in the flour beetle and silk moth genomes the clusters apparently escaped from nesting. Across Pancrustacea, TipE gene family members have experienced intronic nesting, escape from nesting, retrotransposition, translocation, and gene loss events while generally maintaining their local gene neighbourhoods. D. melanogaster TipE-like genes exhibit coordinated spatial and temporal regulation of expression distinct from their host gene but well-correlated with their regulatory target, the Para NaV channel, suggesting that functional constraints may preserve the TipE gene cluster. We identified homology between TipE-like NaV channel regulators and vertebrate Slo-beta auxiliary subunits of big-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels, which suggests that ion channel regulatory partners have evolved distinct lineage-specific characteristics. TipE-like genes form a remarkably conserved genomic cluster across all examined insect genomes. This study reveals likely structural and functional constraints on the genomic evolution of insect TipE gene family members maintained in synteny over hundreds of millions of years of evolution. The likely common origin of these NaV channel regulators with BKCa auxiliary subunits highlights the evolutionary plasticity of ion channel regulatory mechanisms.
    BMC Evolutionary Biology 11/2011; 11:337. · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate target mRNAs by binding to their 3' untranslated regions. There is growing evidence that microRNA-155 (miR155) modulates gene expression in various cell types of the immune system and is a prominent player in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. To define the role of miR155 in dendritic cells (DCs) we performed a detailed analysis of its expression and function in human and mouse DCs. A strong increase in miR155 expression was found to be a general and evolutionarily conserved feature associated with the activation of DCs by diverse maturation stimuli in all DC subtypes tested. Analysis of miR155-deficient DCs demonstrated that miR155 induction is required for efficient DC maturation and is critical for the ability of DCs to promote antigen-specific T-cell activation. Expression-profiling studies performed with miR155(-/-) DCs and DCs overexpressing miR155, combined with functional assays, revealed that the mRNA encoding the transcription factor c-Fos is a direct target of miR155. Finally, all of the phenotypic and functional defects exhibited by miR155(-/-) DCs could be reproduced by deregulated c-Fos expression. These results indicate that silencing of c-Fos expression by miR155 is a conserved process that is required for DC maturation and function.
    Blood 03/2011; 117(17):4490-500. · 9.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe the draft genome of the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex, which is only 200 megabases and contains at least 30,907 genes. The high gene count is a consequence of an elevated rate of gene duplication resulting in tandem gene clusters. More than a third of Daphnia's genes have no detectable homologs in any other available proteome, and the most amplified gene families are specific to the Daphnia lineage. The coexpansion of gene families interacting within metabolic pathways suggests that the maintenance of duplicated genes is not random, and the analysis of gene expression under different environmental conditions reveals that numerous paralogs acquire divergent expression patterns soon after duplication. Daphnia-specific genes, including many additional loci within sequenced regions that are otherwise devoid of annotations, are the most responsive genes to ecological challenges.
    Science 02/2011; 331(6017):555-61. · 31.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe the draft genome of the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex, which is only 200 megabases and contains at least 30,907 genes. The high gene count is a consequence of an elevated rate of gene duplication resulting in tandem gene clusters. More than a third of Daphnia’s genes have no detectable homologs in any other available proteome, and the most amplified gene families are specific to the Daphnia lineage. The coexpansion of gene families interacting within metabolic pathways suggests that the maintenance of duplicated genes is not random, and the analysis of gene expression under different environmental conditions reveals that numerous paralogs acquire divergent expression patterns soon after duplication. Daphnia-specific genes, including many additional loci within sequenced regions that are otherwise devoid of annotations, are the most responsive genes to ecological challenges.
    Science. 02/2011; 331(6017):555-561.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Delineating ancestral gene relations among a large set of sequenced eukaryotic genomes allowed us to rigorously examine links between evolutionary and functional traits. We classified 86% of over 1.36 million protein-coding genes from 40 vertebrates, 23 arthropods, and 32 fungi into orthologous groups and linked over 90% of them to Gene Ontology or InterPro annotations. Quantifying properties of ortholog phyletic retention, copy-number variation, and sequence conservation, we examined correlations with gene essentiality and functional traits. More than half of vertebrate, arthropod, and fungal orthologs are universally present across each lineage. These universal orthologs are preferentially distributed in groups with almost all single-copy or all multicopy genes, and sequence evolution of the predominantly single-copy orthologous groups is markedly more constrained. Essential genes from representative model organisms, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are significantly enriched in universal orthologs within each lineage, and essential-gene-containing groups consistently exhibit greater sequence conservation than those without. This study of eukaryotic gene repertoire evolution identifies shared fundamental principles and highlights lineage-specific features, it also confirms that essential genes are highly retained and conclusively supports the "knockout-rate prediction" of stronger constraints on essential gene sequence evolution. However, the distinction between sequence conservation of single- versus multicopy orthologs is quantitatively more prominent than between orthologous groups with and without essential genes. The previously underappreciated difference in the tolerance of gene duplications and contrasting evolutionary modes of "single-copy control" versus "multicopy license" may reflect a major evolutionary mechanism that allows extended exploration of gene sequence space.
    Genome Biology and Evolution 01/2011; 3:75-86. · 4.76 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Routine screening of lung transplant recipients and hospital patients for respiratory virus infections allowed to identify human rhinovirus (HRV) in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, including immunocompromised hosts chronically infected with the same strain over weeks or months. Phylogenetic analysis of 144 HRV-positive samples showed no apparent correlation between a given viral genotype or species and their ability to invade the lower respiratory tract or lead to protracted infection. By contrast, protracted infections were found almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients, thus suggesting that host factors rather than the virus genotype modulate disease outcome, in particular the immune response. Complete genome sequencing of five chronic cases to study rhinovirus genome adaptation showed that the calculated mutation frequency was in the range observed during acute human infections. Analysis of mutation hot spot regions between specimens collected at different times or in different body sites revealed that non-synonymous changes were mostly concentrated in the viral capsid genes VP1, VP2 and VP3, independent of the HRV type. In an immunosuppressed lung transplant recipient infected with the same HRV strain for more than two years, both classical and ultra-deep sequencing of samples collected at different time points in the upper and lower respiratory tracts showed that these virus populations were phylogenetically indistinguishable over the course of infection, except for the last month. Specific signatures were found in the last two lower respiratory tract populations, including changes in the 5'UTR polypyrimidine tract and the VP2 immunogenic site 2. These results highlight for the first time the ability of a given rhinovirus to evolve in the course of a natural infection in immunocompromised patients and complement data obtained from previous experimental inoculation studies in immunocompetent volunteers.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(6):e21163. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Culex quinquefasciatus (the southern house mosquito) is an important mosquito vector of viruses such as West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus, as well as of nematodes that cause lymphatic filariasis. C. quinquefasciatus is one species within the Culex pipiens species complex and can be found throughout tropical and temperate climates of the world. The ability of C. quinquefasciatus to take blood meals from birds, livestock, and humans contributes to its ability to vector pathogens between species. Here, we describe the genomic sequence of C. quinquefasciatus: Its repertoire of 18,883 protein-coding genes is 22% larger than that of Aedes aegypti and 52% larger than that of Anopheles gambiae with multiple gene-family expansions, including olfactory and gustatory receptors, salivary gland genes, and genes associated with xenobiotic detoxification.
    Science 10/2010; 330(6000):86-8. · 31.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus poses a substantial threat to human and veterinary health as a primary vector of West Nile virus (WNV), the filarial worm Wuchereria bancrofti, and an avian malaria parasite. Comparative phylogenomics revealed an expanded canonical C. quinquefasciatus immune gene repertoire compared with those of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae. Transcriptomic analysis of C. quinquefasciatus genes responsive to WNV, W. bancrofti, and non-native bacteria facilitated an unprecedented meta-analysis of 25 vector-pathogen interactions involving arboviruses, filarial worms, bacteria, and malaria parasites, revealing common and distinct responses to these pathogen types in three mosquito genera. Our findings provide support for the hypothesis that mosquito-borne pathogens have evolved to evade innate immune responses in three vector mosquito species of major medical importance.
    Science 10/2010; 330(6000):88-90. · 31.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

14k Citations
1,528.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Imperial College London
      • Division of Cell and Molecular Biology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007–2014
    • University of Geneva
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Department of Genetic Medicine and Development (GEDEV)
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • 2008–2010
    • Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 2002–2007
    • European Molecular Biology Laboratory
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2001–2002
    • EMBL-EBI
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom